Linked bibliography for the SEP article "The Theory of Two Truths in India" by Sonam Thakchoe

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List of Abbreviations

[AK] Abhidharmakośakārikā
[AKB] Abhidharmakośabhāṣya
[ĀlamPV] Ālambanaparīkṣāvṛtti
[M] Madhyamakāvatāra
[MA] Madhyamakālokaḥ
[MadhHK] Madhyamakahṛdayakārikā
[MAK] Madhyamakālaṁkārakārikā
[MAV] Madhyamakālaṁkāravṛtti
[MBh] Madhyamakāvatārabhāśya
[MMK] Mūlamadhyamakārikā
[PP] Prasannapadā
[PPMV] Prajñāpradīpamūlamadhyamakavṛtti
[PVK] Pramāṇavārttikakārikā
[PVT] Pramāṇavārttikavṛtti
[TriṃB] Triṃśikābhāṣya
[TSN] Trisvabhāvanirdeśa
[ViṃKV] Viṃśatikā-kārikāvṛtti

Primary Literature

Note: In the citations like Mngon pa khu 166b–167a), Tshad ma che 108b–109a) etc., Mngon pa and Tshad ma are the names of the classificatory disciplines and khu 166b–167a, che 108b–109a etc., are volume titles and numbers.

  • Āryadeva, Four Hundred Verses (Catuḥśataka, tsha 1b–18a), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur, Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998. For Gyel-tsap's full commentary in Enlish translation see
    • Geshe Sonam Rinchen, 2008, Āryadeva's Four Hundrded Stanzas on the Middle Way, Ruth Sonam (trans.), Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. (Scholar)
    the translations of the first four chapters are included in
    • Lang, Karen, 2003, Four Illusions: Candrakīrti's Advices to Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Bhāvavevika, [MadhHK], Madhyamakahṛdayakārikā (Dbu ma snying po'i tshig l'hur byas pa). Dbu ma dza 1a–40b), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur, Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998.
  • –––, Madhyamakahṛdayavṛtti-tarkajvālā (Dbu ma snying po'i ‘grel pa rtog ge ‘bar ba). Dbu ma dza 40b–396b), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur, Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998.
  • –––, Madhyamakaratnapradīpa (Dbu ma rin po che'i sgron ma), Sde dge bstan ‘gyur, Dbu ma tsha 259b–289a), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur, Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998. (Scholar)
  • –––, [PPMV], Prajñāpradīpamūlamadhyamakav ṛtti (Dbu ma rtsa ba'i ‘grel ba shes rab sgron ma. Dbu ma tsha 45b–259b), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur, Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998.
  • Buddhapālita, Buddhapālitamūlamadhyamakavṛtti. (Dbu ma tsa 158b–281a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. A good portion of this text is translated from Tibetan into English by Akira Saito and included in his unpublished thesis:
  • Candrakīrti, [M], An Introduction on Madhyamaka (Madhyamakāvatāra. Dbu ma ‘a 201b–219a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. (Scholar)
  • –––, [PP], Clear-word Commentary on the Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way (Mūlamadhyamakavṛttiprasannapadā. Dbu ma ‘a 1b–200a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. This text received a good deal of attention from academic studies. For partial English translations see
    • Sprung, M., 1979, Lucid Exposition of the Middle Way: The Essential Chapters from the Prasannapadā of Candrakīrti, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (Scholar)
    • Arnold, D., 2005, “Materials for a Mādhyamika Critique of Foundationalism: An Annotated Translation of Prasannapadā 55.11 to 75.13”, Journal of International Association of Buddhist Studies, 28(2): 411–467. (Scholar)
    • de Jong, J.W., 1978, “Textcritical Notes on the Prasannapadā”, Indo-Iranian Journal, 20(1): 25–59 and 20(3): 217–252. doi:10.1007/BF00167750 and doi:10.1007/BF00158041 (Scholar)
    • MacDonald, A., 2015, In Clear Words: The Prasannapadā, Chapter One, Vol. II: Annotated Translation, Tibetan Text, Wien: OAW. (Scholar)
  • –––, Commentary on Seventy Verses on Emptiness (Śūnayatāsaptativṛtti, Dbu ma tsa 110a–121a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Commentary on Sixty Verses on Reasoning (Yuktiṣaṣṭhikavṛtii, Dbu ma ya 1b–30b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Commentary on the Four Hundred Verses (Catuḥṣatakaṭika. Dbu ma ya 30b–239a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. The first four chapters of Candrakīrti's commentary are now available in English, see
    • Lang, Karen, 2003, Four Illusions: Candrakīrti's Advice for Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
    for a full commentary by Gyeltsap see
    • Geshe Sonam Rinchen, 2008, Āryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way with Commentary by Gyeltsap, Ruth Sonam (trans.), Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. (Scholar)
  • –––, [MBh], Commentary on the Introduction on Madhyamaka (Madhyamakāvatārabhāśya. Dbu ma ‘a 220b–348a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. (Scholar)
  • –––, Discussion on the Five Aggregates (Pañcaskandhaprakaraṇa, Dbu ma ya 239b–266b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Dharmakīrti, Ascertainment of Right-cognition (Pramāṇaviniścaya, tshad ma ce 152b–230a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, [PVT], Commentary on the Verses of Right-cognition (Pramāṇavārttikavṛtti, tshad ma ce 261b–365a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Dose of Logical Reasoning (Nyāyabindu, tshad ma ce 231b–238a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, [PVK], Verses on Right-cognition (Pramāṇavārttikakārikā, tshad ma ce 94b–151a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Dharmottara, Nyābinduṭīkā (Tshad ma we 36b–92a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Dignāga, [ĀlamPV], Investigation About the Support of the Cognition (Ālambanaparīkṣāvṛtti). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press, 1998. The translation of Dignāga's text is included in two contemporary works:
