Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Galen" by P. N. Singer

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A. Primary Sources

A.1 Sources of the Texts

A.1.1 Original Greek Sources

Page numbers given in references in the article are those of the translation or, in the absence of translation, of the Greek edition, cited here.

Corpus Medicorum Graecorum, various editors, Leipzig: Teubner, and Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1914– ; CMG available online.

C. Galeni Opera Omnia, ed. C.G. Kühn, 20 volumes, Leipzig: C. Cnoblochii, 1821–33, repr. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964–65; Kühn available online.

C. Galeni Pergameni Scripta Minora, ed. J. Marquardt, I. Müller and G. Helmreich, 3 volumes, Leipzig: Teubner, 1884–93; SM available online.

A.1.2 Collections of Translations

N.B. In several cases, noted below, translations also appear alongside the Greek text in the CMG edition.

A.2 Texts by Galen

[Aff. Pecc. Dig.]
Affections and Errors of the Soul (De propriorum animi cuiuslibet affectuum et peccatorum dignotione et curatione), ed. W. de Boer, CMG V 4.1.1, 1937; English trans. in Singer 1997a and 2013.

Containing Causes (De causis contentivis), ed. and English trans. M. Lyons, K. Kalbfleisch, J. Kollesch, D. Nickel, and G. Strohmaier, CMG, Supplementum Orientale II, 1969.

Antecedent Causes (De causis procatarcticis), ed. and English trans. R.J. Hankinson, Galen on Antecedent Causes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

[Di. Dec.]
Critical Days (De diebus decretoriis), ed. and English trans. G. M. Cooper, Galen, De diebus decretoriis, from Greek into Arabic, Ashgate, 2011.

[Dig. Puls.]
The Distinction between Pulses (De dignoscendis pulsibus), ed. Kühn VIII, pp. 766–961.

[Foet. Form.]
The Shaping of the Embryo (De foetuum formatione), ed. and German trans. D. Nickel, CMG V 3.3, 2001; English trans. in Singer 1997a.

[Hipp. Elem.]
Elements According to Hippocrates (De elementis ex Hippocrate), ed. and English trans. P. de Lacy, CMG V 1.2, 1996.

Commentary on Hippocrates’ “Nature of the Human Being” (In Hippocratis De natura hominis), ed. J. Mewaldt, CMG V 9.1, 1914.

Avoiding Distress (De indolentia), ed. and French trans. V. Boudon-Millot and J. Jouanna, with A. Pietrobelli, Galien: Oeuvres, IV, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2010; English trans. by V. Nutton in Singer 2013.

[Inst. Log.]
Introduction to Logic (Institutio logica), ed. K. Kalbfleisch, Leipzig: Teubner, 1896, Inst. Log. available online; English trans. J. S. Kieffer, Galen’s Institutio Logica, Baltimore, 1964.

[Lib. Prop.]
My Own Books (De libris propriis, ed. and French trans. V. Boudon-Millot in Galien: Oeuvres, I, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2007; English trans. in Singer 1997a.

The Method of Healing (De methodo medendi), ed. Kühn X, pp. 1–1021; English trans. I. Johnston and G.H.R. Horsley, 3 vols., Loeb Classical Library, 2011.

Character Traits (De moribus), Arabic text ed. P. Kraus, “Kitāb al-Akhlāq li-Jālīnus”, Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts of the Egyptian University, 5.1 (1937): 1–51; English trans. by D. Davies in Singer 2013.

[Mot. Musc.]
The Motion of Muscles (De motu musculorum), ed. and Italian trans. P. Rosa, Pisa and Rome: Fabrizio Serra, 2009.

[Nat. Fac.]
Natural Capacities (De naturalibus facultatibus), ed. G. Helmreich, SM III, 1893; English trans. A.J. Brock, Loeb Classical Library, 1916.

[Opt. Doc.]
The Best Teaching (De optima doctrina), ed. and Italian trans. A. Barigazzi, CMG V 1.1, 1991.

[Opt. Med.]
The Best Doctor is Also a Philosopher (Quod optimus medicus sit quoque philosophus), ed. and French trans. V. Boudon-Millot in Galien: Oeuvres, I, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2007; English trans. in Singer 1997a.

[Ord. Lib. Prop.]
The Order of My Own Books (De ordine librorum propriorum), ed. and French trans. V. Boudon-Millot in Galien: Oeuvres, I, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 2007; English trans. in Singer 1997a.

The Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato (De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis, ed. and English trans. P. de Lacy, CMG V 4.1.2, 1978–84, 2nd edn. 2005.

Prognosis (De praenotione ad Epigenem), ed. and English trans. V. Nutton, CMG V 8.1, 1979.

[Praes. Puls.]
Prognosis by the Pulse (De praesagitione ex pulsibus), ed. Kühn IX, pp. 205–430.

