Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Martin Luther" by Robert Stern

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Abbreviations for references to Luther’s works

  • [WA] D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 65 vols in 127. Weimar: Hermann Böhlau, 1883–1929, Abteilung 1: Schriften vols 1–56. (Scholar)
  • [WA TR] D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 65 vols in 127. Weimar: Hermann Böhlau, 1883–1929, Abteilung 2: Tischreden vols 1–6. (Scholar)
  • [WA DB] D. Martin Luthers Werke: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 65 vols in 127. Weimar: Hermann Böhlau, 1883–1929. Abteilung 3: Die Deutsche Bibel vols 1–12. (Scholar)
  • [LW] Luther’s Works, American edition, 55 vols. St Louis and Philadephia: Concordia and Fortress Press, 1958–86; new series, vols 56–75, 2009–. (Scholar)

Other Works by Luther

  • The Sermons of Martin Luther, edited by John Lenker, 8 vols (Reprint: Grand Rapids: Baker, 1989).
  • The Book of Concord, edited by Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2000.
  • Only the Decalogue Is Eternal: Martin Luther’s Complete Antinomian Theses and Disputations, edited and translated by Holger Sonntag, Minneapolis, MN: Lutheran Press, 2008. (Scholar)
  • Martin Luther, the Bible, and the Jewish People: A Reader, Brooks Schramm and Kirsi Stjerna (eds.), Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2012.
  • A Commentary on St. Paul’s Epistles to the Galatians, Based on Lectures Delivered at the University of Wittenberg, in the Year 1531, 1531/1575 [1953], Philip S. Watson (ed.), London: James Clark. A revised and completed translation based on the “Middleton” edition of the English version of 1575. (Scholar)

Useful collections of some of Luther’s main writings

  • Martin Luther: Selections from his Writings, edited by John Dillenberger, Garden City: Anchor Books, 1961.
  • The Ninety-Five Theses and Other Writings, William Russell (trans.), Harmondsworth: Penguin, 2017.
  • The Annotated Luther, edited by Timothy J. Wengert et al., 6 vols., Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2015–17.

Translations have been modified where necessary.

Luther’s Life and Work

Primary texts

  • Luther, Martin, 1545, “Preface to the Complete Edition of Luther’s Latin Writings” (WA 54:179–87/LW 34:323–38). (Scholar)

Secondary texts

  • Brecht, Martin, 1981 [1985], Martin Luther: sein Weg zur Reformation, 1483–1521, Stuttgart: Calwer. Translated as Martin Luther: His Road to Reformation, 1483–1521, James L. Schaaf (trans.), Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1985. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1986 [1990], Martin Luther: Zweiter Band: Ordnung und Abgrenzung der Reformation, 1521–1532, Stuttgart: Calwer. Translated as Martin Luther: Shaping and Defining the Reformation, 1521–1532, James L. Schaaf (trans.), Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1990. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1987 [1993], Martin Luther : Dritter Band : Die Erhaltung der Kirche, 1532–1546, Stuttgart: Calwer. Translated as Martin Luther: The Preservation of the Church, 1532–1546, James L. Schaaf (trans.), Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1993. (Scholar)
  • Carlyle, Thomas, 1841, On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in History, London: James Fraser. Reprinted 1983, New York: Chelsea House. (Scholar)
  • Ebeling, Gerhard, 1964 [1970], Einführung in sein Denken, Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr. Translated as Luther: An Introduction to his Thought, R. A. Wilson (trans.), Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1970. (Scholar)
  • Erikson, Erik H., 1958, Young Man Luther: A Study in Psychoanalysis and History, New York: Norton. (Scholar)
  • Helmer, Christine, 2019, How Luther Became the Reformer, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. (Scholar)
  • Hendrix, Scott H., 2015, Martin Luther: Visionary Reformer, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (Scholar)
  • Leppin, Volker, 2010 [2017a], Martin Luther: vom Mönch zum Feind des Papstes Darmstadt: WBG. Translated as Martin Luther: A Late Medieval Life, Rhys Bezzant and Karen Roe (trans.), Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2017. (Scholar)
  • Melanchthon, Philip, 1546 [1834–60], “Oratio in funere D. Martini Lutheri”. Reprinted in Corpus Reformatorum, Carolus Gottlieb Bretschneider (ed.), Halix Saxonum: C. A. Schwetschke, 1834–60, vol 11, 726–734. (Scholar)
  • Metaxas, Eric, 2017, Martin Luther: The Man Who Rediscovered God and Changed the World, New York: Viking. (Scholar)
  • Oberman, Heiko Augustinus, 1977 [1981], Werden und Wertung der Reformation, J. C. B. Mohl: Tübingen. Revised, abridged, and translated as Masters of the Reformation: The Emergence of a New Intellectual Climate in Europe, Dennis Martin (trans.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511897399 (Scholar)
  • –––, 1982 [1989], Luther: Mensch zwischen Gott und Teufel, Berlin: Severin und Seidler. Translated as Luther: Man Between God and the Devil, Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart (trans.), New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. (Scholar)
  • Rex, Richard, 2017a, The Making of Martin Luther, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University. (Scholar)
  • Roper, Lyndal, 2016, Martin Luther: Renegade and Prophet, London: Bodley Head. (Scholar)
  • Schilling, Heinz, 2012 [2017], Martin Luther: Rebell in einer Zeit des Umbruchs, München: C. H. Beck. Translated as Martin Luther: Rebel in an Age of Upheaval, Rona Johnston (trans.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. (Scholar)

