Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic" by Eric Brown

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The standard edition of the Greek text is

  • S.R. Slings, ed., Platonis Rempublicam, Oxford: Oxford Classical Texts, 2003.

The full Greek text also appears with an excellent commentary in the edition of

  • James Adam, ed., The Republic of Plato, edited, with critical notes, commentary, and appendices. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1902.

Among the English translations the following deserve especially high regard (in chronological order):

  • Paul Shorey. Plato. Republic. edited, translated, with notes and an introduction. 2 vols. Loeb, 1935–1937.
  • Allan Bloom. The Republic of Plato. translated, with notes and an interpretive essay. New York: Basic Books, 1968.
  • G.M.A. Grube, trans. Plato. The Republic. revised by C.D.C. Reeve. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1992.
  • C.D.C. Reeve, trans. Plato. The Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004.
  • R.E. Allen, trans. Plato. The Republic. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

Here, in chronological order, are some helpful general discussions of the Republic:

  • Richard Lewis Nettleship. Lectures on the Republic of Plato. New York: St. Martin's Press [1902] 1961.
  • N.R. Murphy. The Interpretation of Plato's Republic. Oxford: Clarendon, 1951.
  • R.C. Cross and A.D. Woozley. Plato's Republic: A Philosophical Commentary. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1964.
  • Nicholas P. White. A Companion to Plato's Republic. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1979.
  • Julia Annas. An Introduction to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.
  • C.D.C. Reeve. Philosopher-Kings: The Argument of Plato's Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  • Simon Blackburn. Plato's Republic: A Biography. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006.

There are also valuable collections of recent essays on the Republic:

  • Otfried Höffe, ed., Platon: Politeia. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997.
  • Richard Kraut, ed., Plato's Republic: Critical Essays. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
  • Erik Nis Ostenfeld, ed., Essays on Plato's Republic. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1998.
  • Gerasimos Santas, ed., The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  • G.R.F. Ferrari, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Plato's Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

The following monographs, in alphabetical order, treat multiple features of the ethics and politics of Plato's Republic:

  • Julia Annas. Platonic Ethics Old and New. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
  • Christopher Bobonich. Plato's Utopia Recast. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • T.H. Irwin. Plato's Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. (This revises and supersedes Plato's Moral Theory [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977].)
  • George Klosko. The Development of Plato's Political Theory. 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Mary Margaret Mackenzie. Plato on Punishment. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
  • Sara Monoson. Plato's Democratic Entanglements. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
  • Jean-François Pradeau. Plato and the City. trans. Janet Lloyd. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2002.
  • Thanassis Samaras. Plato on Democracy. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
  • Malcolm Schofield. Plato: Political Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

The following are especially helpful for placing the ethics and politics of Plato's Republic in their context:

  • A.W.H. Adkins. Merit and Responsibility. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.
  • Ryan K. Balot. Greed and Injustice in Classical Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
  • –––. Greek Political Thought. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  • L.B. Carter. The Quiet Athenian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
  • K.J. Dover. Greek Popular Morality in the Time of Plato and Aristotle. Oxford: Blackwell, 1974.
  • G.R.F. Ferrari. “Introduction.” in Plato, The Republic, ed., G.R.F. Ferrari, trans. Tom Griffith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), xi-xxxi. (Scholar)
  • Stephen Menn. “On Plato's ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ.” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 21 (2005): 1–55. (Scholar)
  • Josiah Ober. Political Dissent in Democratic Athens: Intellectual Critics of Popular Rule. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.
  • Susan Sauvé Meyer. Ancient Ethics: A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge, 2008.

Each of the following collections contains several essays relevant to the ethics and politics of Plato's Republic:

  • Ryan K. Balot, ed., A Companion to Greek and Roman Political Thought. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
  • Hugh H. Benson, ed., A Companion to Plato. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.
  • Gail Fine, ed., The Oxford Handbook to Plato. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr., eds. Freedom, Reason, and the Polis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Christopher Rowe and Malcolm Schofield, eds. The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Stephen Salkever, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Political Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

In addition to the works mentioned above, many of which are the best sources for views mentioned in this article, there are very many scholarly essays and books that discuss more particular features of the ethics and politics in the Republic. I list just a few under the headings used in the present article, with each cluster listed in chronological order.