[Prop. Plac.]
My Own Doctrines (De propriis placitis), ed. and English trans. V. Nutton, CMG V 3.2, 1999 (ed. and French trans. of fuller Greek text V. Boudon-Millot and A. Pietrobelli, “Galien Ressuscité: Édition Princeps du Texte Grec du De Propriis Placitis”, Revue des Études Grecques, 118 (2005): 168–213).

The Capacities of the Soul Depend on the Mixture of the Body (Quod animi mores corporis temperamenta sequantur), ed. I. Müller, SM II, 1891; English trans. in Singer 1997a and 2013.

[San. Tu.]
Matters of Health (De sanitate tuenda), ed. K. Koch, CMG V 4.2, 1923.

Semen (De semine), ed. and English trans. P. de Lacy, CMG V 3.1, 1992.

Sects for Beginners (De sectis ad eos qui introducuntur), ed. G. Helmreich, SM III, 1893; translation in Walzer and Frede 1985.

The Powers of Simple Drugs (De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus), ed. Kühn XI, pp. 379–892 and XII, pp. 1–377.

[Symp. Caus.]

The Causes of Symptoms, ed. Kühn VII, pp. 85–272.

Mixtures (De temperamentis), ed. G. Helmreich, Teubner, 1904, [Temp. available online]. English trans. in Singer 1997a and Singer and van der Eijk 2013.

The Function of the Parts of the Body (De usu partium), ed. G. Helmreich, Teubner, 1907–9, [UP available online]; English trans. M.T. May, Galen on the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body, Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1968.