Theology and Philosophy

Primary texts

  • Luther, Martin, 1518, The Heidelberg Disputation (WA 1:353–74/LW 31:35–70). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1536, Disputation Concerning Man (WA 39.1:175–80/LW 34:133–44). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1539, Disputation Concerning the Passage: “The Word Was Made Flesh” (John 1:14) (WA 39.2:3–30/LW 38:235–77). (Scholar)

Secondary texts

  • Barone, Marco, 2017, Luther’s Augustinian Theology of the Cross, Eugene, OR: Resource Publications. (Scholar)
  • Becker, Sigbert W., 1999, The Foolishness of God: The Place of Reason in the Theology of Martin Luther, second edition, Milwaukee, WI: Wisconsin Publishing House. (Scholar)
  • Bielfeldt, Dennis, 1990, “Luther, Metaphor, and Theological Language”, Modern Theology, 6(2): 121–135. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0025.1990.tb00211.x (Scholar)
  • –––, 2002a, “Luther on Language”, Lutheran Quarterly, 16: 195–220. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2002b, “Luther and the Strange Language of Theology: How ‘New’ is the Nova Lingua?”, in Caritas et Reformatio: Essays on Church and Society in Honor of Carter Lindberg, Carter Lindberg and David Mark Whitford (eds.), St Louis, MI: Concordia Publishing House, pp. 221–244. (Scholar)
  • Bielfeldt, Dennis D., Mickey Leland Mattox, and Paul R. Hinlicky, 2008, The Substance of the Faith: Luther’s Doctrinal Theology for Today, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. (Scholar)
  • Bianchi, Luca, 2008, Pour une histoire de la “double verité”, Paris: Vrin. (Scholar)
  • Blanshard, Brand, 1974, Reason and Belief, London: George Allen & Unwin, Chapter 5 (“Reason and Faith in Luther”). [Blanshard 1974 available online] (Scholar)
  • Bornkamm, Heinrich, 1959, “Faith and Reason in the Thought of Erasmus and Luther”, in Religion and Culture: Essays in Honor of Paul Tillich, Walter Leibrecht (ed.), New York: Harper, pp. 133–139. (Scholar)
  • Büttgen, Philippe, 2011, Luther et la Philosophie, Paris: Vrin. (Scholar)
  • Dalferth, Ingolf U., 1988, Theology and Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell, Chapter 7 (“The Law-Gospel Method”), pp. 76–88. (Scholar)
  • Dieter, Theodor, 2009, “Martin Luther”, in Early Modern Philosophy of Religion, Graham Oppy and N. N. Trakakis (eds.), London: Routledge, pp. 33–46. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Martin Luther’s Understanding of ‘Reason’”, Lutheran Quarterly, 25: 249–78 (Scholar)
  • Ebeling, Gerhard, 1977, Disputatio de homine: Erster Teil: Text und Traditionshintergrund, Tübingen: Mohr. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1982, Disputatio de homine: Zweiter Teil: Die philosophische Definition des Menschen, Tübingen: Mohr. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989, Disputatio de homine: Dritter Teil: Die theologische Definition des Menschen, Tübingen: Mohr. (Scholar)
  • Forde, Gerhard O., 1997, On Being a Theologian of the Cross: Reflections on Luther’s Heidelberg Disputations, 1518, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. (Scholar)
  • Grosshans, Hans-Peter, 2017, “Reason and Philosophy in Martin Luther’s Thought”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.343 (Scholar)
