The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 80 / 148 (54.1%)
Lean toward: yes 24 / 148 (16.2%)
Lean toward: no 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Accept: no 15 / 148 (10.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 148 (2.0%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept: Platonism 43 / 148 (29.1%)
Lean toward: Platonism 32 / 148 (21.6%)
Lean toward: nominalism 24 / 148 (16.2%)
Accept: nominalism 19 / 148 (12.8%)
Accept another alternative 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Reject both 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 148 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 148 (2.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept both 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Lean toward: objective 43 / 148 (29.1%)
Lean toward: subjective 29 / 148 (19.6%)
Accept: subjective 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Accept: objective 19 / 148 (12.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 148 (5.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Accept both 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept: yes 63 / 148 (42.6%)
Lean toward: yes 39 / 148 (26.4%)
Lean toward: no 18 / 148 (12.2%)
Accept: no 18 / 148 (12.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 41 / 148 (27.7%)
Accept: externalism 26 / 148 (17.6%)
Lean toward: internalism 25 / 148 (16.9%)
Accept: internalism 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Accept both 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 148 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Skip 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Reject both 1 / 148 (0.7%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 83 / 148 (56.1%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Lean toward: skepticism 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Lean toward: idealism 5 / 148 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept: skepticism 3 / 148 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Reject all 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept more than one 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 48 / 148 (32.4%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Accept: libertarianism 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Lean toward: no free will 11 / 148 (7.4%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Accept: no free will 9 / 148 (6.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 148 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject all 1 / 148 (0.7%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 87 / 148 (58.8%)
Accept: theism 21 / 148 (14.2%)
Lean toward: atheism 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Lean toward: theism 9 / 148 (6.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject both 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: contextualism 40 / 148 (27.0%)
Lean toward: invariantism 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Accept: contextualism 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Accept: invariantism 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 12 / 148 (8.1%)
Lean toward: relativism 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 4 / 148 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Skip 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept: relativism 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject all 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: empiricism 32 / 148 (21.6%)
Lean toward: rationalism 24 / 148 (16.2%)
Accept: empiricism 23 / 148 (15.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 18 / 148 (12.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Accept: rationalism 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Accept both 14 / 148 (9.5%)
Reject both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 148 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept: non-Humean 39 / 148 (26.4%)
Lean toward: Humean 32 / 148 (21.6%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 29 / 148 (19.6%)
Accept: Humean 25 / 148 (16.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 148 (5.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 44 / 148 (29.7%)
Accept: non-classical 30 / 148 (20.3%)
Lean toward: classical 25 / 148 (16.9%)
Accept both 18 / 148 (12.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Lean toward: non-classical 6 / 148 (4.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Other 2 / 148 (1.4%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 36 / 148 (24.3%)
Accept: externalism 35 / 148 (23.6%)
Lean toward: internalism 27 / 148 (18.2%)
Accept: internalism 12 / 148 (8.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Accept both 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Skip 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject both 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 148 (2.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 148 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept: moral realism 45 / 148 (30.4%)
Lean toward: moral realism 36 / 148 (24.3%)
Lean toward: moral anti-realism 26 / 148 (17.6%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 25 / 148 (16.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 2 / 148 (1.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject both 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Lean toward: naturalism 40 / 148 (27.0%)
Accept: naturalism 35 / 148 (23.6%)
Accept: non-naturalism 22 / 148 (14.9%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 18 / 148 (12.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 12 / 148 (8.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Reject both 1 / 148 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: physicalism 44 / 148 (29.7%)
Lean toward: physicalism 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Accept: non-physicalism 17 / 148 (11.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Lean toward: cognitivism 45 / 148 (30.4%)
Accept: cognitivism 35 / 148 (23.6%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 19 / 148 (12.8%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 14 / 148 (9.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 32 / 148 (21.6%)
Lean toward: internalism 30 / 148 (20.3%)
Lean toward: externalism 24 / 148 (16.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 14 / 148 (9.5%)
Accept: internalism 12 / 148 (8.1%)
Accept: externalism 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Skip 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept both 5 / 148 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 148 (2.0%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept: two boxes 34 / 148 (23.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Accept: one box 22 / 148 (14.9%)
Lean toward: two boxes 20 / 148 (13.5%)
Lean toward: one box 15 / 148 (10.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Skip 6 / 148 (4.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject both 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept both 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: consequentialism 29 / 148 (19.6%)
Lean toward: deontology 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Lean toward: virtue ethics 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Accept: consequentialism 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Accept more than one 11 / 148 (7.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 11 / 148 (7.4%)
Accept: deontology 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept: virtue ethics 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject all 4 / 148 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Lean toward: representationalism 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 31 / 148 (20.9%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Accept: representationalism 11 / 148 (7.4%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 8 / 148 (5.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 8 / 148 (5.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Reject all 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept: qualia theory 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Lean toward: sense-datum theory 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Skip 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept: disjunctivism 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept more than one 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Lean toward: psychological view 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 17 / 148 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 17 / 148 (11.5%)
Lean toward: biological view 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Accept: biological view 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept: psychological view 9 / 148 (6.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 148 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept: further-fact view 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject all 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept more than one 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 2 / 148 (1.4%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept: egalitarianism 22 / 148 (14.9%)
Lean toward: egalitarianism 21 / 148 (14.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 20 / 148 (13.5%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 16 / 148 (10.8%)
Accept: libertarianism 11 / 148 (7.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Reject all 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept: communitarianism 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Skip 5 / 148 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Accept more than one 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Fregean 31 / 148 (20.9%)
Accept: Millian 28 / 148 (18.9%)
Lean toward: Millian 27 / 148 (18.2%)
Accept: Fregean 24 / 148 (16.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 10 / 148 (6.8%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 148 (6.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Reject both 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 72 / 148 (48.6%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 30 / 148 (20.3%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 22 / 148 (14.9%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject both 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept both 1 / 148 (0.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Lean toward: survival 30 / 148 (20.3%)
Lean toward: death 20 / 148 (13.5%)
Accept: death 20 / 148 (13.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 19 / 148 (12.8%)
Accept: survival 18 / 148 (12.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 18 / 148 (12.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 148 (6.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Skip 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 36 / 148 (24.3%)
Accept: B-theory 23 / 148 (15.5%)
Lean toward: B-theory 22 / 148 (14.9%)
Lean toward: A-theory 17 / 148 (11.5%)
Accept: A-theory 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 148 (8.1%)
Accept both 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Skip 6 / 148 (4.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Reject both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 55 / 148 (37.2%)
Lean toward: switch 34 / 148 (23.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 18 / 148 (12.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Accept: don't switch 6 / 148 (4.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Skip 5 / 148 (3.4%)
Lean toward: don't switch 4 / 148 (2.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 4 / 148 (2.7%)
Reject both 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept: correspondence 43 / 148 (29.1%)
Lean toward: correspondence 25 / 148 (16.9%)
Lean toward: deflationary 23 / 148 (15.5%)
Accept: deflationary 19 / 148 (12.8%)
Lean toward: epistemic 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Reject all 6 / 148 (4.1%)
Accept: epistemic 4 / 148 (2.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 148 (2.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 148 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 148 (1.4%)
Accept more than one 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 33 / 148 (22.3%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 26 / 148 (17.6%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 18 / 148 (12.2%)
Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 14 / 148 (9.5%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 13 / 148 (8.8%)
Accept: inconceivable 11 / 148 (7.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 148 (6.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 148 (4.7%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Other 1 / 148 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 148 (0.7%)
Skip 1 / 148 (0.7%)

Back to contents