Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Genomics and Postgenomics" by Stephan Guttinger and John Dupré

This is an automatically generated and experimental page

If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.

This experiment has been authorized by the editors of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The original article and bibliography can be found here.

  • Adams, M.D., et al., 2000, “The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster”, Science, 287(5461): 2185–2195. pmid:10731132 (Scholar)
  • Amann, Rudolf I., Wolfgang Ludwig, and Karl-Heinz Schleifer, 1995, “Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation”, Microbiological Reviews, 59(1): 143–169. pmcid:PMC239358 (Scholar)
  • Amundson, Ron and George V. Lauder, 1994, “Function Without Purpose: The Uses of Causal Role Function in Evolutionary Biology”, Biology and Philosophy, 9(4): 443–469. doi:10.1007/BF00850375
  • Andreasen, Robin O., 1998, “A New Perspective on the Race Debate”, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 49(2): 199–225. doi:10.1093/bjps/49.2.199 (Scholar)
  • Ankeny, Rachel A., 2001, “Model organisms as models: understanding the ‘Lingua Franca’ of the human genome project”, Philosophy of Science, 68(3): S251–S261. (Scholar)
  • Ankeny, Rachel A. and Sabina Leonelli, 2015, “Valuing Data in Postgenomic Biology: How Data Donation and Curation Practices Challenge the Scientific Publication System”, in Postgenomics: Perspectives on Biology After the Genome, S.S. Richardson, and H. Stevens (eds.), Chapel Hill, NC: Duke University Press, pp. 126–149. (Scholar)
  • Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000, “Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Flowering Plant Arabidopsis thaliana”, Nature, 408(6814): 796–815. doi:10.1038/35048692 (Scholar)
  • Baker, Monya, 2013, “Big Biology: The ‘omes Puzzle”, Nature, 494(7438): 416–419. doi:10.1038/494416a (Scholar)
  • Bamshad, Michael J., Stephen Wooding, W. Scott Watkins, Christopher T. Ostler, Mark A. Batzer, and Lynn B. Jorde, 2003, “Human Population Genetic Structure and Inference of Group Membership”, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 72(3): 578–589. doi:10.1086/368061 (Scholar)
  • Barbujani, Guido and Vincenza Colonna, 2010, “Human Genome Diversity: Frequently Asked Questions”, Trends in Genetics, 26(7): 285–295. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2010.04.002 (Scholar)
  • Barnes, Barry and John Dupré, 2008, Genomes and What to Make of Them, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (Scholar)
  • Bennett, Simon T., Colin Barnes, Anthony Cox, Lisa Davies, and Clive Brown, 2005, “Toward the $1000 Human Genome”, Pharmacogenomics, 6(4): 373–382. doi:10.1517/14622416.6.4.373 (Scholar)
  • Bickmore, Wendy A. and Bas van Steensel, 2013, “Genome Architecture: Domain Organization of Interphase Chromosomes”, Cell, 152(6): 1270–1284. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.001 (Scholar)
  • Bikel, Shirley, Alejandra Valdez-Lara, Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Karina Rico, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Xavier Soberón, Luis Del Pozo-Yauner, and Adrián Ochoa-Leyva, 2015, “Combining Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics and Viromics to Explore Novel Microbial Interactions: Towards a Systems-level Understanding of Human Microbiome”, Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 13: 390–401. doi:10.1016/j.csbj.2015.06.001 (Scholar)
  • Blattner, Frederick R., et al., 1997, “The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12”, Science, 277(5331): 1453–1462. doi:10.1126/science.277.5331.1453 (Scholar)
  • Bolnick, Deborah A., 2008, “Individual Ancestry Inference and the Reification of Race as a Biological Phenomenon”, in Koenig et al. 2008: 70–85. (Scholar)
  • Bouchard, Frédéric and Philippe Huneman (eds.), 2013, From Groups to Individuals: Evolution and Emerging Individuality, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • Brenner, Sidney, 1990, “The Human Genome: The Nature of the Enterprise”, Human Genetic Information: Science, Law and Ethics, 149: 6–12. doi:10.1002/9780470513903.ch2 (Scholar)
  • Burchard, Esteban González, Elad Ziv, Natasha Coyle, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Hua Tang, Andrew J. Karter, Joanna L. Mountain, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, Dean Sheppard, and Neil Risch, 2003, “The Importance of Race and Ethnic Background in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice”, New England Journal of Medicine, 348(12): 1170–1175. doi:10.1056/nejmsb025007 (Scholar)
  • Burian, Richard M., 1997, “Exploratory Experimentation and the Role of Histochemical Techniques in the Work of Jean Brachet, 1938–1952”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 19(1): 27–45. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007, “On MicroRNA and the Need for Exploratory Experimentation in Post-Genomic Molecular Biology”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 29(3): 285–312. pmid:18822659 (Scholar)
  • Burke, Catherine, Peter Steinberg, Doug Rusch, Staffan Kjelleberg, and Torsten Thomas, 2011, “Bacterial Community Assembly Based on Functional Genes Rather Than Species”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(34): 14288–14293. (Scholar)
  • Bustin, Michael and Tom Misteli, 2016, “Nongenetic Functions of the Genome”, Science, 352(6286): 671, aad6933 (7 pages). doi:10.1126/science.aad6933 (Scholar)
  • Butler, Declan, 2010, “Human Genome at Ten: Science After the Sequence”, Nature, 465(7301): 1000–1001. doi:10.1038/4651000a (Scholar)
  • C. elegans Sequencing Consortium, 1998, “Genome Sequence of the Nematode C. elegans: A Platform for Investigating Biology”, Science, 282(5396): 2012–2018. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2012 (Scholar)
  • Cardon, Lon R. and John I. Bell, 2001, “Association Study Designs for Complex Diseases”, Nature Reviews Genetics, 2(2): 91–99. doi:10.1038/35052543 (Scholar)