  • Gerrish, B. A., 1962, Grace and Reason: A Study in the Theology of Luther, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Hamm, Berndt, 2010 [2014], Der frühe Luther: Etappen reformatorischer Neuorientierung, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. Translated as The Early Luther: Stages in Reformation Reorientation, Martin J. Lohrmann (trans.), Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2014. (Scholar)
  • Heine, Heinrich, 1835 [2007], Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland. Translated as On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, Howard Pollack-Milgate (trans.), in On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany and Other Writings, Terry Pinkard (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 3–120 (Scholar)
  • Hockenbery Dragseth, Jennifer (ed), 2011, The Devil’s Whore: Reason and Philosophy in the Lutheran Tradition, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. (Scholar)
  • Kellerman, James A., 2008, “A Pure Critique of Reason: Reason within the Limits of Sound Theology Alone”, Logia, 17(4): 31–38. (Scholar)
  • Kolb, Robert, 2002, “Luther on the Theology of the Cross”, Lutheran Quarterly, 16: 443–466. (Scholar)
  • Leppin, Volker, 2017b, “Luther’s Mystical Roots”, in Melloni 2017: 157–171. doi:10.1515/9783110499025-010">10.1515/9783110499025-010 (Scholar)
  • Lohse, Bernhard, 1958, Ratio und Fides: Eine Untersuchung über die ratio in der Theologie Luthers, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (Scholar)
  • Luy, David, 2017, “Martin Luther’s Disputations”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.285 (Scholar)
  • Malter, Rudolf, 1980, Das reformatorische Denken und die Philosophie: Luthers Entwurf einer transzendental-praktischen Metaphysik, Bonn: Bouvier. (Scholar)
  • Marshall, Bruce D., 1999, “Faith and Reason Reconsidered: Aquinas and Luther on Deciding What Is True”, The Thomist: A Speculative Quarterly Review, 63(1): 1–48. doi:10.1353/tho.1999.0041 (Scholar)
  • Mattes, Mark, 2013, “Luther’s Use of Philosophy”, Lutherjahrbuch, 80: 110–141. (Scholar)
  • McGrath, Alister E., 1989, Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; second edition, 1998; third edition, 2005; fourth edition, 2020. doi:10.1017/9781108560702 (Scholar)
  • Popkin, Richard H., 1979, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Spinoza, Berkeley: University of California Press. (Scholar)
  • Rex, Richard, 2017b, “Luther Among the Humanists”, in Melloni 2017: 203–220. doi:10.1515/9783110499025-013 (Scholar)
  • Steinmetz, David C., 1980, Luther and Staupitz: An Essay on the Intellectual Origins of the Protestant Reformation, Durham, NC: Duke University Press. (Scholar)
  • Vercruysse, Joseph E., 1981, “Gesetz und Leibe: die Struktur der ‘Heidelberger Disputation’ Luthers”, Lutherjahrbuch, 68: 7–43. (Scholar)
  • Zur Mühlen, Karl-Heinz, 1984, “Luthers Kritik der Vernunft im Mittelalterlichen und Neuzeitlichen Kontext”, in Lutheriana: zum 500. Geburtstag Martin Luthers, pp. 3–15. (Scholar)

Luther, Aristotle, and Nominalism

Primary texts

  • Luther, Martin, 1517, Disputation Against Scholastic Theology (WA 1:224–8/LW 31:3–16). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1522, “Preface to the Epistle of St Paul to the Romans” (WA DB 7:2–27/LW 35:365–80). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1526, The Disputation Concerning Justification (WA 39.1/LW 34:145–96). (Scholar)

