The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Metasurvey results (Back to contents)

Population  AOS Normalization (set other=0)(?)
Note: |error| = absolute error

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Yes62.3%79.5%-17.2%20.3%39%23%
No37.7%20.5%17.2%20.3%39%23%

Sample size (non-skipped): 204

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Nominalism56.5%49.0%7.6%16.0%37%14%
Platonism43.5%51.0%-7.6%16.0%37%14%

Sample size (non-skipped): 196

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Subjective67.7%45.7%22.0%24.4%63%34%
Objective32.3%54.3%-22.0%24.4%63%34%

Sample size (non-skipped): 193

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Yes50.0%70.6%-20.6%23.2%58%35%
No50.0%29.4%20.6%23.2%58%35%

Sample size (non-skipped): 201

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Externalism54.7%61.8%-7.1%12.4%20%6%
Internalism45.3%38.2%7.1%12.4%20%6%

Sample size (non-skipped): 191

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Non-skeptical realism76.7%89.9%-13.2%14.9%27%12%
Skepticism13.6%5.3%8.3%9.4%12%5%
Idealism9.7%4.7%4.9%6.1%5%0%

Sample size (non-skipped): 204

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Compatibilism56.7%69.4%-12.7%16.4%28%15%
Libertarianism24.9%16.2%8.7%11.8%15%6%
No free will18.4%14.4%4.0%9.1%9%4%

Sample size (non-skipped): 196

God: theism or atheism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Atheism76.0%83.3%-7.3%11.1%15%7%
Theism24.0%16.7%7.3%11.1%15%7%

Sample size (non-skipped): 209

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Invariantism43.4%42.0%1.3%14.1%25%8%
Contextualism39.0%54.1%-15.0%18.0%43%12%
Relativism17.6%3.9%13.7%13.9%23%8%

Sample size (non-skipped): 178

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Empiricism66.5%55.7%10.8%15.4%30%12%
Rationalism33.5%44.3%-10.8%15.4%30%12%

Sample size (non-skipped): 200

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Non-Humean52.1%69.8%-17.8%20.4%38%26%
Humean47.9%30.2%17.8%20.4%38%26%

Sample size (non-skipped): 183

Logic: classical or non-classical?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Classical72.4%77.0%-4.7%13.4%18%9%
Non-classical27.6%23.0%4.7%13.4%18%9%

Sample size (non-skipped): 188

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Externalism62.7%71.9%-9.2%13.6%26%11%
Internalism37.3%28.1%9.2%13.6%26%11%

Sample size (non-skipped): 189

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Moral realism52.9%67.0%-14.1%17.4%33%15%
Moral anti-realism47.1%33.0%14.1%17.4%33%15%

Sample size (non-skipped): 201

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Naturalism67.0%65.8%1.1%13.5%21%7%
Non-naturalism33.0%34.2%-1.1%13.5%21%7%

Sample size (non-skipped): 187

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Physicalism72.4%67.6%4.8%11.7%17%3%
Non-physicalism27.6%32.4%-4.8%11.7%17%3%

Sample size (non-skipped): 200

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Cognitivism60.1%79.5%-19.4%21.3%49%22%
Non-cognitivism39.9%20.5%19.4%21.3%49%22%

Sample size (non-skipped): 195

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Internalism54.0%54.0%0.0%12.1%22%5%
Externalism46.0%46.0%-0.0%12.1%22%5%

Sample size (non-skipped): 172

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Two boxes60.0%59.6%0.4%15.7%32%11%
One box40.0%40.4%-0.4%15.7%32%11%

Sample size (non-skipped): 158

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Consequentialism41.5%34.9%6.5%12.0%19%6%
Deontology34.4%38.3%-3.9%10.9%15%3%
Virtue ethics24.2%26.8%-2.7%8.2%5%1%

Sample size (non-skipped): 197

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Representationalism41.3%54.5%-13.2%17.4%43%13%
Qualia theory25.8%21.2%4.6%10.8%16%3%
Disjunctivism20.4%19.0%1.5%9.0%6%2%
Sense-datum theory12.6%5.4%7.2%8.1%6%2%

Sample size (non-skipped): 158

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Psychological view48.5%53.6%-5.1%13.0%26%7%
Biological view31.7%26.9%4.9%11.4%17%5%
Further-fact view19.8%19.5%0.3%8.9%5%2%

Sample size (non-skipped): 182

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Egalitarianism50.1%59.0%-8.9%14.9%28%9%
Communitarianism26.0%24.2%1.8%9.1%11%2%
Libertarianism23.9%16.8%7.1%11.3%15%6%

Sample size (non-skipped): 172

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Millian55.6%54.6%1.1%14.6%29%9%
Fregean44.4%45.4%-1.1%14.6%29%9%

Sample size (non-skipped): 182

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Scientific realism67.0%86.6%-19.6%20.3%41%19%
Scientific anti-realism33.0%13.4%19.6%20.3%41%19%

Sample size (non-skipped): 204

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Survival54.5%53.7%0.8%15.6%33%14%
Death45.5%46.3%-0.8%15.6%33%14%

Sample size (non-skipped): 183

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
B-theory58.5%63.0%-4.5%12.9%16%6%
A-theory41.5%37.0%4.5%12.9%16%6%

Sample size (non-skipped): 141

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Switch70.5%89.9%-19.5%20.8%42%28%
Don't switch29.5%10.1%19.5%20.8%42%28%

Sample size (non-skipped): 191

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Correspondence47.3%61.6%-14.3%17.6%39%17%
Deflationary34.6%30.1%4.5%11.5%18%6%
Epistemic18.1%8.3%9.8%10.9%18%4%

Sample size (non-skipped): 196

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

OptionMean estimateActualMean errorMean |error||error| >= 20%|error| >= 30%
Conceivable but not metaphysically possible41.0%47.5%-6.5%15.3%30%10%
Metaphysically possible36.5%31.1%5.4%14.1%24%11%
Inconceivable22.5%21.4%1.1%9.5%7%3%

Sample size (non-skipped): 177

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