The PhilPapers SurveysHighest linear correlations (Back to contents)

Correlations with: year_of_phd

N = 931 (target faculty). Cut-off = +/-0.05

n < 10 omitted. Some redundant or trivial correlations are not shown.

Jump to: Main Survey questions | Philosophical orientation | Background questions

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Main Survey questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
Laws of nature:Humean0.158
Humean non-Humean
year_of_phd ≥ median
32.7%(108/330)
52.4%(173/330)
year_of_phd < median
21.1%(71/336)
72.6%(244/336)
Response pairs: 666   p-value: < 0.001
Mental content:externalism0.146
externalism internalism
year_of_phd ≥ median
63.2%(213/337)
22.8%(77/337)
year_of_phd < median
57.7%(189/327)
28.7%(94/327)
Response pairs: 664   p-value: < 0.001
Knowledge claims:relativism0.13
relativism not relativism
year_of_phd ≥ median
2.8%(9/321)
84.1%(270/321)
year_of_phd < median
2.9%(9/302)
88.7%(268/302)
Response pairs: 623   p-value: 0.001
Time:B-theory0.124
A-theory B-theory
year_of_phd ≥ median
25.6%(61/238)
55%(131/238)
year_of_phd < median
31.4%(68/216)
40.7%(88/216)
Response pairs: 454   p-value: 0.008
Knowledge claims:invariantism0.122
invariantism not invariantism
year_of_phd ≥ median
38.6%(124/321)
48.2%(155/321)
year_of_phd < median
33.4%(101/302)
58.2%(176/302)
Response pairs: 623   p-value: 0.002
Teletransporter:survival0.111
survival death
year_of_phd ≥ median
47.5%(156/328)
32.3%(106/328)
year_of_phd < median
35.6%(109/306)
40.1%(123/306)
Response pairs: 634   p-value: 0.005
External world:skepticism0.107
skepticism not skepticism
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.6%(20/354)
90.1%(319/354)
year_of_phd < median
2.5%(9/351)
94%(330/351)
Response pairs: 705   p-value: 0.004
A priori knowledge:yes0.107
no yes
year_of_phd ≥ median
18%(64/355)
75.2%(267/355)
year_of_phd < median
21%(74/351)
69.2%(243/351)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: 0.004
Perceptual experience:disjunctivism0.097
disjunctivism not disjunctivism
year_of_phd ≥ median
14.2%(40/281)
67.2%(189/281)
year_of_phd < median
13.3%(37/277)
73.6%(204/277)
Response pairs: 558   p-value: 0.021
Analytic-synthetic distinction:yes0.096
yes no
year_of_phd ≥ median
69.6%(248/356)
25.8%(92/356)
year_of_phd < median
61%(215/352)
31.8%(112/352)
Response pairs: 708   p-value: 0.01
Moral judgment:cognitivism0.087
cognitivism non-cognitivism
year_of_phd ≥ median
76.1%(256/336)
16.9%(57/336)
year_of_phd < median
67.6%(228/337)
22.5%(76/337)
Response pairs: 673   p-value: 0.024
Politics:egalitarianism0.087
egalitarianism not egalitarianism
year_of_phd ≥ median
46.8%(133/284)
34.5%(98/284)
year_of_phd < median
40.8%(116/284)
41.5%(118/284)
Response pairs: 568   p-value: 0.038
not Knowledge claims:contextualism0.087
contextualism not contextualism
year_of_phd ≥ median
44.2%(142/321)
42.6%(137/321)
year_of_phd < median
51.6%(156/302)
40%(121/302)
Response pairs: 623   p-value: 0.029
Truth:epistemic0.078
epistemic not epistemic
year_of_phd ≥ median
6.5%(22/334)
85%(284/334)
year_of_phd < median
6.8%(23/335)
88%(295/335)
Response pairs: 669   p-value: 0.043
Truth:deflationary0.078
deflationary not deflationary
year_of_phd ≥ median
27.2%(91/334)
64.3%(215/334)
year_of_phd < median
26.2%(88/335)
68.6%(230/335)
Response pairs: 669   p-value: 0.043
Abstract objects:nominalism0.078
nominalism Platonism
year_of_phd ≥ median
41.2%(141/342)
48.5%(166/342)
year_of_phd < median
37.1%(130/350)
52.2%(183/350)
Response pairs: 692   p-value: 0.04
Knowledge:rationalism0.076
rationalism empiricism
year_of_phd ≥ median
37.1%(132/355)
39.7%(141/355)
year_of_phd < median
32.1%(113/351)
45.2%(159/351)
Response pairs: 706   p-value: 0.043
Normative ethics:consequentialism0.074
consequentialism not consequentialism
year_of_phd ≥ median
30.5%(97/317)
56.4%(179/317)
year_of_phd < median
24.4%(74/303)
62%(188/303)
Response pairs: 620   p-value: 0.065
Science:scientific anti-realism0.07
scientific anti-realism scientific realism
year_of_phd ≥ median
11.7%(41/349)
81%(283/349)
year_of_phd < median
12%(42/350)
82.5%(289/350)
Response pairs: 699   p-value: 0.064
Proper names:Fregean0.067
Fregean Millian
year_of_phd ≥ median
38.1%(118/309)
42.3%(131/309)
year_of_phd < median
33%(99/300)
52.6%(158/300)
Response pairs: 609   p-value: 0.098
Free will:no free will0.064
no free will free will
year_of_phd ≥ median
14.1%(49/347)
75.7%(263/347)
year_of_phd < median
12.4%(43/346)
79.1%(274/346)
Response pairs: 693   p-value: 0.092
Logic:non-classical0.061
classical non-classical
year_of_phd ≥ median
62.8%(196/312)
17.6%(55/312)
year_of_phd < median
71.1%(219/308)
20.1%(62/308)
Response pairs: 620   p-value: 0.129
Trolley problem:don't switch0.059
don't switch switch
year_of_phd ≥ median
9.9%(34/341)
77.4%(264/341)
year_of_phd < median
7.4%(24/323)
78.6%(254/323)
Response pairs: 664   p-value: 0.128
Mind:physicalism0.054
physicalism non-physicalism
year_of_phd ≥ median
60.8%(216/355)
27%(96/355)
year_of_phd < median
57.1%(200/350)
31.1%(109/350)
Response pairs: 705   p-value: 0.152