Secondary texts

  • Andreatta, Eugenio, 1996, Lutero e Aristotele, Padova: Nuova Vita. (Scholar)
  • Balserak, Jon, 2017, “The Medieval Heritage of Martin Luther”, in Melloni 2017: 141–156. doi:10.1515/9783110499025-009 (Scholar)
  • Bielfeldt, Dennis, 2016, “Martin Luther and Ontology”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.351 (Scholar)
  • Braaten, Carl and Robert Jenson (eds.), 1998, Union with Christ: The New Finnish Interpretation, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. (Scholar)
  • Carlisle, Clare, 2013, “The Question of Habit in Theology and Philosophy: From Hexis to Plasticity”, Body & Society, 19(2–3): 30–57. doi:10.1177/1357034x12474475 (Scholar)
  • Dieter, Theodor, 2001, Der junge Luther und Aristotles, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, “Luther as Late Medieval Theologian: His Positive and Negative Use of Nominalism and Realism”, in The Oxford Handbook to Martin Luther’s Theology, Robert Kolb, Irene Dingel and L’Ubomír Bakta (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 31–48 (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “Scholasticisms in Martin Luther’s Thought”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.265 (Scholar)
  • Eckermann, Willigis, 1978, “Die Aristoteleskritik Luthers: ihre Bedeutung für seine Theologie”, Catholica, 32: 114–30. (Scholar)
  • Ghiselli, Anja, Kari Kopperi, and Rainer Vinke (eds.), 1993, Luther und Ontologie, Helsinki: Luther-Agricola Society. (Scholar)
  • Grane, Leif, 1962, Contra Gabrielem: Luthers Auseinandersetzung mit Gabriel Biel in der Disputatio contra scholasticam theologiam 1517, Copenhagen: Gyldendal. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1969, “Luthers Kritik an Thomas von Aquin in De Captivitate Babylonica”, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte, 80: 1–13. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1970, “Die Anfänge von Luthers Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thomismus”, Theologische Literaturzeitung, 95: 241–250. (Scholar)
  • Hägglund, Bengt, 1955, Theologie und Philosophie bei Luther und in der occamistischen Tradition, Lund: C W K Gleerup. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1957, “Was Luther a Nominalist?”, Concordia Theological Monthly, 28(6): 441–452. (Scholar)
  • Hampson, Daphne, 2001, Christian Contradictions: The Structures of Lutheran and Catholic Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511487743 (Scholar)
  • Janz, Denis R., 1983, Luther and Late Medieval Thomism, Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1989, Luther on Thomas Aquinas, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Joest, Wilfried, 1967, Ontologie der Person bei Luther, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (Scholar)
  • Juntunen, Sammeli, 1998, “Luther and Metaphysics”, in Union with Christ: The New Finnish Interpretation of Luther, Carl Braaten and Robert Jenson (eds.), Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, pp. 129–160. (Scholar)
  • Kärkkäinen, Pekka, 2017, “Nominalism and the Via Moderna in Luther’s Theological Work”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.266 (Scholar)
  • Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti, 2006, “Salvation as Justification and Theosis: The Contribution of the New Finnish Luther Interpretation to Our Ecumenical Future1”, Dialog: A Journal of Theology, 45(1): 74–82. doi:10.1111/j.0012-2033.2006.00296.x (Scholar)
  • Kirjavainen, Heikki, 1984, “Luther und Aristoteles: Die Frage der zweierlei Gerechtigkeit im Lichte der transitiven vs. intransitiven Willenstheorie”, in Luther in Finnland, Mikka Ruokanen (ed.), Helsinki: Schriften der Luther-Agricola-Gesellschaft, pp. 111–129. (Scholar)
  • Kohls, Ernst-Wilhelm, 1975, “Luthers Verhältnis zu Aristoteles, Thomas und Erasmus”, Theologische Zeitschrift, 31: 289–301. (Scholar)
  • Kusukawa, Sachiko, 1995, “Law and Gospel: The Reforms of Luther and Melanchthon”, in The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: The Case of Philip Melanchthon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 27–74. (Scholar)
  • McGrath, Alister E., 1985, Luther’s Theology of the Cross, Oxford: Blackwell. (Scholar)
  • Oberman, Heiko A., 1992, The Dawn of the Reformation: Essays in Late Medieval and Early Reformation Thought, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1963 [2000], The Harvest of Medieval Theology: Gabriel Biel and Late Medieval Nominalism, Harvard: Harvard University Press; reprinted Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2000. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “Luther and the Via Moderna: The Philosophical Backdrop of the Reformation Breakthrough”, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 54(4): 641–670. doi:10.1017/s0022046903008005 (Scholar)
  • Oehlschläger, Gerhard, 2003, “Der junge Luther und Aristoteles”, LutherJahrbuch, 70: 93–125. (Scholar)
  • Oliva, Adriano, 2012, “Luther et la philosophie: Sur un ouvrage récent”, Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques, 96(2): 293–312. doi:10.3917/rspt.962.0293 (Scholar)
  • Osborne, Thomas, 2002, “Faith, Philosophy, and the Nominalist Background to Luther’s Defense of the Real Presence”, Journal of the History of Ideas, 63(1): 63–82. doi:10.1353/jhi.2002.0006 (Scholar)
  • Pesch, Otto Hermann, 1967, Theologie der Rechtfertigung bei Martin Luther und Thomas von Aquin: Versuch eines systematisch-theologischen Dialogs, Mainz: Grünwald. (Scholar)
  • Vignaux, Paul, 1971, “On Luther and Ockham”, in The Reformation in Medieval Perspective, Steven E. Ozment (ed.), Chicago: Quadrangle Books, pp. 107–118. (Scholar)
  • White, Graham, 1994, Luther as Nominalist: A Study of the Logical Methods Used in Martin Luther’s Disputations in the Light of their Medieval Background, Helsinki: Luther-Agricola-Society. (Scholar)
  • Wicks, Jared, 2007, “Luther and ‘This Damned, Conceited, Rascally Heathen’ Aristotle: An Encounter More Complicated than Many Think”, Pro Ecclesia: A Journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology, 16(1): 90–104. doi:10.1177/106385120701600108 (Scholar)
  • Zur Mühlen, Karl-Heinz, 1981, “Luthers Kritik am scholastischen Aristotelismus in der 25. These der ‘Heidelberger Disputation’ von 1518”, Lutherjahrbuch, 48: 54–79. (Scholar)

