Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Ancient Skepticism" by Katja Vogt

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If everything goes well, this page should display the bibliography of the aforementioned article as it appears in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, but with links added to PhilPapers records and Google Scholar for your convenience. Some bibliographies are not going to be represented correctly or fully up to date. In general, bibliographies of recent works are going to be much better linked than bibliographies of primary literature and older works. Entries with PhilPapers records have links on their titles. A green link indicates that the item is available online at least partially.

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Primary Sources

  • Annas, J. and J. Barnes (ed. and trans.), 2000, Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Scepticism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition. (Scholar)
  • Bett, R. (ed. and trans. with commentary), 1997, Sextus Empiricus: Against the Ethicists (Adversus Mathematicos XI), Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bett, R. (ed. and trans. with commentary), 2005, Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bett, R. (ed. and trans. with commentary), 2012, Sextus Empiricus: Against the Physicists, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bett, R. (trans. with an introduction and notes), 2018, Sextus Empiricus: Against Those in the Disciplines, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bettenson, H. (trans.), 2003, Augustine: City of God, London: Penguin. (Scholar)
  • Blank, D.L. (ed. and trans. with commentary), 1998, Sextus Empiricus: Against the Grammarians (Adversus Mathematicos I), Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Brittain, C. (trans. with introduction), 2006, Cicero: On Academic Scepticism, Indianapolis and Cambridge, MA: Hackett. (Scholar)
  • Bury, R.G. (trans.), 1933–49, Sextus Empiricus (Loeb Classical Library), 4 volumes, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Chadwick, H. (trans.), 1991, Augustine: Confessions, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Decleva Caizzi, F. (trans. and commentary), 1981, Pirrone: Testimonianze, Naples: Bibliopolis. (Scholar)
  • Diels, H. and W. Kranz (eds.), 1996, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 3 volumes., reprint of sixth edition (Berlin 1996), Berlin: Weidmann [= DK]. (Scholar)
  • Drake, S. (trans.), 1957, Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, New York: Doubleday. (Scholar)
  • Hicks, R. (ed. and trans.), 1991, Diogenes Laertius: Lives of Eminent Philosophers (Loeb Classical Library), 2 volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, reprint of second edition [= DL]. (Scholar)
  • Hume, D., 1748, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, London; reprinted in Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, L. A. Selby-Bigge (ed.), revised P. H. Nidditch, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. (Scholar)
  • Khalidi, M.A., K. Ameriks, and D. Clarke (eds.), 2005, Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Long, A. A., and D.N. Sedley (eds. and trans.), 1987, The Hellenistic Philosophers, translation and philosophical commentary in vol 1, Greek and Latin texts, and philological commentary in vol. 2, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [= LS]. (Scholar)
  • Mates, B., (trans. and commentary), 1996, The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus’ Outlines of Pyrrhonism, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Schoedinger, A. B. (ed. and trans.), 1996, Readings in Medieval Philosophy , New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Vogt, K. (ed.) (co-trans. and co-commentator), 2015, Pyrrhonian Skepticism in Diogenes Laertius (SAPERE: Volume 25), Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. (Scholar)
  • Wittgenstein, L., 1922, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, C. K. Ogden (trans.), London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Scholar)

Secondary Literature

  • Ainslie, D. C., 2003, “Hume’s Scepticism and Ancient Scepticisms,” in Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy, J. Miller and B. Inwood (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 251–73. (Scholar)
  • Algra, K, J. Barnes, J. Mansfeld, and M. Schofield (eds.), 1999, The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Alesse, F., 1999, La Stoa e la Tradizione Socratica, Napoli: Bibliopolis. (Scholar)