  • Cargill, Michele, et al., 1999, “Characterization of Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms in Coding Regions of Human Genes”, Nature Genetics 22(3): 231–238. doi:10.1038/10290 (Scholar)
  • Chakravarti, Aravinda, 1999, “Population Genetics—Making Sense Out of Sequence”, Nature Genetics, 21(1 Suppl): 56–60. doi:10.1038/4482 (Scholar)
  • Check Hayden, Erica, 2010, “Human Genome at Ten: Life is Complicated”, Nature, 464(7289): 664–667. doi:10.1038/464664a (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014a, “Is the $1,000 Genome for Real?” Nature News, (15 January 2014) doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14530. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014b, “The $1,000 Genome”, Nature, 507(7492): 294–5. doi:10.1038/507294a (Scholar)
  • Clark, Michael B., Anupma Choudhary, Martin A. Smith, Ryan J. Taft, and John S. Mattick, 2013, “The Dark Matter Rises: the Expanding World of Regulatory RNAs”, Essays in Biochemistry, 54: 1–16. doi:10.1042/bse0540001 (Scholar)
  • Clarke, Ellen, 2010, “The Problem of Biological Individuality”, Biological Theory, 5(4): 312–325. doi:10.1162/biot_a_00068 (Scholar)
  • Collins, Francis S., 2010, “Has the Revolution Arrived?” Nature, 464(7289): 674–675. doi:10.1038/464674a (Scholar)
  • Collins, Francis S. and Harold Varmus, 2015, “A New Initiative on Precision Medicine”, New England Journal of Medicine, 372(9): 793–795. doi:10.1056/nejmp1500523 (Scholar)
  • Couzin, Jennifer, 2002, “New Mapping Project Splits the Community”, Science, 296(5572): 1391. doi:10.1126/science.296.5572.1391 (Scholar)
  • Crollius, Hugues Roest, et al., 2000, “Estimate of Human Gene Number Provided by Genome-wide Analysis Using Tetraodon nigroviridis DNA Sequence”, Nature Genetics, 25(2): 235–238. doi:10.1038/76118 (Scholar)
  • Culligan, Earmon P., Roy D. Sleator, Julian R. Marchesi, and Colin Hill, 2014, “Metagenomics and Novel Gene Discovery: Promise and Potential for Novel Therapeutics”, Virulence, 5(3): 399–412. doi:10.4161/viru.27208 (Scholar)
  • Cummins, Robert, 1975, “Functional Analysis”, The Journal of Philosophy, 72(20): 741–765. doi:10.2307/2024640
  • Cutter, Amber R. and Jeffrey J. Hayes, 2015, “A Brief Review of Nucleosome Structure”, FEBS Letters, 589(20): 2914–2922. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2015.05.016 (Scholar)
  • Daly, Mark J., John D. Rioux, Stephen F. Schaffner, Thomas J. Hudson, and Eric S. Lander, 2001, “High-resolution Haplotype Structure in the Human Genome”, Nature Genetics, 29(2): 229–232. doi:10.1038/ng1001-229 (Scholar)
  • Dawkins, Richard, 1976, The Selfish Gene, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Desai, Narayan, Dion Antonopoulos, Jack A. Gilbert, Elizabeth M. Glass, and Folker Meyer, 2012, “From Genomics to Metagenomics”, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23(1): 72–76. (Scholar)
  • Dolinski, Kara and Olga G. Troyanskaya, 2015, “Implications of Big Data for Cell Biology”, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 26(14): 2575–2578. doi:10.1091/mbc.e13-12-0756 (Scholar)
  • Doolittle, W. Ford, 2013, “Is Junk DNA Bunk? A Critique of ENCODE”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(14): 5294–5300. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221376110
  • Doolittle, W. Ford and Carmen Sapienza, 1980, “Selfish Genes, the Phenotype Paradigm and Genome Evolution”, Nature, 284(5757): 601–603. doi:10.1038/284601a0 (Scholar)
  • Doolittle, W. Ford and Olga Zhaxybayeva, 2010, “Metagenomics and the Units of Biological Organization”, Bioscience, 60(2): 102–112. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.2.5 (Scholar)
  • Dulbecco, Renato, 1986, “A Turning Point in Cancer Research: Sequencing the Human Genome”, Science, 231(4742): 1055–1056. doi:10.1126/science.3945817 (Scholar)
  • Dupré, John, 2005, “Are There Genes?Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, 56: 193–211. doi:10.1017/s1358246105056092 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “What Genes Are, and Why There Are No ‘Genes for Race’”, in Revisiting Race in a Genomic Age, Barbara A. Koenig, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee and Sarah S. Richardson (eds.), New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008 pp. 39–55. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “The Polygenomic Organism”, The Sociological Review, 58(s1): 19–31. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954x.2010.01909.x (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, Processes of Life: Essays in the Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Dupré, John and Maureen A. O’Malley, 2007, “Metagenomics and Biological Ontology”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 38(4): 834–846. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2007.09.001 (Scholar)
  • Duster, Troy, 2005, “Race and Reification in Science”, Science, 307(5712): 1050–1051. doi:10.1126/science.1110303 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “The Molecular Reinscription of Race: Unanticipated Issues in Biotechnology and Forensic Science”, Patterns of Prejudice, 40(4–5): 427–441. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, “A Post-genomic Surprise. the Molecular Reinscription of Race in Science, Law and Medicine”, The British Journal of Sociology, 66(1): 1–27. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12118 (Scholar)
  • Ecker, Joseph R., Wendy A. Bickmore, Inês Barroso, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Yoav Gilad, and Eran Segal, 2012, “Genomics: ENCODE Explained”, Nature, 489(7414): 52–55. doi:10.1038/489052a
  • Eddy, Sean R., 2012, “The C-value Paradox, Junk DNA and ENCODE”, Current Biology, 22(21): R898–R899. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.002
  • –––, 2013, “The ENCODE Project: Missteps Overshadowing a Success”, Current Biology, 23(7): R259–R261.