Luther on Free Will

Primary texts

  • Luther, Martin, 1525, The Bondage of the Will (WA 18: 600–787/LW 33:3–295). (Scholar)
  • Erasmus, Desiderius, 1524 [1969], On the Freedom of the Will, E. Gordon Rupp and A. N. Marlow (trans.), in Luther and Erasmus: Free Will and Salvation, Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1969, pp. 35–100. Also translated by Peter Macardle in Erasmus 1999: vol 76, pp. 4–90. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1526, Hyperaspistes diatribae adversus servum arbitrium M. Lutheri, translated by Clarence H. Miller as A Warrior Shielding A Discussion of Free Will Against the Enslaved Will by Martin Luther, book one, in Erasmus 1999: vol 76, pp. 91–298. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1527, Hyperaspistes diatribae adversus servum arbitrium M. Lutheri, translated by Clarence H. Miller as A Warrior Shielding A Discussion of Free Will Against the Enslaved Will by Martin Luther, book two, in Erasmus 1999: vol 77, pp. 334–749. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, Collected Works of Erasmus, Charles Trinkaus (ed.), Peter Macardle and Clarence H. Miller (trans.), Toronto: University of Toronto Press. (Scholar)

Secondary texts

  • Alfsvåg, Knut, 2015, “Luther on Necessity”, Harvard Theological Review, 108(1): 52–69. doi:10.1017/s0017816015000036 (Scholar)
  • Boisset, Jean, 1962, Érasmus et Luther: Libre ou serf-arbitre?, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. (Scholar)
  • Boyle, Marjorie O’Rourke, 1982, “Stoic Luther: Paradoxical Sin and Necessity”, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 73: 69–93. (Scholar)
  • Forde, Gerhard O., 2005, The Captivation of the Will: Luther vs Erasmus on Freedom and Bondage, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. (Scholar)
  • Fromm, Erich, 2001, The Fear of Freedom, second edition, Abingdon: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • Gaebler, Mary, 2013, The Courage of Faith: Martin Luther and the Theonomous Self, Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. (Scholar)
  • Hodgson, Peter C., 2009, “Luther and Freedom”, in The Global Luther: A Theologian For Our Times, Christine Helmer (ed.), Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, pp. 32–48. (Scholar)
  • Jenson, Robert W., 1994, “An Ontology of Freedom in the De Servo Arbitrio of Luther”, Modern Theology, 10(3): 247–252. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0025.1994.tb00039.x (Scholar)
  • Kolb, Robert, 2005, Bound Choice, Election, and Wittenberg Theological Method: From Martin Luther to the Formula of Concord, Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. (Scholar)
  • Lodone, Michele, 2017, “Erasmus and Luther: Free and Bound Will”, in Melloni 2017: 281–294. doi:10.1515/9783110499025-017 (Scholar)
  • Martin, Wayne, 2009, “Ought but Cannot”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 109(1pt2): 103–128. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9264.2009.00260.x (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “The Judgement of Adam: Self-Consciousness and Normative Orientation in Lucas Cranach’s Eden”, in Art and Phenomenology, Joseph D. Parry (ed.), London: Routledge, pp. 105–37. (Scholar)
  • McSorely, H. J., 1969, Luther: Right or Wrong? An Ecumenical-Theological Study of Luther’s Major Work, The Bondage of the Will, Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Publishing House. (Scholar)
  • Massing, Michael, 2018, Fatal Discord: Erasmus, Luther, and the Fight for the Western Mind, New York: HarperOne. (Scholar)
  • Pigden, Charles R., 1990, “Ought-implies-can: Erasmus, Luther and R. M. Hare”, Sophia, 29: 2–30. (Scholar)
  • Saarinen, Risto, 2011, “The Lutheran Reformation”, in his Weakness of Will in Renaissance and Reformation Thought, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chapter 3. (Scholar)