  • Allen, J., 1994, “Academic probabilism and Stoic epistemology,” Classical Quarterly, 44: 85–113. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2001, Inference From Signs: Ancient Debates About the Nature of Evidence, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004, “Carneades,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <Carneades/">https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2004/entries/Carneades/>. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Pyrrhonism and Medicine,” in The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism, R. Bett (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 232–248. (Scholar)
  • Annas, J., 1996, “Scepticism, Old and New,” in Rationality in Greek Thought, M. Frede and G. Striker (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 239–254. (Scholar)
  • Annas, J., 2000, “Hume and Scepticism,” in Ancient Scepticism and the Sceptical Tradition (Acta Philosophica Fennica, Volume. 66), J. Sihvola (ed.), Helsinki: Academic Bookstore, pp. 271–285. (Scholar)
  • Annas, J. and J. Barnes, 1985, The Modes of Scepticism: Ancient Texts and Modern Interpretations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bailey, A., 2002, Sextus Empiricus and Pyrrhonean Scepticism, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Barnes, J., 1982, “The beliefs of a Pyrrhonist,” Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society , n. 28 (1982): 1–29. Reprinted in M. Burnyeat and M. Frede 1997, pp. 58–91. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1983, “Ancient Skepticism and Causation,” in The Skeptical Tradition, M. Burnyeat (ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 149–203. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990a, The Toils of Scepticism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990b, “Pyrrhonism, Belief and Causation: Observations on the Scepticism of Sextus Empiricus,” Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II, 36 (4): 2608–95. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1992, “Diogenes Laertius IX 61–116: the Philosophy of Pyrrhonism,” in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt II, 36 (6): 4241–301. (Scholar)
  • Barnes, J., J. Brunschwig, M. Burnyeat, and M. Schofield (eds.), 1982, Science and Speculation: Studies in Hellenistic Theory and Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Barney, R., 1992, “Impressions and Appearances,” Phronesis, 37 (3): 283–313. (Scholar)
  • Berry, J., 2011. Nietzsche and the Ancient Skeptical Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, forthcoming, “Sextan Skepticism and the Rise and Fall of German Idealism”, in Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus, K. M. Vogt and J. Vlasits (eds.), New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bett, R., 1989, “Carneades’ Pithanon: A reappraisal of its Role and Status,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 7: 59–94. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990, “Carneades’ Distinction between Assent and Approval,” Monist, 73 (3): 3–20. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994, “What did Pyrrho think about ‘The Nature of the Divine and the Good’?”, Phronesis, 39: 303–37. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994, “Sextus’s Against the Ethicists: Scepticism, Relativism, or Both?”, Apeiron, 27: 123–61. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2000, Pyrrho, his Antecedents, and his Legacy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006a, “Pyrrho,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2006 edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2006/entries/pyrrho/> (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006b, “Timon of Phlius,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2006 edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2006/entries/timon-phlius/> (Scholar)