Philosophical orientation

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
metasurvey:accuracy0.208
accuracy ≥ median accuracy < median
year_of_phd ≥ median
61.9%(57/92)
38%(35/92)
year_of_phd < median
44.5%(33/74)
55.4%(41/74)
Response pairs: 166   p-value: 0.007
not AOS:Aesthetics0.136
Aesthetics not Aesthetics
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/360)
98.6%(355/360)
year_of_phd < median
6.4%(23/355)
93.5%(332/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Quine0.129
Quine not Quine
year_of_phd ≥ median
4.1%(15/360)
95.8%(345/360)
year_of_phd < median
9.8%(35/355)
90.1%(320/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
not xian:Aristotle0.126
Aristotle not Aristotle
year_of_phd ≥ median
8.6%(31/360)
91.3%(329/360)
year_of_phd < median
16%(57/355)
83.9%(298/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
not AOS:Philosophy of Religion0.12
Philosophy of Religion not Philosophy of Religion
year_of_phd ≥ median
3%(11/360)
96.9%(349/360)
year_of_phd < median
6.7%(24/355)
93.2%(331/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.001
not AOS:19th Century Philosophy0.12
19th Century Philosophy not 19th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/360)
98.6%(355/360)
year_of_phd < median
7.6%(27/355)
92.3%(328/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.001
xian:Lewis0.114
Lewis not Lewis
year_of_phd ≥ median
11.1%(40/360)
88.8%(320/360)
year_of_phd < median
5.6%(20/355)
94.3%(335/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.002
not AOS:Continental Philosophy0.111
Continental Philosophy not Continental Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/360)
98.8%(356/360)
year_of_phd < median
4.5%(16/355)
95.4%(339/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.002
tradition:analytic0.105
analytic continental
year_of_phd ≥ median
92.7%(334/360)
2.5%(9/360)
year_of_phd < median
84.5%(300/355)
5.6%(20/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.004
not xian:Wittgenstein0.101
Wittgenstein not Wittgenstein
year_of_phd ≥ median
3.8%(14/360)
96.1%(346/360)
year_of_phd < median
11.5%(41/355)
88.4%(314/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.006
not AOS:20th Century Philosophy0.1
20th Century Philosophy not 20th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.9%(7/360)
98%(353/360)
year_of_phd < median
7%(25/355)
92.9%(330/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.007
xian:Frege0.088
Frege not Frege
year_of_phd ≥ median
9.1%(33/360)
90.8%(327/360)
year_of_phd < median
5.6%(20/355)
94.3%(335/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.018
not xian:Russell0.082
Russell not Russell
year_of_phd ≥ median
4.7%(17/360)
95.2%(343/360)
year_of_phd < median
8.7%(31/355)
91.2%(324/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.028
not AOS:17th/18th Century Philosophy0.076
17th/18th Century Philosophy not 17th/18th Century Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
9.7%(35/360)
90.2%(325/360)
year_of_phd < median
13.5%(48/355)
86.4%(307/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.042
not xian:Spinoza0.075
Spinoza not Spinoza
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/360)
98.6%(355/360)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/355)
97.1%(345/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.044
xian:Hume0.074
Hume not Hume
year_of_phd ≥ median
17.7%(64/360)
82.2%(296/360)
year_of_phd < median
12.6%(45/355)
87.3%(310/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.047
not AOS:Philosophy of Social Science0.073
Philosophy of Social Science not Philosophy of Social Science
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/360)
98.8%(356/360)
year_of_phd < median
3.3%(12/355)
96.6%(343/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.051
not AOS:Social and Political Philosophy0.071
Social and Political Philosophy not Social and Political Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.7%(28/360)
92.2%(332/360)
year_of_phd < median
13.2%(47/355)
86.7%(308/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.057
AOS:Philosophy of Biology0.069
Philosophy of Biology not Philosophy of Biology
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/360)
94.4%(340/360)
year_of_phd < median
1.9%(7/355)
98%(348/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.065
AOS:Epistemology0.066
Epistemology not Epistemology
year_of_phd ≥ median
19.4%(70/360)
80.5%(290/360)
year_of_phd < median
16.3%(58/355)
83.6%(297/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.077
not xian:Locke0.065
Locke not Locke
year_of_phd ≥ median
2.5%(9/360)
97.5%(351/360)
year_of_phd < median
5%(18/355)
94.9%(337/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.082
not xian:Socrates0.063
Socrates not Socrates
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.1%(4/360)
98.8%(356/360)
year_of_phd < median
1.6%(6/355)
98.3%(349/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.092
not AOS:Ancient Greek Philosophy0.062
Ancient Greek Philosophy not Ancient Greek Philosophy
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/360)
94.4%(340/360)
year_of_phd < median
8.7%(31/355)
91.2%(324/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.097
not xian:Davidson0.062
Davidson not Davidson
year_of_phd ≥ median
3.8%(14/360)
96.1%(346/360)
year_of_phd < median
7%(25/355)
92.9%(330/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.097
not AOS:Logic and Philosophy of Logic0.061
Logic and Philosophy of Logic not Logic and Philosophy of Logic
year_of_phd ≥ median
8.3%(30/360)
91.6%(330/360)
year_of_phd < median
11.2%(40/355)
88.7%(315/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.103
not AOS:Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality0.055
Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality not Philosophy of Gender, Race, and Sexuality
year_of_phd ≥ median
1.3%(5/360)
98.6%(355/360)
year_of_phd < median
2.5%(9/355)
97.4%(346/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.141
not AOS:Applied Ethics0.05
Applied Ethics not Applied Ethics
year_of_phd ≥ median
5%(18/360)
95%(342/360)
year_of_phd < median
5%(18/355)
94.9%(337/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.181