1.1–1.2 The Nature of the Question and Rejected Strategies

  • H.A. Prichard. “Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake?Mind, 21 (1912): 21–37. Reprinted in his Moral Obligation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949), 1–17. (Scholar)
  • H.A. Prichard. Duty and Interest. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1928. reprinted in Moral Obligation and Duty and Interest (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969). (Scholar)
  • M.B. Foster. “A Mistake of Plato's in the Republic.” Mind, 46 (1937): 386–393. (Scholar)
  • J.D. Mabbott. “Is Plato's Republic Utilitarian?Mind, 46 (1937): 386–393. Revised in Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion, ed. Gregory Vlastos (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971), 57–65. (Scholar)
  • C.A. Kirwan. “Glaucon's Challenge.” Phronesis, 10 (1965): 162–173. (Scholar)
  • T.H. Irwin. “Republic 2: Questions about Justice.” in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 164–185. (Scholar)

1.3 The Adopted Strategy

  • Bernard Williams. “The Analogy of City and Soul in Plato's Republic.” in Exegesis and Argument: Studies in Greek Philosophy Presented to Gregory Vlastos, ed., E.N. Lee et al. (Phronesis s.v. 1), 196–206. Reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 255–264. (Scholar)
  • Jonathan Lear. “Inside and Outside the Republic,” Phronesis, 37 (1992): 184–215. Reprinted in Essays on Plato's Psychology, ed., Ellen Wagner (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001), 169–202. (Scholar)
  • Nicholas D. Smith, “Plato's Analogy of Soul and State,” Journal of Ethics, 3 (1999): 31–49. Reprinted in Essays on Plato's Psychology, ed., Ellen Wagner (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001), 115–136. (Scholar)
  • G.R.F. Ferrari. City and Soul in Plato's Republic. Sankt Augustin: Akademia Verlag, 2003.

2.1 Human Motivations

  • Terry Penner.“Thought and Desire in Plato.” in Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion, ed., Gregory Vlastos (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971), 96–118. (Scholar)
  • Jon Moline. “Plato on the Complexity of the Psyche.” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 60 (1978): 1–26. Revised in Plato's Theory of Understanding (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981), 52–78. (Scholar)
  • John M. Cooper. “Plato's Theory of Human Motivation.” History of Philosophy Quarterly, 1 (1984): 3–21. Reprinted in his Reason and Emotion: Essays in Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 118–137, and in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 186–206. (Scholar)
  • Charles H. Kahn. “Plato's Theory of Desire.” Review of Metaphysics, 41 (1987): 77–103. (Scholar)
  • Christopher Bobonich. “Akrasia and Agency in Plato's Laws and Republic.” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 76 (1994): 3–36. Reprinted in Essays on Plato's Psychology, ed., Ellen Wagner (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001), 203–237. (Scholar)
  • Terry Penner. “Plato and Davidson: Parts of the Soul and Weakness of Will.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, s.v. 16 (1990): 35–74. (Scholar)
  • Gabriela Roxana Carone. “Akrasia in the Republic: Does Plato Change his Mind?” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 20 (2001): 107–148. (Scholar)
  • Jessica Moss. “Shame, Pleasure, and the Divided Soul.” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 29 (2005): 137–170. (Scholar)
  • Hendrik Lorenz. The Brute Within: Appetitive Desire in Plato and Aristotle (Oxford: Clarendon, 2006).
  • Jessica Moss. “Pleasure and Illusion in PlatoPhilosophy and Phenomenological Research, 72 (2006): 503–535. (Scholar)
  • Jessica Moss. “Appearances and Calculations: Plato's Division of the Soul,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 34 (2008): 35–68. (Scholar)

2.2 Introducing Virtuous Motivations

On the unity of the virtues

  • John M. Cooper. “The Unity of Virtue.” Social Philosophy and Policy, 15 (1998): 233–274. Reprinted in his Reason and Emotion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 76–117. (Scholar)

On the relevance of Socrates' response

  • David Sachs. “A Fallacy in Plato's Republic,” The Philosophical Review, 72 (1963): 141–158. Reprinted in Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion, ed., Gregory Vlastos (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971), 35–51. (Scholar)
  • Raphael Demos. “A Fallacy in Plato's Republic?” The Philosophical Review, 73 (1964): 395–398. Reprinted in Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion, ed., Gregory Vlastos (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971), 52–56. (Scholar)
  • Norman O. Dahl. “Plato's Defence of Justice.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 51 (1991): 809–834. Reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 207–234. (Scholar)