  • –––, “Le signe dans la tradition pyrrhonienne,” in José Kany-Turpin, ed., Signe et prédiction dans l’antiquité (Saint-Étienne: Publications de l’Université de Saint-Étienne, 2005), 29–48. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “Socrates and the Sceptics,” in A Companion to Socrates, S. Ahbel-Rappe and R. Kamtekar (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 298–311. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 2010, The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Scepticism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010a, “Scepticism and Ethics,” in Bett (ed.) 2010 (pp. 181–194). (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “How Ethical Can an Ancient Sceptic Be?,” in Pyrrhonism in Ancient, Modern, and Contemporary Philosophy, Diego Machuca (ed.), Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 3–17. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, “The Pyrrhonist’s Dilemma: What to Write if you Have Nothing to Say,” in Argument und Literarischer Form in antiker Philosophie, Akten des 3. Kongresses der Gesellschaft für antike Philosophie 2010, Michael Erler & Jan Erik Hessler (eds.), Berlin: De Gruyter, pp. 389–410. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013b, “Ancient Scepticism,” in Oxford Handbook of the History of Ethics, Roger Crisp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 112–28. (Scholar)
  • –––, forthcoming, “Echoes of Sextus Empiricus in Nietzsche?,” in Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus, K. M. Vogt and J. Vlasits (eds.), New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bobzien, S., 1998, Determinism and Freedom in Stoic Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, “Sextus on Time: Notes on Sceptical Method and Doxographical Transmission,” in Sextus Empiricus and Ancient Physics, K. Algra and K. Ierodiakonou (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 275–323. (Scholar)
  • Brittain, C., 2001, Philo of Larissa: The Last of the Academic Sceptics, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005, “Arcesilaus,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <Arcesilaus/">https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2005/entries/Arcesilaus/> (Scholar)
  • –––, 2005, “Common sense: concepts, definition and meaning in and out of the Stoa,” in Language and Learning. Philosophy of Language in the Hellenistic Age (Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium Hellenisticum), D. Frede and B. Inwood (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 164–209. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, “The Compulsions of Stoic Assent,”, in Strategies of Argument: Essays in Ancient Ethics, Epistemology, and Logic, Mi-Kyoung (Mitzi) Lee (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 332–355. (Scholar)
  • Brittain, C. and J. Palmer, 2001, “The New Academy’s Appeals to the Presocratics,” Phronesis, 46: 38–72. (Scholar)
  • Broughton, J., 2002, Descartes’s Method of Doubt, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Brunschwig, J., 1988, “Sextus Empiricus on the kritêrion: the sceptic as conceptual legatee,” in The Question of ‘Eclecticism’: Studies in Later Greek Philosophy, J. Dillon and A. Long (eds.), Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 145–175. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990, “La formule hoson epi tôi logôi chez Sextus Empiricus,” in Le Scepticisme Antique, Cahier de la Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, 15: 107–121, A.–J. Voelke (ed.). English translation in J. Brunschwig, 1994, Papers in Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 244–258. (Scholar)
  • Burnyeat, M. F., 1976, “Protagoras and Self-Refutation in Later Greek Philosophy,” Philosophical Review, 135: 44–69. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1978, “The Upside-Down Back-to-Front Sceptic of Lucretius IV 472,” Philologus, 122: 197–206. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1980, “Can the sceptic live his scepticism?” in Doubt and Dogmatism: Studies in Hellenistic Epistemology, M. Schofield, M. Burnyeat and J. Barnes (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 20–53. Reprinted in Burnyeat and Frede (eds.) 1997, pp. 25–57. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1980b, “Tranquillity without a Stop: Timon, Frag. 68,” Classical Quarterly 30: 86–93. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1980c, “Socrates and the Jury: Paradoxes in Plato’s Distinction between Knowledge and True Belief, Part I,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (Supplement), 54: 173–191. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1982, “Idealism and Greek Philosophy: What Descartes Saw and Berkeley Missed,” Philosophical Review, 91: 3–40. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 1983, The Skeptical Tradition, Berkeley: University of California Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984, “The sceptic in his place and time,” in Philosophy in History, R. Rorty, J.B. Schneewind, and Q. Skinner (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 225–254. Reprinted in Burnyeat and Frede (eds.), 1997, pp. 92–126. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2017, “All the World’s a Stage-Painting: Scenery, Optics, and Greek Epistemology,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 52: 33–75. (Scholar)
