The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 88 / 187 (47.1%)
Lean toward: yes 47 / 187 (25.1%)
Lean toward: no 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept: no 13 / 187 (7.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Lean toward: nominalism 50 / 187 (26.7%)
Lean toward: Platonism 41 / 187 (21.9%)
Accept: nominalism 19 / 187 (10.2%)
Accept: Platonism 19 / 187 (10.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 17 / 187 (9.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Reject both 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 187 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Lean toward: objective 48 / 187 (25.7%)
Accept: subjective 42 / 187 (22.5%)
Accept: objective 28 / 187 (15.0%)
Lean toward: subjective 25 / 187 (13.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Accept both 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Skip 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Reject both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept: yes 71 / 187 (38.0%)
Lean toward: yes 63 / 187 (33.7%)
Lean toward: no 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Accept: no 19 / 187 (10.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 187 (1.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 48 / 187 (25.7%)
Lean toward: internalism 44 / 187 (23.5%)
Accept: externalism 25 / 187 (13.4%)
Accept: internalism 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept both 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 187 (5.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Skip 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject both 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 117 / 187 (62.6%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 45 / 187 (24.1%)
Lean toward: skepticism 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Lean toward: idealism 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept: skepticism 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 67 / 187 (35.8%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 49 / 187 (26.2%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Accept: libertarianism 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept: no free will 12 / 187 (6.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Lean toward: no free will 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Other 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept more than one 1 / 187 (0.5%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 130 / 187 (69.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept: theism 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Lean toward: atheism 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Other 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Lean toward: theism 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: contextualism 54 / 187 (28.9%)
Lean toward: invariantism 36 / 187 (19.3%)
Accept: contextualism 27 / 187 (14.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Accept: invariantism 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 187 (6.4%)
Lean toward: relativism 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept more than one 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept: relativism 1 / 187 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: empiricism 54 / 187 (28.9%)
Lean toward: rationalism 30 / 187 (16.0%)
Accept: rationalism 26 / 187 (13.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Accept: empiricism 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Accept both 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Reject both 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Lean toward: non-Humean 48 / 187 (25.7%)
Accept: non-Humean 45 / 187 (24.1%)
Lean toward: Humean 29 / 187 (15.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Accept: Humean 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Skip 4 / 187 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 187 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Lean toward: classical 48 / 187 (25.7%)
Accept: classical 42 / 187 (22.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 40 / 187 (21.4%)
Lean toward: non-classical 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Accept: non-classical 6 / 187 (3.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept both 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Skip 3 / 187 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 55 / 187 (29.4%)
Accept: externalism 42 / 187 (22.5%)
Lean toward: internalism 30 / 187 (16.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept: internalism 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept both 7 / 187 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 187 (1.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept: moral realism 77 / 187 (41.2%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 32 / 187 (17.1%)
Lean toward: moral realism 30 / 187 (16.0%)
Lean toward: moral anti-realism 20 / 187 (10.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 11 / 187 (5.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: naturalism 49 / 187 (26.2%)
Lean toward: naturalism 37 / 187 (19.8%)
Accept: non-naturalism 30 / 187 (16.0%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 26 / 187 (13.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Reject both 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: physicalism 60 / 187 (32.1%)
Lean toward: physicalism 40 / 187 (21.4%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 31 / 187 (16.6%)
Accept: non-physicalism 19 / 187 (10.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Reject both 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept: cognitivism 112 / 187 (59.9%)
Lean toward: cognitivism 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 12 / 187 (6.4%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 6 / 187 (3.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept both 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Reject both 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept: internalism 49 / 187 (26.2%)
Accept: externalism 46 / 187 (24.6%)
Lean toward: internalism 35 / 187 (18.7%)
Lean toward: externalism 26 / 187 (13.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 11 / 187 (5.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Reject both 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 50 / 187 (26.7%)
Accept: two boxes 34 / 187 (18.2%)
Lean toward: two boxes 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Accept: one box 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Lean toward: one box 17 / 187 (9.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Skip 7 / 187 (3.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: virtue ethics 27 / 187 (14.4%)
Accept: consequentialism 25 / 187 (13.4%)
Lean toward: consequentialism 19 / 187 (10.2%)
Lean toward: deontology 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept more than one 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept: deontology 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Reject all 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept: virtue ethics 11 / 187 (5.9%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 4 / 187 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 187 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 43 / 187 (23.0%)
Lean toward: representationalism 31 / 187 (16.6%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Accept: representationalism 16 / 187 (8.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 11 / 187 (5.9%)
Accept: disjunctivism 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Accept: qualia theory 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 5 / 187 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Skip 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept more than one 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Lean toward: sense-datum theory 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Other 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Reject all 1 / 187 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Lean toward: psychological view 55 / 187 (29.4%)
Accept: psychological view 19 / 187 (10.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Lean toward: biological view 17 / 187 (9.1%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept more than one 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept: further-fact view 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Accept: biological view 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Reject all 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 187 (3.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 187 (1.1%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Lean toward: egalitarianism 36 / 187 (19.3%)
Accept: egalitarianism 31 / 187 (16.6%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 19 / 187 (10.2%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Accept another alternative 12 / 187 (6.4%)
Accept more than one 11 / 187 (5.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 10 / 187 (5.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Reject all 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Accept: libertarianism 8 / 187 (4.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept: communitarianism 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Skip 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Fregean 39 / 187 (20.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 39 / 187 (20.9%)
Lean toward: Millian 35 / 187 (18.7%)
Accept: Millian 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Accept: Fregean 17 / 187 (9.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 17 / 187 (9.1%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Skip 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Reject both 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept both 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 73 / 187 (39.0%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 63 / 187 (33.7%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 187 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Skip 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject both 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Lean toward: survival 45 / 187 (24.1%)
Accept: death 30 / 187 (16.0%)
Accept: survival 29 / 187 (15.5%)
Lean toward: death 28 / 187 (15.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 21 / 187 (11.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 187 (6.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 187 (5.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Skip 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Reject both 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 86 / 187 (46.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 23 / 187 (12.3%)
Lean toward: B-theory 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept: B-theory 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Lean toward: A-theory 14 / 187 (7.5%)
Skip 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Accept: A-theory 9 / 187 (4.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 187 (2.7%)
Accept both 5 / 187 (2.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject both 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 107 / 187 (57.2%)
Lean toward: switch 40 / 187 (21.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 187 (4.8%)
Lean toward: don't switch 8 / 187 (4.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept: don't switch 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Reject both 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Other 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Accept both 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Lean toward: correspondence 53 / 187 (28.3%)
Lean toward: deflationary 43 / 187 (23.0%)
Accept: correspondence 34 / 187 (18.2%)
Accept: deflationary 15 / 187 (8.0%)
Lean toward: epistemic 11 / 187 (5.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 187 (5.3%)
Accept more than one 6 / 187 (3.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 187 (2.1%)
Accept: epistemic 3 / 187 (1.6%)
Reject all 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 187 (1.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 33 / 187 (17.6%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 27 / 187 (14.4%)
Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 26 / 187 (13.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 23 / 187 (12.3%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 187 (7.0%)
Accept: inconceivable 9 / 187 (4.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 187 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 187 (1.1%)
Other 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Reject all 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 187 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 187 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 187 (0.5%)

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