  • Edwards, A.W.F., 2003, “Human Genetic Diversity: Lewontin’s Fallacy”, BioEssays, 25(8): 798–801. doi:10.1002/bies.10315 (Scholar)
  • Ehret, Charles F. and Gérard De Haller, 1963, “Origin, Development, and Maturation of Organelles and Organelle Systems of the Cell Surface in Paramecium”, Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 9(Suppl 6): 1–42. doi:10.1016/s0022-5320(63)80088-x (Scholar)
  • Eichler, E.E., J. Flint, G. Gibson, A. Kong, S.M. Leal, J.H. Moore, and J.H. Nadeau, 2010, “Missing Heritability and Strategies for Finding the Underlying Causes of Complex Disease”, Nature Reviews Genetics, 11(6): 446–450. doi:10.1038/nrg2809 (Scholar)
  • Eisen, Jonathan A., 2012, “Badomics Words and the Power and Peril of the ome-meme”, GigaScience, 1(1): 6. doi:10.1186/2047-217x-1-6 (Scholar)
  • Ekkers, David Matthias, Mariana Silvia Cretoiu, Anna Maria Kielak, and Jan Dirk van Elsas, 2012, “The Great Screen Anomaly—A New Frontier in Product Discovery Through Functional Metagenomics”, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 93(3): 1005–1020. doi:10.1007/s00253-011-3804-3 (Scholar)
  • Elliott, Kevin C., 2007, “Varieties of Exploratory Experimentation in Nanotoxicology”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 29(3): 313–336. (Scholar)
  • Elliott, Tyler A., Stefan Linquist, and T. Ryan Gregory, 2014, “Conceptual and Empirical Challenges of Ascribing Functions to Transposable Elements”, The American Naturalist, 184(1): 14–24. doi:10.1086/676588
  • ENCODE Project Consortium, 2004, “The ENCODE (ENCyclopedia of DNA elements) Project”, Science, 306(5696): 636–640. doi:10.1126/science.1105136
  • –––, 2007, “Identification and Analysis of Functional Elements in 1% of the Human Genome by the ENCODE Pilot Project”, Nature, 447(7146): 799–816. doi:10.1038/nature05874
  • –––, 2012, “An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome”, Nature, 489(7414): 57–74. doi:10.1038/nature11247
  • Ereshefsky, Marc and Makmiller Pedroso, 2013, “Biological Individuality: the Case of Biofilms”, Biology & Philosophy, 28(2): 331–349. doi:10.1007/s10539-012-9340-4 (Scholar)
  • Feldman, Marcus W. and Richard C. Lewontin, 2008, “Race, Ancestry, and Medicine”, in Koenig 2008: 89–101. (Scholar)
  • Fields, Stanley and Mark Johnston, 2002, “A Crisis in Postgenomic Nomenclature”, Science, 296(5568): 671–672. doi:10.1126/science.1070208 (Scholar)
  • Fleischmann, R.D., et al., 1995, “Whole-genome Random Sequencing and Assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd.” Science, 269(5223): 496–512. doi:10.1126/science.7542800 (Scholar)
  • Foster, Morris W. and Richard R. Sharp, 2002, “Race, Ethnicity, and Genomics: Social Classifications as Proxies of Biological Heterogeneity”, Genome Research, 12(6): 844–850. doi:10.1101/gr.99202 (Scholar)
  • Franklin, L.R., 2005, “Exploratory Experiments”, Philosophy of Science, 72(5): 888–899. doi:10.1086/508117 (Scholar)
  • Fujimura, Joan H., D.A. Bolnick, R. Rajagopalan, J.S. Kaufman, R.C. Lewontin, T. Duster, P. Ossorio, and J. Marks, 2014, “Clines Without Classes How to Make Sense of Human Variation”, Sociological Theory, 32(3): 208–227. doi:10.1177/0735275114551611 (Scholar)
  • Gabor, Esther, Klaus Liebeton, Frank Niehaus, Juergen Eck, and Patrick Lorenz, 2007, “Updating the Metagenomics Toolbox”, Biotechnology Journal, 2(2): 201–206. doi:10.1002/biot.200600250 (Scholar)
  • Gannett, Lisa, 2001, “Racism and Human Genome Diversity Research: the Ethical Limits of ‘Population Thinking’”, Philosophy of Science, 68(3): S479–S492. doi:10.1086/392930 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “The Biological Reification of Race”, The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 55(2): 323–345. doi:10.1093/bjps/55.2.323 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Questions Asked and Unasked: How by Worrying Less About the ‘Really Real’Philosophers of Science Might Better Contribute to Debates About Genetics and Race”, Synthese, 177(3): 363–385. doi:10.1007/s11229-010-9788-1 (Scholar)
  • Germain, Pierre-Luc, Emanuela Ratti, and Frederico Boem, 2014, “Junk or Functional DNA? ENCODE and the Function Controversy”, Biology & Philosophy, 29(6): 807–831. doi:10.1007/s10539-014-9441-3
  • Gilbert, Walter, 1992, “A Vision of the Grail”, in The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project, Daniel Kevles, and Leroy Hood (eds.), Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 83–97. (Scholar)
  • Godfrey-Smith, Peter, 1994, “A Modern History Theory of Functions”, Noûs, 28(3): 344–362. doi:10.2307/2216063
  • Goffeau, A., et al., 1996, “Life with 6000 Genes”, Science, 274(5287): 546–567. doi:10.1126/science.274.5287.546 (Scholar)
  • Goodman, Alan H., 2000, “Why Genes Don’t Count (For Racial Differences in Health)”, American Journal of Public Health, 90(11): 1699. pmcid:PMC1446406 (Scholar)
  • Graur, Dan, 2013, “The Origin of the Term ‘Junk DNA’: A Historical Whodunnit”, Judge Starling (blog), October 19, 2013, Graur 2013 available online> (Scholar)
  • Graur, D., Y. Zheng, N. Price, R.B. Azevedo, R.A. Zufall, and E. Elhaik, 2013, “On the Immortality of Television Sets: ‘Function’ in the Human Genome According to the Evolution-free Gospel of ENCODE”, Genome Biology and Evolution, 5(3): 578–590. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt028