  • Burnyeat, M. and M. Frede (eds.), 1997, The Original Sceptics, Indianapolis and Cambridge, Mass.: Hackett. (Scholar)
  • Carriero, J., 2008, Between Two Worlds: A Reading of Descartes’s Meditations, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Castagnoli, L., 2000, “Self-Bracketing Pyrrhonism,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 18: 263–328. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, Ancient Self-Refutation: The Logic and History of the Self-Refutation Argument from Democritus to Augustine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Clayman, D., 2009, Timon of Phlius: Pyrrhonism into Poetry, Berlin: De Gruyter. (Scholar)
  • Code, A., 2010, “Aristotle and the History of Skepticism,” in Ancient Models of Mind: Studies in Human and Divine Rationality, Andrea Nightingale and David Sedley (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 97–109. (Scholar)
  • Cooper, J., 2002, “Method and Science in On Ancient Medicine,” in Interpretation and Argument, H. Linneweber-Lammerskitten and G. Mohr (eds.), Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann. Reprinted in Cooper 2004a, pp. 3–42. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004a, Knowledge, Nature, and the Good: Essays on Ancient Philosophy, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2004b, “Arcesilaus: Socratic and Sceptic” in Year of Socrates 2001—Proceedings, V. Karasmanis (ed.), Athens: European Cultural Center of Delphi. Reprinted in Cooper 2004a, pp. 81–103. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2012, Pursuits of Wisdom: Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy from Socrates to Plotinus, Princeton: Princeton University Press. (Scholar)
  • Corti, L., 2009, Scepticisme et langage, Paris: Vrin. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Scepticisme sans doute,” in ‘Quid est veritas?’ Hommage à Jonathan Barnes, A. Longo and M. Bonelli (eds.), Naples: Bibliopolis, pp. 157–77. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Skepticism and Hypothetical Method,” Elenchos: Argument from Hypothesis in Ancient Philosophy, Angela Longo and Davide del Forno (eds.), Naples: Bibliopolis, pp.281–302. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, “Hidden Causes: Ancient Skeptics and Doctors and Modern Thinkers on the Perceivability of Causal Links,” in Le débat sur les causes à l’âge hellénistique et imperial, C. Natali and C. Viano (eds.), Louvain-la-Neuve, Peeters, pp. 95–117. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, “DL IX 74–77: Mind and Language of the Laërtian Pyrrhonist,” in K. Vogt (ed.), pp. 123–145. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015b, “Scepticism, number and appearances: the ἀριθμητικὴ τέχνη and Sextus’ targets in M I-VI,” Philosophie Antique, 15: 123–147. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015c, “Sextus, the number two and the Phaedo,” in Ancient Readings of Plato’s Phaedo, S. Delcomminette et al. (eds.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 90–106. (Scholar)
  • Couissin, P., 1983, “The Stoicism of the New Academy,” in Burnyeat (ed.) 1983, pp. 31–63. Translation of Couissin 1929, “Le stoicisme de la nouvelle Academie,” Revue d’historie de la philosophie, 3: 241–76. (Scholar)
  • Everson, S., 1990, “Epicurus on the Truth of the Senses,” in Epistemology: Companions to Ancient Thought 1, S. Everson (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 161–83. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990, Epistemology: Companions to Ancient Thought 1, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1991, “The Objective Appearance of Pyrhonism,” Psychology: Companions to Ancient Thought 2, in S. Everson (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 121–147. (Scholar)