2.3 Perfectly Virtuous Motivations

  • Gregory Vlastos. “Justice and Happiness in Plato's Republic.” in Plato: A Collection of Critical Essays, II: Ethics, Politics, and Philosophy of Art and Religion, ed., Gregory Vlastos (New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971), 66–95. Reprinted in his Platonic Studies, 2nd ed., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), 111–139. (Scholar)
  • John M. Cooper. “The Psychology of Justice in Plato.” American Philosophical Quarterly, 14 (1977): 151–157. Reprinted in his Reason and Emotion: Essays in Ancient Moral Psychology and Ethical Theory (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), 138–149, and in Essays on Plato's Psychology, ed., Ellen Wagner (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2001), 91–114. (Scholar)
  • Nicholas P. White. “The Ruler's Choice.” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 68 (1986): 22–46. (Scholar)
  • Richard Kraut. “Return to the Cave: Republic 519–521.” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 7 (1991): 43–62. Reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 235–254. (Scholar)
  • M.F. Burnyeat. “Plato on Why Mathematics is Good for the Soul.” Proceedings of the British Academy, 103 (2000): 1–81. (Scholar)
  • Eric Brown. “Justice and Compulsion for Plato's Philosopher-Rulers.” Ancient Philosophy, 20 (2000): 1–17. (Scholar)

2.4 Imperfectly Virtuous Motivations

3.1 Psychological Health

  • A.J.P. Kenny. “Mental Health in Plato's Republic.” Proceedings of the British Academy, 55 (1969): 229–253. Reprinted in his The Anatomy of Soul (Oxford: Blackwell, 1973): 1–27. (Scholar)
  • Richard Kraut. “The Defense of Justice in Plato's Republic.” in The Cambridge Companion to Plato, ed. Richard Kraut (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 311–337. Reprinted in Plato's Republic: Critical Essays, ed., Richard Kraut (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), 197–222. (Scholar)

3.2 Pleasure

  • J.C.B. Gosling and C.C.W. Taylor. The Greeks on Pleasure (Oxford: Clarendon, 1982), 97–128.
  • Martha C. Nussbaum. “The Republic: true value and the standpoint of perfection.” in The Fragility of Goodness (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 136–164. (Scholar)

4.1 Utopianism

  • Malcolm Schofield. “Plato on the Economy.” in The Ancient Greek City-State, ed., M.H. Hansen (Copenhagen, 1993), 183–196. Repinted in his Saving the City: Philosopher-Kings and Other Classical Paradigms (London: Routledge, 1999), 69–81. (Scholar)
  • M.F. Burnyeat. “Utopia and Fantasy: The Practicability of Plato's Ideally Just City.” in Psychoanalysis, Mind and Art, ed., J. Hopkins and A. Savile (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992): 175–187. Reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 297–308. (Scholar)
  • M.F. Burnyeat. “Culture and Society in Plato's Republic.” in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, vol. 20, ed., Grethe B. Peterson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1999), 215–324. (Scholar)
  • Charles Griswold. “Platonic Liberalism: Self-Perfection as a Foundation of Political Theory.” in Plato and Platonism, ed., J. M. van Ophuijsen (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1999), 102–134. (Scholar)
  • Rachel Barney. “Platonism, Moral Nostalgia, and the ‘City of Pigs’.” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 17 (2001): 207–227. (Scholar)
  • Mason Marshall. “The Possibility Requirement in Plato's Republic.” Ancient Philosophy, 28 (2008): 71–85. (Scholar)

4.2 Communism

  • Aristotle. Politics, II 1–5.
  • Martha C. Nussbaum. “Shame, Separateness, and Political Unity: Aristotle's Criticism of Plato.” in Essays on Aristotle's Ethics, ed., A.O. Rorty (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980), 395–435. (Scholar)
  • R.F. Stalley. “Aristotle's Criticism of Plato's Republic.” in A Companion to Aristotle's Politics, ed., David Keyt and Fred D. Miller, Jr. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991), 182–199. (Scholar)
  • Robert Mayhew. Aristotle's Criticism of Plato's Republic. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

4.3 Feminism

  • Dorothea Wender, “Plato: Misogynist, Paedophile, and Feminist,” Arethusa, 6 (1973): 75–80. (Scholar)
  • Julia Annas, “Plato's Republic and Feminism,” Philosophy, 51 (1976): 307–321; reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 265–279. (Scholar)
  • Susan Moller Okin, “Philosopher Queens and Private Wives: Plato on Women and the Family,” Philosophy & Public Affairs, 6 (1977): 345–369. (Scholar)
  • Arlene Saxonhouse, “The Philosopher and the Female in the Political Thought of Plato,” Political Theory, 4 (1976): 195–212; reprinted in Plato's Republic: Critical Essays, ed., Richard Kraut (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), 95–114. (Scholar)
  • Gregory Vlastos, “Was Plato a Feminist?” Times Literary Supplement, 4,495 (17 March 1989): 276, 288–289; reprinted in his Studies in Greek Philosophy, Volume II: Socrates, Plato, and Their Tradition, ed., Daniel W. Graham (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 69–103; and in Plato's Republic: Critical Essays, ed., Richard Kraut (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), 115–128. (Scholar)
  • Morag Buchan, Women in Plato's Political Theory. New York: Routledge, 1999.
  • Eric Brown, “Review of Morag Buchan, Women in Plato's Political Theory”, Ancient Philosophy, 22 (2002): 189–193. (Scholar)