  • Green, Eric D., Mark S. Guyer, and National Human Genome Research Institute, 2011, “Charting a Course for Genomic Medicine from Base Pairs to Bedside”, Nature 470(7333): 204–213. doi:10.1038/nature09764 (Scholar)
  • Gregory, T. Ryan, 2001, “Coincidence, Coevolution, or Causation? DNA Content, Cell Size, and the C-value Enigma”, Biological Reviews, 76(1): 65–101. pmid:11325054 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005, “Synergy Between Sequence and Size in Large-scale Genomics”, Nature Reviews Genetics, 6(9): 699–708. doi:10.1038/nrg1674 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007, “The onion test”, Evolver Zone Genomicron, April 25, 2007, Gregory 2001 available online. (Scholar)
  • Griffiths, Paul E., 1992, “Adaptive Explanation and the Concept of a Vestige”, in Trees of Life. Essays in Philosophy of Biology, Paul E. Griffiths (ed.), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 111–131. doi:10.1007/978-94-015-8038-0_5
  • –––, 1993, “Functional Analysis and Proper Functions”, British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 44(3): 409–422. doi:10.1093/bjps/44.3.409
  • –––, 1994, “Cladistic Classification and Functional Explanation”, Philosophy of Science, 61(2): 206–227. doi:10.1086/289796
  • –––, 2006, “Function, Homology, and Character Individuation”, Philosophy of Science, 73(1): 1–25. doi:10.1086/510172
  • Griffiths, Paul E. and Karola Stotz, 2006, “Genes in the Postgenomic Era”, Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 27(6): 499–521. doi:10.1007/s11017-006-9020-y (Scholar)
  • Guay, Alexandre and Thomas Pradeu (eds.), 2015, Individuals Across the Sciences, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hahn, Matthew W. and Gregory A. Wray, 2002, “The g-value Paradox”, Evolution and Development, 4(2): 73–75. doi:10.1046/j.1525-142x.2002.01069.x (Scholar)
  • Hall, Stephen S., 2010, “Revolution Postponed”, Scientific American, 303(4): 60–67. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1010-60 (Scholar)
  • Hamilton, Jennifer A., 2008, “Revitalizing Difference in the HapMap: Race and Contemporary Human Genetic Variation Research”, The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 36(3): 471–477. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720x.2008.293.x (Scholar)
  • Handelsman, Jo, Michelle R. Rondon, Sean F. Brady, Jon Clardy, and Robert M. Goodman, 1998, “Molecular Biological Access to the Chemistry of Unknown Soil Microbes: A New Frontier for Natural Products”, Chemistry & Biology, 5(10): R245–R249. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(98)90108-9 (Scholar)
  • [HapMap] The International HapMap Consortium, 2003, “The International HapMap Project”, Nature, 426(6968): 789–796. doi:10.1038/02168 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005, “A Haplotype Map of the Human Genome”, Nature, 437(7063): 1299–1320. doi:10.1038/nature04226 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Integrating Common and Rare Genetic Variation in Diverse Human Populations”, Nature, 467(7311): 52–58. doi:10.1038/nature09298 (Scholar)
  • Harrow, Jennifer, A. Frankish, J.M. Gonzalez, E. Tapanari, M. Diekhans, F. Kokocinski, B.L. Aken et al., 2012, “GENCODE: The Reference Human Genome Annotation for the ENCODE Project”, Genome Research, 22(9): 1760–1774. doi:10.1101/gr.135350.111 (Scholar)
  • Holm-Hansen, Osmund, 1969, “Algae: Amounts of DNA and Organic Carbon in Single Cells”, Science, 163(3862): 87–88. doi:10.1126/science.163.3862.87 (Scholar)
  • International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, 2001, “Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome”, Nature, 409(6822): 860–921. doi:10.1038/35057062 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “Finishing the Euchromatic Sequence of the Human Genome”, Nature, 431(7011): 931–945. doi:10.1038/nature03001 (Scholar)
  • Jones, Peter A., 2012, “Functions of DNA Methylation: Islands, Start Sites, Gene Bodies and Beyond”, Nature Reviews Genetics, 13(7): 484–492. doi:10.1038/nrg3230 (Scholar)
  • Jorde, Lynn B. and Stephen P. Wooding, 2004, “Genetic Variation, Classification and ‘Race’”, Nature Genetics, 36: S28–S33. doi:10.1038/ng1435 (Scholar)
  • Kalinowski, S.T., 2011, “The Computer Program STRUCTURE Does Not Reliably Identify the Main Genetic Clusters Within Species: Simulations and Implications for Human Population Structure”, Heredity, 106(4): 625–632. doi:10.1038/hdy.2010.95 (Scholar)
  • Karaca, Koray, 2013, “The Strong and Weak Senses of Theory-ladenness of Experimentation: Theory-driven Versus Exploratory Experiments in the History of High-energy Particle Physics”, Science in Context, 26(1): 93–136. doi:10.1017/s0269889712000300 (Scholar)
  • Kaufman, Jay S. and Richard S. Cooper, 2001, “Commentary: Considerations for Use of Racial/Ethnic Classification in Etiologic Research”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(4): 291–298. doi:10.1093/aje/154.4.291 (Scholar)