Background questions

Answer Corrrelation coefficient
year_of_birth0.945
year_of_birth ≥ median year_of_birth < median
year_of_phd ≥ median
95.5%(325/340)
4.4%(15/340)
year_of_phd < median
15.3%(53/346)
84.6%(293/346)
Response pairs: 686   p-value: < 0.001
not nationality_region:United States0.195
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
45.5%(164/360)
54.4%(196/360)
year_of_phd < median
63.9%(227/355)
36%(128/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
not affil:region:United States0.192
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
55.5%(200/360)
44.4%(160/360)
year_of_phd < median
70.7%(251/355)
29.2%(104/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
nationality_region:Europe0.156
Europe not Europe
year_of_phd ≥ median
16.6%(60/360)
83.3%(300/360)
year_of_phd < median
7.3%(26/355)
92.6%(329/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
affil:region:United Kingdom0.147
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
year_of_phd ≥ median
22.7%(82/360)
77.2%(278/360)
year_of_phd < median
14%(50/355)
85.9%(305/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: < 0.001
gender:female0.081
female male
year_of_phd ≥ median
21.9%(76/347)
78%(271/347)
year_of_phd < median
15.9%(56/352)
84%(296/352)
Response pairs: 699   p-value: 0.032
nationality_region:Australasia0.068
Australasia not Australasia
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.7%(28/360)
92.2%(332/360)
year_of_phd < median
5.3%(19/355)
94.6%(336/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.069
not phd_region:United States0.063
United States not United States
year_of_phd ≥ median
65%(234/360)
35%(126/360)
year_of_phd < median
70.9%(252/355)
29%(103/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.092
nationality_region:Other0.061
Other not Other
year_of_phd ≥ median
7.2%(26/360)
92.7%(334/360)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/355)
97.1%(345/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.103
phd_region:Australasia0.061
Australasia not Australasia
year_of_phd ≥ median
5.5%(20/360)
94.4%(340/360)
year_of_phd < median
2.8%(10/355)
97.1%(345/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.103
affil:region:Europe0.058
Europe not Europe
year_of_phd ≥ median
6.6%(24/360)
93.3%(336/360)
year_of_phd < median
4.7%(17/355)
95.2%(338/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.121
nationality_region:United Kingdom0.052
United Kingdom not United Kingdom
year_of_phd ≥ median
15%(54/360)
85%(306/360)
year_of_phd < median
12.9%(46/355)
87%(309/355)
Response pairs: 715   p-value: 0.164