  • Smith, John H., 2011, Dialogues Between Faith and Reason: The Death and Return of God in Modern German Thought, Cornell, NY: Cornell University Press, Chapter 1 (“Erasmus vs. Luther: Philo-logos vs. Faith”), pp. 23–44. (Scholar)
  • Trinkaus, Charles, 1999, “Introduction” to Erasmus 1999: vol 76, pp. xi–cvi. (Scholar)
  • Urban, Linwood, 1971, “Was Luther a Thoroughgoing Determinist?”, The Journal of Theological Studies, 22(1): 113–139. doi:10.1093/jts/xxii.i.113 (Scholar)

Luther’s Ethics and Social Philosophy

Primary texts

  • Luther, Martin, 1519, Two Kinds of Righteousness (WA 2:145–52/LW 31:293–306). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1520, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (WA 6:497–573/LW 36:3–126). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1520, The Freedom of the Christian (WA 7: 1–38;42–73/LW 31:327–77). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1520, To the Christian Nobility (WA 6:404–69/LW 44:15–114). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1522, A Sincere Admonition by Martin Luther to All Christians to Guard Against Insurrection and Rebellion (WA 7:676–87/LW 45:51–74). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1522, Invocavit (Eight Wittenberg) Sermons (WA 10.3:1–64/LW 51:70–100). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1523, Temporal Authority: To What Extent It Should Be Obeyed (WA 11:245–80/LW 45:75–129). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1525, Admonition to Peace (WA 18:281–334/LW 46:3–43). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1525, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants (WA 18:291–334/LW 46:45–55). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1525, An Open Letter on the Harsh Book Against the Peasants (WA 18:357–61/LW 46:47–85). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1526, Whether Soldiers Too Can be Saved (WA 19.2:623–62/LW 46:87–137). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1529, On War Against the Turk (WA 30.2:107–48/LW 46:155–205). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1535, A Commentary on St Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians (WA 40.1:40–688 and 40.2:1–184/LW 26:1–461 and 27:1–144). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1537–40. Antinomian Theses and Disputations (WA 39.1:343–584, WA 39.2:124–44, translated in Holger Sonntag (ed and trans), Only the Decalogue is Eternal: Martin Luther’s Complete Antinomian Theses and Disputations. Minneapolis: Lutheran Press, 2008). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1539, Against the Antinomians (WA 50:468–77/LW 47:99–119). (Scholar)

Secondary texts

  • Alfsvåg, Knut, 2016, “Natural Theology and Natural Law in Martin Luther”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion, John Barton (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.368 (Scholar)
  • Althaus, Paul, 1965 [2007], Die Ethik Martin Luthers, Gütersloher Verlagshaus G. Mohn. Translated as The Ethics of Martin Luther, Robert C. Schultz (trans.) Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007. (Scholar)
  • Andersen, Svend, 2010, Macht aus Liebe: Zur Rekonstruktion einer lutherischen politischen Ethik, Berlin: De Gruyter. (Scholar)
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Other Cited Works

  • Boyle, Nicholas, 2008, German Literature: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/actrade/9780199206599.001.0001 (Scholar)
  • Melloni, Alberto (ed.), 2017, Martin Luther: A Christian Between Reforms and Modernity (1517–2017), Berlin: De Gruyter. doi:10.1515/9783110499025 (Scholar)

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