  • Keller, Evelyn Fox, 2000, The Century of the Gene, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Genes, Genomes, and Genomics”, Biological Theory, 6(2): 132–140. doi:10.1007/s13752-012-0014-x (Scholar)
  • Kellis, Manolis, et al., 2014, “Defining Functional DNA Elements in the Human Genome”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(17): 6131–6138. doi:10.1073/pnas.1318948111
  • Kitcher, Philip, 1994, “Who’s Afraid of the Human Genome Project?”, in PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, 2: 313–321. doi:10.1086/psaprocbienmeetp.1994.2.192941 (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “Race, Ethnicity, Biology, Culture”, in Racism (Key Concepts in Critical Theory), Leonard Harris (ed.), New York: Humanity Books, pp. 87–120. (Scholar)
  • Koenig, Barbara A., Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, and Sharon S. Richardson (eds.), 2008, Revisiting Race in a Genomic Age, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. (Scholar)
  • Koshland, Daniel E. Jr, 1989, “Sequences and Consequences of the Human Genome”, Science, 246(4927): 189. doi:10.1126/science.2799380 (Scholar)
  • Krieger, Nancy, 2000, “Refiguring ‘Race’: Epidemiology, Racialized Biology, and Biological Expressions of Race Relations”, International Journal of Health Services, 30(1): 211–216. doi:10.2190/672j-1ppf-k6qt-9n7u (Scholar)
  • Kuska, Bob, 1998, “Beer, Bethesda, and Biology: How ‘Genomics’ Came into Being”, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90(2): 93–93. doi:10.1093/jnci/90.2.93 (Scholar)
  • Lander, Eric S., 1996, “The New Genomics: Global Views of Biology”, Science, 274(5287): 536. doi:10.1126/science.274.5287.536 (Scholar)
  • Lederberg, Joshua and Alexa T. McCray, 2001, “’Ome Sweet ’Omics—A Genealogical Treasury of Words”, The Scientist, 15(7): 8. (Scholar)
  • Ledford, Heidi, 2016, “AstraZeneca Launches Project to Sequence 2 Million Genomes”, Nature, 532(7600): 427. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19797 (Scholar)
  • Leonelli, Sabina, 2014, “What Difference Does Quantity Make? on the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology”, Big Data & Society, 1(1), p.2053951714534395. doi:10.1177/2053951714534395 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2016, Data-Centric Biology: A Philosophical Study, Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press. (Scholar)
  • Leroi, Armand Marie, 2005, “A Family Tree in Every Gene”, New York Times, March 14, A23. (Scholar)
  • Levy, Samuel, et al., 2007, “The Diploid Genome Sequence of An Individual Human”, PLoS Biology, 5(10): e254. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050254 (Scholar)
  • Lewontin, Richard C., 1992, Biology as Ideology, New York: Harper Collins. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “It’s Even Less in Your Genes”, The New York Review of Books, 58(9). (Scholar)
  • Li, W.H. and L.A. Sadler, 1991, “Low Nucleotide Diversity in Man”, Genetics, 129(2): 513–523. (Scholar)
  • Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin, et al., 2011, “A High-resolution Map of Human Evolutionary Constraint Using 29 Mammals”, Nature, 478(7370): 476–482. doi:10.1038/nature10530
  • Livingstone, Frank B., 1962, “On the Non-Existence of Human Races”, Current Anthropology, 3(3): 279–281. doi:10.1086/200290 (Scholar)
  • Lorenz, Patrick and Jürgen Eck, 2005, “Metagenomics and Industrial Applications”, Nature Reviews Microbiology, 3(6): 510–516. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1161 (Scholar)
  • Lupski, James R., 1998, “Genomic Disorders: Structural Features of the Genome Can Lead to DNA Rearrangements and Human Disease Traits”, Trends in Genetics, 14(10): 417–422. doi:10.1016/s0168-9525(98)01555-8 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2009, “Genomic Disorders Ten Years On”, Genome Medicine, 1(4): 42. doi:10.1186/gm42 (Scholar)
  • Luria, S.E., Dan M. Cooper, and Ari Berkowitz, 1989, “Human Genome Project”, Science, 246(4932):873–874. doi:10.1126/science.246.4932.873-b doi:10.1126/science.246.4932.873-d doi:10.1126/science.2814503 (Scholar)
  • Mardis, Elaine R., 2006, “Anticipating the $1,000 Genome”, Genome Biology, 7(7): 112. doi:10.1186/gb-2006-7-7-112 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “A Decade’s Perspective on DNA Sequencing Technology”, Nature, 470(7333): 198–203. doi:10.1038/nature09796 (Scholar)
  • Marks, Jonathan, 2008, “Race: Past, Present, and Future”, in Koenig 2008: 21–38. (Scholar)
  • Marx, Vivian, 2013, “Biology: the Big Challenges of Big Data”, Nature, 498(7453): 255–260. doi:10.1038/498255a (Scholar)
  • McClellan, Jon and Mary-Claire King, 2010, “Genetic Heterogeneity in Human Disease”, Cell, 141(2): 210–217. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.032 (Scholar)
  • McFall-Ngai, M., et al., 2013, “Animals in a Bacterial World, a New Imperative for the Life Sciences”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(9): 3229–3236. doi:10.1073/pnas.1218525110 (Scholar)
  • Millikan, Ruth Garrett, 1984, Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • –––, 1989a, “In Defense of Proper Functions”, Philosophy of Science, 56(2): 288–302. doi:10.1086/289488
  • –––, 1989b, “An Ambiguity in the Notion ‘Function’”, Biology and Philosophy, 4(2): 172–176.