    • Tola, F. and C. Dragonetti, 2004, Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. (Scholar)
    • Duckworth, D., M.D. Eckel, J.L. Garfield, J. Powers, Y. Thabkhas, and S. Thakchoe, 2016, Dignāga's Investigation of the Percept: A Philosophical Legacy in India and Tibet, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, Auto-commentary on the Compendium of Right-cognition (Pramāṇasamuccayavṛtti, Tshad ma ce 14b–85b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Compendium of Right-cognition (Pramāṇasamuccaya, Tshad ma ce 1b–13a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Dorjee, Penpa, Ācārya Kamalaśīla's Madhyamakāloka (Restored Sansktrit Text from the Tibetan Version). Sarnath: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies. 2001.
  • Kamalaśīla, Discussion on the Light of Reality (Tattvāloka-nama-prakaraṇa, Dbu ma sa 244b–273a), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Establishing the Non-intrinsic Reality of All Phenomena (Sarvadharmāsvabhāvasiddhi, Dbu ma sa 273a–291a), Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, [MA], Light of the Middle Way (Madhyamakālokaḥ Dbu ma sa 133b–244a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Stages of Meditation (Bhāvanākrama, Dbu ma ki 22a–68b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Subcommentary on the Ornament of the Middle Way (Madhyamakālaṁkārapañjikā, Dbu ma sa 84a–133b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Komito, D.R., 1999, Nāgārjuna's Seventy Stanzas: A Buddhist Psychology of Emptiness, Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. (Scholar)
  • Maitreyanātha, [DharDVK], Verses on the Distinction Between Phenomena and Reality (Dharmadharmatāvibhaṅga-kārikā, Sems tsam phi 50b–53b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, Separation of the Middle From Extremes (Madhyāntavibhaṅgakārika, Sems tsam phi 50b–53b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Nāgārjuna, Commentary on the Verse Rebutting the Disputes (Vigrahavyāvartanīvṛtti, Vig Dbu ma tsa 121a–137a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. For English translations of this text see
  • –––, [MMK], Fundamental Verses of the Middle Way (Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Dbu ma tsa 1b–19a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. For commentaries in English translations, see
    • Siderits, M. and S. Katsura, 2013, Nāgārjuna's Middle Way: Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, Boston: Wisdom Publications. (Scholar)
    • Garfield, J. and N. Geshe Samten, 2006, Ocean of Reasoning: A Great Commentary on Nāgārjuna's Mūlamadhyamakākarikā, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, Seventy Verses on Emptiness (Śūnyatāsaptatikārikā. Dbu ma tsa 24a–27a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. An English translation of the text is included in Lindtner 1997: 94-120. For Geshe Sonam Rinchen's commentary on this text in English see Komito 1999.
  • –––, Sixty Verses on Reasoning (Yuktiṣaṣṭhikākārikā, Dbu ma tsa 20b–22b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. For Candrakīrti's commentary translated from the Tibetan with introductory study and annotation by Joseph John Loizzo and the AIBS translation team see Loizzo, Nāgārjuna's Reason Sixty with Candrakīrti's Commentary, New York: Columbia University Press. 2007. (Scholar)
  • –––, Verses Rebutting the Disputes (Vigrahavyāvartanīkārikā, Dbu ma tsa 27a–29a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Śāntarakṣita, Commentary on the Distinguishing the Two Truths (Satyadvayavibhaṅgapañjikā Dbu ma sa 15b–52b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, [MAV], Commentary on the Ornament of the Middle Way (Madhyamakālaṁkāravṛtti Dbu ma sa 56b–84a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, [MAK], Ornament of the Middle Way (Madhyamakālaṁkārakārikā Dbu ma sa 53a–56b). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Sthiramati, [TriṃB], Commentary on the Thirty Verses (Triṃśikābhāṣya, Sems tsam),Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • Vasubandhu, [AKB], Commentary on the Treasury of Knowledge (Abhidharmakośabhāṣya), Mngon pa ku 26b–258a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. For English translation see
    • Pruden, L.M., 1988–1990, Abhidharmakośabhāṣyam of Vasubandhu, Vols. I–IV, Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, Commentary on The Twenty Verses Viṃśakārikāvṛtti, Sems tsam shi 4a–10a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. An English translations of verses and their commentary are included in Anacker 2005: 157–181.
    • Anaker, S., 2005, Seven Works of Vasubandhu: The Buddhist Psychological Doctor, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2005, (Scholar)
  • –––, [ViṃKV], Commentary on the Twenty Verses (Viṃśatikā-kārikāvṛtti, 16–17). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. An English translations of verses and their commentary are included in Anacker 2005: 157–181.
  • –––, [TSN], The Discernment of the Three Natures (Tri Svabhāva Niṛdeśa). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. An English translations of this text is included in Anacker 2005: 287–299.
  • –––, The Thirty Verses (Triṃśikā kārikā Triṃ; Sem tsam shi 1a–3a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998. For an English translations of the verses see Anacker 2005: 181–191.
  • –––, [AK], Treasury of Knowledge (Abhidharmakośakārikā); Mngon pa ku 1b–25a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.
  • –––, The Twenty Verses (Viṃśatikākārikā, Viṃ Sems tsam shi 3a–4a). Sde dge edition of the Bstan ‘gyur. Dharmasala: Paljor Press. 1998.