4.4 Totalitarianism

  • Karl Popper. The Open Society and its Enemies, Volume I: The Spell of Plato. 5th ed., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.
  • Renford Bambrough, ed., Plato, Popper, and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.
  • Gregory Vlastos. “Does Slavery Exist in the Republic?” Classical Philology, 63 (1968): 291–295. Reprinted in his Platonic Studies, 2nd ed., (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), 140–146. (Scholar)
  • Gregory Vlastos. “The Theory of Social Justice in the Polis in Plato's Republic.” in Interpretations of Plato: A Swarthmore Symposium, ed., Helen North (Mnemosyne s.v. 50), 1–40. Reprinted in his Studies in Greek Philosophy, Volume II: Socrates, Plato, and Their Tradition, ed., Daniel W. Graham (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 69–103. (Scholar)
  • C.C.W. Taylor. “Plato's Totalitarianism.” Polis, 5 (1986): 4–29. Reprinted in Plato 2: Ethics, Politics, Religion, and the Soul, ed., Gail Fine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 280–296. (Scholar)
  • J.L. Ackrill. “What's wrong with Plato's Republic?” in his Essays on Plato and Aristotle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 230–251. (This essay only appears in the paperback edition, issued in 2001 without any notice of a second edition or fresh copyright.) (Scholar)
  • Lesley Brown. “How Totalitarian is Plato's Republic?” in Essays on Plato's Republic, ed., Erik Nis Ostenfeld (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1998), 13–27. (Scholar)
  • Donald Morrison. “The Happiness of the City and the Happiness of the Individual in Plato's Republic.” Ancient Philosophy 21 (Spring 2001): 1–25. (Scholar)
  • Rachana Kamtekar, “Social Justice and Happiness in the Republic: Plato's Two Principles,” History of Political Thought, 22 (2001): 189–220. (Scholar)
  • Susan Sauvé Meyer. “Class Assignment and the Principle of Specialization in Plato's Republic.” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 20 (2004): 229–243. (Scholar)
  • Tad Brennan. “Commentary on Sauvé Meyer.” Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 20 (2004): 244–262. (Scholar)
  • Rachana Kamtekar. “What's the Good of Agreeing?: Homonoia in Platonic Politics.” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 26 (2004): 131–170. (Scholar)

5. Defective Constitutions

  • Keimpe Algra. “Observations on Plato's Thrasymachus: The Case for Pleonexia.” in Polyhistor: Studies in the History and Historiography of Ancient Philosophy, Presented to Jaap Mansfeld on his Sixtieth Birthday, ed., Keimpe Algra et al. (Leiden: Brill, 1996), 41–59. (Scholar)
  • Dominic Scott. “Plato's critique of the democratic character.” Phronesis, 45 (2000): 19–37. (Scholar)
  • Greg Recco. Athens Victorious: Democracy in Plato's Republic. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

6. Conclusions

Here I list a few works that offer various ways of distancing Plato from Kallipolis.

  • Leo Strauss. The City and Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
  • Allan Bloom. “Interpretive Essay.” in The Republic of Plato, trans. with notes and an interpretive essay (New York: Basic Books, 1968), 307–406. (Scholar)
  • Allan Bloom. “Response to Hall.” Political Theory, 5 (1977): 314–330. (Scholar)
  • Diskin Clay. “Reading the Republic.” in Platonic Writings, Platonic Readings, ed., Charles L. Griswold, Jr. (New York: Routledge, Chapman, and Hall, 1988), 19–33. (Scholar)
  • Julia Annas. “Politics in Plato's Republic: His and Ours.” in Ancient Philosophy and Modern Ideology, ed., Charlotte Witt and Mohan Matthen (Apeiron, 37,4 [2000]), 303–326. (Scholar)
  • David Roochnik. Beautiful City: The Dialectical Character of Plato's Republic. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003.
  • Stanley Rosen. Plato's Republic: A Study. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005.

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