  • Mirsky, A.E. and Hans Ris, 1951, “The Desoxyribonucleic Acid Content of Animal Cells and Its Evolutionary Significance”, The Journal of General Physiology, 34(4): 451–462. doi:10.1085/jgp.34.4.451 (Scholar)
  • Moss, Lenny, 2003, What Genes Can’t Do, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “Redundancy, Plasticity, and Detachment: the Implications of Comparative Genomics for Evolutionary Thinking”, Philosophy of Science, 73(5): 930–946. doi:10.1086/518778 (Scholar)
  • Myers, Eugene W., et al., 2000, “A Whole-Genome Assembly of Drosophila”, Science, 287(5461): 2196–2204. doi:10.1126/science.287.5461.2196 (Scholar)
  • National Research Council (Committee on Metagenomics: Challenges and Functional Applications), 2007, The New Science of Metagenomics: Revealing the Secrets of Our Microbial Planet, National Research Council Report 13, Washington DC: National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/11902 (Scholar)
  • Neander, Karen, 1991, “Functions as Selected Effects: the Conceptual Analyst’s Defense”, Philosophy of Science, 58(2): 168–184. doi:10.1086/289610
  • Nicholson, D. and John Dupré (eds), forthcoming, Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • NIH: National Institutes of Health, 2002, “International Consortium Launches Genetic Variation Mapping Project: HapMap Will Help Identify Genetic Contributions to Common Diseases”, NIH News Advisory, October 2002, NIH 2002 available online. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “NHGRI Seeks Next Generation of Sequencing Technologies New Grants Support Development of Faster, Cheaper DNA Sequencing”, NIH News Release, October 14, 2004, NIH 2004 available online. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, “NIH Framework Points the Way Forward for Building National, Large-scale Research Cohort, a Key Component of the President’S Precision Medicine Initiative”, NIH News Releases, September 17, 2015. NIH 2015 available online. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2016, “What is a genome?”, Genetics Home Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions, NIH: U.S. National Library of Medicine, NIH 2016 available online, accessed October 10, 2016. (Scholar)
  • Niu, Deng-Ke and Li Jiang, 2013, “Can ENCODE Tell Us How Much Junk DNA We Carry in Our Genome?” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 430(4): 1340–1343. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.12.074
  • Ohno, Susumu, 1972, “So Much ‘Junk’ DNA in Our Genome”, in Brookhaven Symposium on Biology, 23, Routledge, pp. 366–370. (Scholar)
  • O’Malley, Maureen A., 2007, “Exploratory Experimentation and Scientific Practice: Metagenomics and the Proteorhodopsin Case”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 29(3): 337–358. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, “Metagenomics”, in Encyclopedia of Systems Biology, W. Dubitzky, O. Wolkenhauer, H. Yokota, and K.-H. Cho (eds.), Springer, p. 1283. (Scholar)
  • O’Malley, Maureen A. and John Dupré, 2005, “Fundamental Issues in Systems Biology”, BioEssays, 27(12): 1270–1276. doi:10.1002/bies.20323 (Scholar)
  • O’Malley, Maureen A. and Orkun S. Soyer, 2012, “The Roles of Integration in Molecular Systems Biology”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 43(1): 58–68. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2011.10.006 (Scholar)
  • O’Malley, Maureen A., Kevein C. Elliott, and Richard M. Burian, 2010, “From Genetic to Genomic Regulation: Iterativity in MicroRNA Research”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 41(4): 407–417. doi:10.1016/j.shpsc.2010.10.011 (Scholar)
  • Orgel, L.E. and F.H. Crick, 1980, “Selfish DNA: the Ultimate Parasite”, Nature, 284(5757): 604–607. doi:10.1038/284604a0 (Scholar)
  • Ossorio, Pilar N., 2005, “Race, Genetic Variation, and the Haplotype Mapping Project”, Louisiana Law Review, 66(5): 131–143. (Scholar)
  • Palca, Joseph, 1986, “The Numbers Game”, Nature, 321(6068): 371. doi:10.1038/321371b0 (Scholar)
  • Pennisi, Elizabeth, 2012, “ENCODE Project Writes Eulogy for Junk DNA”, Science, 337(6099): 1159–1161. doi:10.1126/science.337.6099.1159
  • Perini, Laura, 2011, “Sequence Matters: Genomic Research and the Gene Concept”, Philosophy of Science, 78(5): 752–762. doi:10.1086/662565 (Scholar)
  • Phillips, Kathryn A., Mark J. Pletcher, and Uri Ladabaum, 2015, “Is the ‘$1000 Genome’ Really $1000? Understanding the Full Benefits and Costs of Genomic Sequencing”, Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine, 23(3): 373–379. (Scholar)
  • Pigliucci, Massimo and Jonathan Kaplan, 2003, “On the Concept of Biological Race and Its Applicability to Humans”, Philosophy of Science, 70(5): 1161–1172. doi:10.3233/thc-150900 (Scholar)
  • Piotrowska, Monika, 2009, “What Does it Mean to be 75% Pumpkin? The Units of Comparative Genomics”, Philosophy of Science, 76(5): 838–850. doi:10.1086/605813 (Scholar)
  • Qu, Hongzhu and Xiangdong Fang, 2013, “A Brief Review on the Human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project”, Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics, 11(3): 135–141. doi:10.1016/j.gpb.2013.05.001