B. Secondary literature

  • Adamson, P., R. Hansberger, and J. Wilberding (eds.), 2014, Philosophical Themes in Galen, London: Institute of Classical Studies. (Scholar)
  • Allen, J., 2001, Inference from Signs: Ancient Debates about the Nature of Evidence, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • Barnes, J., 1991, “Galen on Logic and Therapy”, in Galen’s Method of Healing, R.J. Durling and F. Kudlien (eds.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 50–102. (Scholar)
  • Barton, T.S., 1994, Power and Knowledge: Astrology, Physiognomics, and Medicine under the Roman Empire, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (Scholar)
  • Bobzien, S., 2004, “Peripatetic Hypothetical Syllogistic in Galen”, Rhizai, 2: 57–102. (Scholar)
  • Boudon-Millot, V., 2012, Galien de Pergame: un médecin grec à Rome, Paris: Les Belles Lettres. (Scholar)
  • Chiaradonna, R., 2013, “Universals in Ancient Medicine”, in Universals in Ancient Philosophy, G. Galluzzo and R. Chiaradonna (eds.), Pisa: Edizioni della Normale, pp. 381–423. (Scholar)
  • Devinant, J., 2018, “Mental Disorders and Psychological Suffering in Galen’s Cases”, in Mental Illness in Ancient Medicine: from Celsus to Paul of Aegina, C. Thumiger and P. N. Singer (eds.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 198–221. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2020, Les Troubles psychiques selon Galien: étude d’un système de pensée, Paris: Les Belles Lettres. (Scholar)
  • Donini, P.L., 1980, “Motivi filosofici in Galeno”, Parola del passato, 35(94): 333–70. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992, “Galeno e la filosofia”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol.II.36.5, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp. 3484–3504. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Psychology”, in Hankinson 2008b: 184–209. (Scholar)
  • Frede, M., 2003, “Galen’s Theology”, in Galien et la philosophie, J. Barnes and J. Jouanna (eds.), Geneva: Fondation Hardt, pp. 73–126. (Scholar)
  • Gill, C., 2010, Naturalistic Psychology in Galen and Stoicism, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Gill, C., T. Whitmarsh, and J. Wilkins (eds.), 2009, Galen and the World of Knowledge, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Gleason, M., 2009, “Shock and Awe: The Performance Dimension of Galen’s Anatomy Demonstrations”, in Gill et al. 2009, pp. 85–114. (Scholar)
  • Grmek, M. and D. Gourevitch, 1994, “Aux sources de la doctrine médicale de Galien: l’enseignement de Marinus, Quintus, et Numisianus”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol.II.37.2, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp.1491–1528. (Scholar)
  • Hankinson, R.J., 1991a, Galen On the Therapeutic Method, books I and II, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1991b, “Galen’s Anatomy of the Soul”, Phronesis, 36: 197–233. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992, “Galen’s Philosophical Eclecticism”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol.II.36.5, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp. 3505–22. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1993, “Actions and Passions: Affection, Emotion, and Moral Self-Management in Galen’s Psychological Philosophy”, in Passions and Perceptions: Studies in the Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind, J. Brunschwig and M. C. Nussbaum (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 184–222. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994a, “Galen’s Concept of Scientific Progress”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol.II.37.2, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp. 1775–89. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994b, “Galen’s Theory of Causation”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol. II.37.2, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp. 1757–74. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1998, Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008a, “Epistemology”, in Hankinson 2008b, pp. 157–83. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 2008b, The Cambridge Companion to Galen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, “Galen and the Ontology of Powers”, British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 22(5): 951–73. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “Substance, Element, Quality, Mixture: Galen’s Physics and his Hippocratic Inheritance”, Aitia: Regards sur la culture hellénistique au XXIe siècle, 7(2) (Études sur le De elementis de Galien), (Scholar)
  • –––, 2021, “Discovery, Method, and Justification: Galen and the Determination of Therapy”, in Hankinson and Havrda 2021, pp. 79–115. (Scholar)
  • Hankinson, R. J. and M. Havrda (eds.), 2021, Galen’s Epistemology: Experience, Reason, and Method in Ancient Medicine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Havrda, M., 2015, “The Purpose of Galen’s Treatise On Demonstration”, Early Science and Medicine, 20: 265–87. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “Body and Cosmos in Galen’s Account of the Soul”, Phronesis, 62: 69–89. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2021, “From Problems to Demonstrations: Two Case Studies of Galen’s Method”, in Hankinson and Havrda 2021, pp. 116–35. (Scholar)
  • Kaufman, D., 2014, “Galen on the Therapy of Distress and the Limits of Emotional Therapy”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 47: 275–96. (Scholar)
  • Kupreeva, I., 2014, “Galen’s Theory of Elements”, in Adamson et al., pp. 153–96. (Scholar)
  • Leith, D., 2014, “Galen’s Refutation of Atomism”, in Adamson et al., pp. 213–34. (Scholar)
  • Lloyd G.E.R., 1988, “Scholarship, Authority, and Argument in Galen’s Quod Animi Mores”, in Manuli and Vegetti 1988: 11–42. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1993, “Galen on Hellenistics and Hippocrateans: Contemporary Battles and Past Authorities”, in Galen und das hellenistische Erbe, J. Kollesch and D. Nickel (eds.), Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, pp. 125–43. (Scholar)
  • Manetti, D. and A. Roselli, 1994, “Galenno commentatore di Ippocrate”, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römsichen Welt, vol. II.37.2, W. Haase (ed.), Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co., pp. 1529–1635. (Scholar)
  • Manuli, P., 1986, “Traducibilità e moteplicità dei linguaggi nel De placitis di Galeno”, in Storiografia e dossografia nella filosofia antica, G. Cambiano (ed.), Turin: Tirrenia Stampatori, pp. 245–65. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1988, “La passione nel De placitis di Galeno”, in Manuli and Vegettti 1988, pp. 185–214. (Scholar)
  • Manuli, P. and M. Vegetti (eds.), 1988, Le opere psicologiche di Galeno: atti del terzo colloquio galenico internazionale, Pavia, 10–12 settembre 1986, Naples: Bibliopolis. (Scholar)
  • Marechal, P., 2019, “Galen’s Constitutive Materialism”, Ancient Philosophy, 39: 191–209.  (Scholar)
  • Mattern, S.P., 2008, Galen and the Rhetoric of Healing, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, The Prince of Medicine: Galen in the Roman Empire, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Moraux, P., 1984, Der Aristotelismus bei den Griechen von Andronikos bis Alexander von Aphrodisias, II: Der Aristotelismus im I und II. Jh. n. Chr., Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. (Scholar)