  • Fine, G., 2000a, “Sceptical Dogmata: Outlines of Pyrrhonism I 13,” Methexis, 13: 81–105. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2000b, “Descartes and Ancient Skepticism: Reheated Cabbage?”, Philosophical Review, 109: 195–234. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003a, “Subjectivity, Ancient and Modern: The Cyrenaics, Sextus, and Descartes,” in Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy, J. Miller and B. Inwood (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 192–231. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003b, “Sextus and External World Scepticism,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 23: 341–385. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Does Socrates Claim To Know That He Knows Nothing?”, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 35: 49–88. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2011, “Concepts and inquiry: Sextus and the Epicureans,” in Episteme, etc.: Essays in Honour of Jonathan Barnes, Ben Morison and Katerina Ierodiakonou (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 90–113. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2014, The Possibility of Inquiry: Meno’s Paradox from Socrates to Sextus, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Frede, M., 1979, “Des Skeptikers Meinungen,” Neue Hefte für Philosophie, 15/16: 102–29. Reprinted as “The Sceptic’s Beliefs,” in Burnyeat and Frede (eds.) 1997, pp. 1–24. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1983, “Stoics and Sceptics on clear and distinct impressions,” in M. Burnyeat (ed.) 1983, pp. 65–94. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1984, “The Sceptic’s Two Kinds of Assent and the Question of the Possibility of Knowledge” in Philosophy in History, R. Rorty, J.B. Schneewind, and Q. Skinner (eds.), Philosophy in History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 255–78. Reprinted in Burnyeat and Frede (eds.) 1997, pp. 127–151. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1990, “An Empiricist View of Knowledge: Memorism,” in S. Everson (ed.) 1990, pp. 225–250. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994, “The Stoic Conception of Reason,” in Hellenistic Philosophy (Volume 2), K. J. Boudouris (ed.), Athens: International Center for Greek Philosophy, pp. 50–61. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1996, “Introduction,” in Rationality in Greek Thought, M. Frede and G. Striker (eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1–28. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1997, “The sceptics,” in Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume II. From Aristotle to Augustine, D. Furley (ed.), London: Routledge, pp. 253–86. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1999, “Stoic Epistemology,” in Algra et al. (eds.) 1999, pp. 295–322. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, “Aristotle on Thinking,” Rhizai: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science V.2, 287­-301. (Scholar)
  • Flintoff, E., 1980, “Pyrrho and India,” Phronesis, 25: 88–108. (Scholar)
  • Garrett, D., forthcoming, “Pyrrhonian Skepticism and Humean Skepticism: Belief, Evidence, and Causal Power,” in Epistemology After Sextus Empiricus, K. M. Vogt and J. Vlasits (eds.), New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Glidden, D. K., 1983, “Skeptic Semiotics,” Phronesis, 28: 213–255. (Scholar)
  • Grgic, F., 2006, “Sextus Empiricus on the Goal of Skepticism,” Ancient Philosophy, 26: 141–60. (Scholar)
  • Hankinson, R.J., 1987, “Causes and Empiricism: A Problem in the Interpretation of Later Greek Medical Method,” Phronesis, 32: 329–48. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 1988, Method, Medicine and Metaphysics: Studies in the Philosophy of Ancient Science, Apeiron, XXI (2). (Scholar)
  • –––, 1994, “Values, objectivity and dialectic: the sceptical attack on ethics; its methods, aims and success,” Phronesis, 49: 45–6. (Scholar)
  • –––, 1995, The Sceptics, London: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “Stoic Epistemology,” in B. Inwood (ed.) 2003, pp. 59–84. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Aenesidemus and the Rebirth of Pyrrhonism,” in Bett (ed.) 2010, pp. 105–119). (Scholar)
  • Heck, P., 2014, Skepticism in Classical Islam: Moments of Confusion, London: Routledge. (Scholar)
  • House, D.K., 1980, “The Life of Sextus Empiricus,” Classical Quarterly, 30: 227–238. (Scholar)
  • Inwood, B., 1985, Ethics and Human Action in Early Stoicism, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • ––– (ed.), 2003, Cambridge Companion to the Stoics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • Inwood, B. and J. Mansfeld (eds.), 1997, Assent and Argument (Studies in Cicero’s Academic Books), Proceedings of the Seventh Symposium Hellenisticum, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • Irwin, T. (ed.), 1995, Classical Philosophy: Collected Papers, 8 volumes, New York: Garland. (Scholar)