  • Reardon, Sara, 2015, “US Precision-medicine Proposal Sparks Questions”, Nature, 517(7536): 540. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.16774 (Scholar)
  • Rechsteiner, Martin C., 1991, “The Human Genome Project: Misguided Science Policy”, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 16: 455–461. doi:10.1016/0968-0004(91)90178-x (Scholar)
  • Richardson, Sarah S. and Hallam Stevens (eds.), 2015, Postgenomics: Perspectives on Biology After the Genome, Chapel Hill, NC: Duke University Press. (Scholar)
  • Risch, Neil, Esteban Burchard, Elad Ziv, and Hua Tang, 2002, “Categorization of Humans in Biomedical Research: Genes, Race and Disease”, Genome Biology, 3(7): 1–12. (Scholar)
  • Roberts, Dorothy, 2011, Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-first Century, New York: The New Press. (Scholar)
  • Rosenberg, Alex, 1994, “Subversive Reflections on the Human Genome Project”, in PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, 2: 329–335. doi:10.1086/psaprocbienmeetp.1994.2.192943 (Scholar)
  • Rosenberg, Noah A., J.K. Pritchard, J.L. Weber, H.M. Cann, K.K. Kidd, L.A. Zhivotovsky, and M.W. Feldman, 2002, “Genetic Structure of Human Populations”, Science, 298(5602): 2381–2385. doi:10.1126/science.1078311 (Scholar)
  • Rothfels, Klaus, Elizabeth Sexsmith, Margaret Heimburger, and Margarida O. Krause, 1966, “Chromosome Size and DNA Content of Species of Anemone L. and Related Genera (Ranunculaceae)”, Chromosoma, 20(1): 54–74. doi:10.1007/bf00331898 (Scholar)
  • Sanger, F. et al., 1977, “Nucleotide Sequence of Bacteriophage ΦX174 DNA”, Nature, 265(5596): 687–695. doi:10.1038/265687a0 (Scholar)
  • Sboner, A., X.J. Mu, D. Greenbaum, R.K. Auerbach, and M.B. Gerstein, 2011, “The Real Cost of Sequencing: Higher Than You Think”, Genome Biology, 12(8): 125. doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-8-125. (Scholar)
  • Scholz, Matthew B., Chien-Chi Lo, and Patrick SG Chain, 2012, “Next Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Bottlenecks: The Current State of Metagenomic Data Analysis”, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 23(1): 9–15. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2011.11.013 (Scholar)
  • Schwartz, Robert S., 2001, “Racial Profiling in Medical Research”, New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1392–1393. doi: 10.1056/nejm200105033441810 (Scholar)
  • Serre, David and Svante Pääbo, 2004, “Evidence for Gradients of Human Genetic Diversity Within and Among Continents”, Genome Research, 14(9): 1679–1685. doi:10.1101/gr.2529604 (Scholar)
  • Shiao, Jiannbin Lee, Thomas Bode, Amber Beyer, and Daniel Selvig, 2012, “The Genomic Challenge to the Social Construction of Race”, Sociological Theory, 30(2): 67–88. doi:10.1177/0735275112448053 (Scholar)
  • Sinsheimer, Robert L., 1989, “The Santa Cruz Workshop—May 1985”, Genomics, 5(4): 954–956. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(89)90142-0 (Scholar)
  • Sleator, Roy D., C. Shortall, and C. Hill, 2008, “Metagenomics”, Letters in Applied Microbiology, 47(5): 361–366. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765x.2008.02444.x (Scholar)
  • Staley, James T. and Allan Konopka, 1985, “Measurement of in Situ Activities of Nonphotosynthetic Microorganisms in Aquatic and Terrestrial Habitats”, Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 39(1): 321–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.39.100185.001541 (Scholar)
  • Steinle, Friedrich, 1997, “Entering New Fields: Exploratory Uses of Experimentation”, Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): S65–S74. doi:10.1086/392587 (Scholar)
  • Stolley, Paul D., 1999, “Race in Epidemiology”, International Journal of Health Services, 29(4): 905–909. doi:10.2190/qaah-p5dt-wmp8-8hnl (Scholar)
  • Stotz, Karola C., A. Bostanci, and Paul E. Griffiths, 2006, “Tracking the Shift to ‘Postgenomics’”, Public Health Genomics, 9(3): 190–196. doi:10.1159/000092656 (Scholar)
  • Streit, Wolfgan R. and Ruth A. Schmitz, 2004, “Metagenomics—The Key to the Uncultured Microbes”, Current Opinion in Microbiology, 7(5): 492–498. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2004.08.002 (Scholar)
  • Tang, Hua, et al., 2005, “Genetic Structure, Self-identified Race/Ethnicity, and Confounding in Case-Control Association Studies”, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(2): 268–275. doi:10.1086/427888 (Scholar)
  • Tauber, Alfred I. and Sahotra Sarkar, 1992, “The Human Genome Project: Has Blind Reductionism Gone Too Far?Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 35(2): 220–235. doi:10.1353/pbm.1992.0015 (Scholar)
  • Thomas, C.A. Jr., 1971, “The Genetic Organization of Chromosomes”, Annual Review of Genetics, 5(1): 237–256. doi:10.1146/annurev.ge.05.120171.001321 (Scholar)
  • Touchman, Jeffrey, 2010, “Comparative Genomics”, Nature Education Knowledge, 3(10): 13. (Scholar)
  • Turnbaugh, Peter J. and Jeffrey I. Gordon, 2008, “An Invitation to the Marriage of Metagenomics and Metabolomics”, Cell, 134(5): 708–713. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.08.025 (Scholar)