Secondary Literature

  • Changkya Rolpai Droje (Lcang skya rol pa'i rdo rje), 1989,Philosophical Embellishment of the Buddha's Teachings (Grub mtha' thub bstan lhun po'i mdzes rgyan), Xiling: Mtsho sngon mi rigs Press. (Scholar)
  • Blumental, James, 2004, The Ornament of the Middle Way: A Study of the Madhyamaka Thought of Śāntarakṣita, Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. (Scholar)
  • Eckel, Malcolm David, 1987, Jñāgarbhabha's Commentary on the Distinction Between the Two Truths: An Eight Century Handbook of Madhyamaka Philosophy, New York: State University of New York Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2008, Bhavevika and His Opponents: Chapters 4 and 5 of the Verses on the Heart of the Middle Way (Madhyamakahṛdayakārikā), with the Commentary Entitled The Flame of Reason (Tarkajvāla), Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Scholar)
  • Garfield, L. Jay, 1995, The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Huntington, C.W. and Geshe Namgyal Wangchen, 1989, The Emptiness of Emptiness: An Introduction to Early Indian Mādhyamika, Honolulu: University of Hawai Press. (Scholar)
  • Kalupahana, D. J., 1991, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Introduction, Sanskrit Text, English Translation and Annotation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Limited. (Scholar)
  • Karunadasa, Y., 1996, The Dhamma Theory: Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, Wheel Publication 412/413. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2006, “Theravāda Version of the Two Truths”, Presentation to Korean Conference of Buddhist Studies. (Scholar)
  • Lindtner, Chr., 1997, Masters of Wisdom: Writings of the Buddhist Master Nāgārjuna, Oakland, CA: Dharma Press. (Scholar)
  • Roerich, George N., 1976, The Blue Annals, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. (Scholar)
  • Thakchoe, Sonam, 2007, The Two Truths Debate: Tsongkhapa and Gorampa on the Middle Way, Boston: Wisdom Publications. (Scholar)
  • The Cowherds, 2011, Moonshadows: Conventional Truth in Buddhist Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • –––, 2015, Moonpath: Ethics and Emptiness, New York: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Westerhoff, Jan, 2009, Nāgārjuna's Madhyamaka: A Philosophical Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Scholar)
  • Yonezawa, Yoshiyasu, 2008, “Vigrahavyāvartanī, Sanskrit Transliteration and Tibetan Translation”, Journal of Naritasan Institute for Buddhist Studies, 31: 209–333. (Scholar)

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