  • Janácek, K., 1948, Prolegomena to Sextus Empiricus, Olomouc: Nákladem Palackého University. (Scholar)
  • Janácek, K., 1972, Sextus Empiricus’ Sceptical Methods, Prague: Universita Karlova. (Scholar)
  • Johnson, B., 2001, “On the coherence of Pyrrhonian Skepticism,” The Philosophical Review, 110: 521–61. (Scholar)
  • Kirwan, C., 1983, “Augustine Against the Skeptics,” in Burnyeat (ed.) 1983, pp. 205–223. (Scholar)
  • Kukkonen, T., 2009, “Al-Ghazali’s Skepticism Revisited,”, in A History of Skepticism in the Middle Ages, Lagerlund (ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp. 29–59. (Scholar)
  • Lagerlund, H. (ed.), 2009, A History of Skepticism in the Middle Ages, Leiden: Brill. (Scholar)
  • Lagerlund, H., 2009, “Introduction,”, in A History of Skepticism in the Middle Ages, Lagerlund (ed.), Leiden: Brill, pp.1–28. (Scholar)
  • Lee, M., 2005, Epistemology after Protagoras: Responses to Relativism in Plato, Aristotle, and Democritus, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2010, “Antecedents in Early Greek Philosophy,” in Bett (ed.) 2010, pp. 13–35. (Scholar)
  • Lesher, J. H., 1999, “Early Interest in Knowledge,” in Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, A. A. Long (ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 225–249. (Scholar)
  • Lévy, C., 2010, “The Sceptical Academy: Decline and Afterlife,” in Bett (ed.) 2010 (pp. 81–104). (Scholar)
  • Long, A. A., 2006, From Epicurus to Epictetus: Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Machuca, D., 2006, “The Pyrrhonist’s ataraxia and philanthrôpia,” Ancient Philosophy, 26: 111–139. (Scholar)
  • McPherran, M., 1987, “Sceptical Homeopathy and Self-Refutation,” Phronesis, 32: 290–328. (Scholar)
  • McPherran, M., 1989, “Ataraxia and Eudaimonia in Ancient Pyrrhonism: Is the Sceptic Really Happy?,” in Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, J. J. Cleary and D. C. Shartin (eds.), pp. 135–171. (Scholar)
  • McPherran, M., 1990, “Pyrrhonism’s Arguments against Value,” Philosophical Studies, 60: 127–142. (Scholar)
  • Menn, S., 1998, Descartes and Augustine, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2003, “The Discourse on the Method and the Tradition of Intellectual Autobiography,” in Hellenistic and Early Modern Philosophy, J. Miller and B. Inwood (eds.), Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 141–191. (Scholar)
  • Morison, B., 2011, “The Logical Structure of the Sceptic’s Opposition,” in Allen, Emilsson, Morison and Mann (eds.), Essays in Memory of Michael Frede, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 40: 265–295. (Scholar)
  • Moss, J. and W. Schwab, forthcoming, “The Birth of Belief,” Journal of the History of Philosophy. (Scholar)
  • Nawar, T. 2014, “The Stoic Account of Apprehension,” Philosophers’ Imprint, 14: pp. 1–21. (Scholar)
  • Nussbaum, M., 1994, “Sceptic Purgatives: Disturbance and the Life Without Belief,” in The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics, M. Nussbaum, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 280–315. (Scholar)
  • Obdrzalek, S., 2006, “Living in Doubt: Carneades’ Pithanon Reconsidered,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 31: 243–80. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, “From Skepticism to Paralysis,” Ancient Philosophy 32 (2): pp. 369–392. (Scholar)
  • Olfert, C., 2015, “Skeptical Investigation and its Perks,” in Diogenes Laertius’s Lives of Philosophers IX.61–161, Katja Vogt (ed.), SAPERE series by Mohr Siebeck, pp. 147–170. (Scholar)
  • Palmer, J., 2000, “Skeptical Investigation,” Ancient Philosophy, 20: 351–73. (Scholar)
  • Pellegrin, P., 2010, “Sextus Empiricus,” in Bett (ed.) 2010, pp. 120–142. (Scholar)
  • Perin, C., 2006, “Pyrrhonian Scepticism and the Search for Truth,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 30: 337–360. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2013, “Making Sense of Arcesilaus,” Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 45: 313–338. (Scholar)
  • Powers, N., 2010, “The System of the Sceptical Modes in Sextus Empiricus,” Apeiron, 43: 157–171. (Scholar)
  • Ricken, F., 1984, Antike Skeptiker, Munich: Beck Verlag. (Scholar)
  • Sassi, M. M., 2011, “Senofane Fra I Sofisti. Dai Limiti Della Conoscenza (21B34 DK),” Methexis, 24: 7‑20. (Scholar)
  • Schofield, M., M. Burnyeat, and J. Barnes (eds.), 1980, Doubt and Dogmatism: Studies in Hellenistic Epistemology, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
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