  • Turnbaugh, Peter J., et al., 2009, “A Core Gut Microbiome in Obese and Lean Twins”, Nature, 457(7228): 480–484. doi:10.1038/nature07540 (Scholar)
  • Tyson, G.W., J. Chapman, P. Hugenholtz, E.E. Allen, R.J. Ram, P.M. Richardson, V.V. Solovyev, E.M. Rubin, D.S. Rokhsar, and J.F. Banfield, 2004, “Community Structure and Metabolism Through Reconstruction of Microbial Genomes from the Environment”, Nature, 428(6978): 37–43. (Scholar)
  • Varmus, Harold, 2010, “Ten Years On—The Human Genome and Medicine”, New England Journal of Medicine, 362(21): 2028–2029. doi:10.1056/nejme0911933 (Scholar)
  • Venter, J. Craig, 2000, “Remarks at the Human Genome Announcement”, Functional & Integrative Genomics, 1(3): 154–155. doi: 10.1007/s101420000026 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Multiple Personal Genomes Await”, Nature, 464(7289): 676–677. doi:10.1038/464676a (Scholar)
  • Venter, J. Craig, et al., 2001, “The Sequence of the Human Genome”, Science, 291(5507): 1304–1351. doi:10.1126/science.1058040 (Scholar)
  • Venter, J. Craig, et al., 2004, “Environmental Genome Shotgun Sequencing of the Sargasso Sea”, Science, 304(5667): 66–74. doi:10.1126/science.1093857 (Scholar)
  • Visscher, Peter M., Matthew A. Brown, Mark I. McCarthy, and Jian Yang, 2012, “Five Years of GWAS Discovery”, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 90(1): 7–24. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.029 (Scholar)
  • Wade, Nicholas, 2010, “A Decade Later, Genetic Map Yields Few New Cures”, New York Times, June 13, 2010, page 1. (Scholar)
  • Wang, David G., et al., 1998, “Large-Scale Identification, Mapping, and Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human Genome”, Science, 280(5366): 1077–1082. doi:10.1126/science.280.5366.1077 (Scholar)
  • Ward, Lucas D. and Manolis Kellis, 2012, “Evidence of Abundant Purifying Selection in Humans for Recently Acquired Regulatory Functions”, Science, 337(6102): 1675–1678. doi:10.1126/science.1225057
  • Waters, C. Kenneth, 2007a, “The Nature and Context of Exploratory Experimentation: An Introduction to Three Case Studies of Exploratory Research”, History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 29(3): 275–284. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2007b, “Causes that Make a Difference”, The Journal of Philosophy, 104(11): 551–579. doi:10.5840/jphil2007104111 (Scholar)
  • Weinberg, Robert A., 1991, “The Human Genome Initiative. There Are Two Large Questions”, The FASEB Journal, 5(1): 78. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Point: Hypotheses First”, Nature, 464(7289): 678–678. doi:10.1038/464678a (Scholar)
  • Wheeler, David A., et al., 2008, “The Complete Genome of An Individual by Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing”, Nature, 452(7189): 872–876. doi:10.1038/nature06884 (Scholar)
  • White House, 2000, “Remarks Made by the President, Prime Minister Tony Blair of England (via satellite), Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, and Dr. Craig Venter, President and Chief Scientific Officer, Celera Genomics Corporation, on the Completion of the First Survey of the Entire Human Genome Project”, June 26, White House 2000 available online. (Scholar)
  • Whitfield, T.W., J. Wang, P.J. Collins, E.C. Partridge, S.F. Aldred, N.D. Trinklein, R.M. Myers, and Z. Weng, 2012, “Functional Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Human Promoters”, Genome Biology, 13(9): R50, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50.
  • Winkler, Hans, 1920, Verbreitung und Ursache der Parthenogenesis im Pflanzen- und Tierreiche, Jena: Fischer Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Witzig, Ritchie, 1996, “The Medicalization of Race: Scientific Legitimization of a Flawed Social Construct”, Annals of Internal Medicine, 125(8): 675–679. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-125-8-199610150-00008 (Scholar)
  • Wood, Alastair J., 2001, “Racial Differences in the Response to Drugs—Pointers to Genetic Differences”, New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18): 1394–1396. doi:10.1056/nejm200105033441811 (Scholar)
  • Wright, Larry, 1976, Teleological Explanation: An Etiological Analysis of Goals and Functions, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Wright, Mathew W. and Elspeth A. Bruford, 2011, “Naming ‘Junk’: Human Non-protein Coding RNA (NcRNA) Gene Nomenclature”, Human Genomics, 5(2): 90–98. doi:10.1186/1479-7364-5-2-90 (Scholar)
  • Xie, Hong-Guang, Richard B. Kim, Alastair J.J. Wood, and C. Michael Stein, 2001, “Molecular Basis of Ethnic Differences in Drug Disposition and Response”, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 41(1): 815–850. doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.41.1.815 (Scholar)
  • Yadav, Satya P., 2007, “The Wholeness in Suffix -omics, -omes, and the Word Om”, Journal of Biomolecular Techniques, 18(5): 277. pmcid:PMC2392988 (Scholar)
  • Yudell, Michael, 2011, “A Short History of the Race Concept”, in Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture, Sheldon Krimsky and Kathleen Sloan (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 13–30. (Scholar)

Generated Sun Aug 14 08:32:12 2022