  • Morison, B., 2008, “Logic”, in Hankinson 2008b, pp. 66–115. (Scholar)
  • Nutton, V., 1973, “The Chronology of Galen’s Early Career”, Classical Quarterly, 23: 158–71. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984, “Galen in the Eyes of his Contemporaries”, Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 58: 315–24. (Scholar)
  • Petit, C., 2019 (ed.), Galen’s Treatise Περὶ ἀλυπίας (De indolentia) in Context: A Tale of Resilience, Leiden: Brill.
  • Pietrobelli, A., 2013, “Galien agnostique: un texte caviardé par la tradition”, Revue des Études Grecques, 126(1): 103–35. (Scholar)
  • Rocca, J., 2020, “Pneuma as a Holistic Concept in Galen”, in Holism in Ancient Medicine and its Reception, C. Thumiger (ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 268–91. (Scholar)
  • Salas, L. A., 2020, Cutting Words: Polemical Dimensions of Galen’s Anatomical Experiments, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • Singer, P.N., 1996, “Notes on Galen’s Hippocrates”, in Studi di storia di medicina antica e medievale in memoria di Paola Manuli, M. Vegetti and S. Gastaldi (eds.), Florence: La Nuova Italia, pp. 66–76. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997b, “Levels of Explanation in Galen”, Classical Quarterly, 47: 525–42. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 2013, Galen: Psychological Writings, trans. with introductions and notes by V. Nutton, D. Davies, and P. N. Singer, with the collaboration of P. Tassinari, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, “Galen and the Philosophers: Philosophical Engagement, Shadowy Contemporaries, Aristotelian Engagement”, in Adamson et al. 2014, pp. 7–38. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “The Essence of Rage: Galen on Emotional Disturbances and their Physical Correlates”, in Selfhood and Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill, R. Seaford, J. Wilkins, and M. Wright (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 161–96. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2018, “Galen’s Pathological Soul: Diagnosis and Therapy in Ethical and Medical Texts and Contexts”, in Mental Mental Illness in Ancient Medicine: from Celsus to Paul of Aegina, C. Thumiger and P.N. Singer (eds.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 381–420. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2019a, “Galen and the Culture of Pergamon: A View of Greek Medical–Intellectual Life in Roman Asia”, in 2. Uluslararası Bergama Sempozyumu, 9–10 Mayıs 2013, B. Türkmen, F. Kurunaz, N. Ermiṣ, and Y. Ekıncı Daniṣan (eds.), Bergama/Izmir, pp.131–69. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2019b, “New Light and Old Texts: Galen on his own Books”, in Petit (ed.), pp. 91–132. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2019c, “A New Distress: Galen’s Ethics in Περὶ ἀλυπίας and Beyond”, in Petit (ed.), pp. 180–98. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2020a, “A Change in the Substance: Theory and its Limits in Galen’s Simples”, Archives Internatioinales d’Histoire des Sciences, 70: 16–53. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2020b, “Galen on Pneuma: Between Metaphysical Speculation and Anatomical Theory”, in The Concept of Pneuma After Aristotle, S. Coughlin, D. Leith, and O. Lewis (eds.), Berlin: Edition Topoi, pp. 237–81. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2021a, “Beyond and Behind the Commentary: Galen on Hippocrates on Elements”, in Hippocrates East and West: Commentaries in the Greek, Latin, Syriac and Arabic Traditions, P. E. Pormann (ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 114–46. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2021b, “The Relationship Between Perceptual Experience and Logos: Galen's Clinical Perspective”, in Hankinson and Havrda 2021, pp. 156–89. (Scholar)
  • Singer, P.N. and P.J. van der Eijk, 2018, Galen: Works on Human Nature, vol. I: Mixtures (De temperamentis), translated with introduction and notes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Tieleman, T., 1996, Galen and Chrysippus on the Soul: Argumentation and Refutation in the De Placitis, Books II-III, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • van der Eijk, P.J., 1997, “Galen on the Use of the Concept of ‘Qualified Experience’ in his Dietetic and Pharmacological Works”, repr. in his Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 279–98. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Therapeutics”, in Hankinson 2008b, pp. 283–303. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, “Galen on the Assessment of Bodily Mixtures”, in The Frontiers of Ancient Science: Essays in Honor of Heinrich von Staden, K.-D. Fischer and B. Holmes (eds.), Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 675–98. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “The Place of Disease in a Teleological World-View”, in Teleology in the Ancient World: Philosophical and Medical Approaches, J. Rocca (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 203–16. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2020, “Galen on Soul, Mixture and Pneuma”, in Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, B. Inwood and J. Warren (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 62–88. (Scholar)
  • Vegetti, M., 1999, “Tradition and Truth: Forms of Philosophical-Scientific Historiography in Galen’s De Placitis”, in Ancient Histories of Medicine: Essays in Medical Doxography and Historiography in Classical Antiquity, P. van der Eijk (ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 227–43. (Scholar)
  • Vinkesteijn, R., 2019, “Mixing Body and Soul: Galen on the Substance of the Soul in QAM and De propriis placitis”, Phronesis, 65(2): 224–46. (Scholar)
  • Von Staden, H., 1992, “The Discovery of the Body: Human Dissection and its Cultural Contexts in Ancient Greece”, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 65: 223–41. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1995, “Anatomy as Rhetoric: Galen on Dissection and Persuasion”, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 50: 47–66. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997, “Galen and the Second Sophistic”, in Aristotle and After, R. Sorabji (ed.), London: Institute of Classical Studies, pp. 33–54. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2000, “Body, Soul, and Nerves: Epicurus, Herophilus, Erasistratus, the Stoics, and Galen”, in Psyche and Soma: Physicians and Metaphysicians on the Mind-Body Problem from Antiquity to the Enlightenment, J.P. Wright and P. Potter (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 79–116. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2009, “Staging the Past, Staging Oneself: Galen on Hellenistic Exegetical Traditions”, in Galen and the World of Knowledge, C. Gill, T. Whitmarsh, and J. Wilkins (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 132–56. (Scholar)
  • Walzer, R. and M. Frede, 1985, Galen: Three Treatises on the Nature of Science, Indianapolis: Hackett. (Scholar)

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