The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 287 / 484 (59.3%)
Accept or lean toward: no 137 / 484 (28.3%)
Other 60 / 484 (12.4%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 223 / 484 (46.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 139 / 484 (28.7%)
Other 122 / 484 (25.2%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 247 / 484 (51.0%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 123 / 484 (25.4%)
Other 114 / 484 (23.6%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 237 / 484 (49.0%)
Accept or lean toward: no 145 / 484 (30.0%)
Other 102 / 484 (21.1%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 189 / 484 (39.0%)
Other 174 / 484 (36.0%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 121 / 484 (25.0%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 273 / 484 (56.4%)
Other 86 / 484 (17.8%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 73 / 484 (15.1%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 52 / 484 (10.7%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 217 / 484 (44.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 105 / 484 (21.7%)
Other 86 / 484 (17.8%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 76 / 484 (15.7%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 275 / 484 (56.8%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 115 / 484 (23.8%)
Other 94 / 484 (19.4%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 211 / 484 (43.6%)
Other 143 / 484 (29.5%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 79 / 484 (16.3%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 51 / 484 (10.5%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Other 198 / 484 (40.9%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 175 / 484 (36.2%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 111 / 484 (22.9%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 177 / 484 (36.6%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 174 / 484 (36.0%)
Other 133 / 484 (27.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Other 192 / 484 (39.7%)
Accept or lean toward: classical 174 / 484 (36.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 118 / 484 (24.4%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Other 168 / 484 (34.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 160 / 484 (33.1%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 156 / 484 (32.2%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 228 / 484 (47.1%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 147 / 484 (30.4%)
Other 109 / 484 (22.5%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 241 / 484 (49.8%)
Other 124 / 484 (25.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 119 / 484 (24.6%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 228 / 484 (47.1%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 153 / 484 (31.6%)
Other 103 / 484 (21.3%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 247 / 484 (51.0%)
Other 123 / 484 (25.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 114 / 484 (23.6%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 190 / 484 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 172 / 484 (35.5%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 122 / 484 (25.2%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 323 / 484 (66.7%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 82 / 484 (16.9%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 79 / 484 (16.3%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Other 156 / 484 (32.2%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 133 / 484 (27.5%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 111 / 484 (22.9%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 84 / 484 (17.4%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 222 / 484 (45.9%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 109 / 484 (22.5%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 73 / 484 (15.1%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 41 / 484 (8.5%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 39 / 484 (8.1%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 199 / 484 (41.1%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 153 / 484 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 72 / 484 (14.9%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 60 / 484 (12.4%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 143 / 484 (29.5%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 115 / 484 (23.8%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 115 / 484 (23.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 111 / 484 (22.9%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 270 / 484 (55.8%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 142 / 484 (29.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 72 / 484 (14.9%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 297 / 484 (61.4%)
Other 103 / 484 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 84 / 484 (17.4%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Other 211 / 484 (43.6%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 151 / 484 (31.2%)
Accept or lean toward: death 122 / 484 (25.2%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 340 / 484 (70.2%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 77 / 484 (15.9%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 67 / 484 (13.8%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 253 / 484 (52.3%)
Other 184 / 484 (38.0%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 47 / 484 (9.7%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 177 / 484 (36.6%)
Other 129 / 484 (26.7%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 104 / 484 (21.5%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 74 / 484 (15.3%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 159 / 484 (32.9%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 116 / 484 (24.0%)
Other 110 / 484 (22.7%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 99 / 484 (20.5%)

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