The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 125 / 217 (57.6%)
Accept or lean toward: no 74 / 217 (34.1%)
Other 18 / 217 (8.3%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 122 / 217 (56.2%)
Other 53 / 217 (24.4%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 42 / 217 (19.4%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 123 / 217 (56.7%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 58 / 217 (26.7%)
Other 36 / 217 (16.6%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 112 / 217 (51.6%)
Accept or lean toward: no 62 / 217 (28.6%)
Other 43 / 217 (19.8%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 88 / 217 (40.6%)
Other 71 / 217 (32.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 58 / 217 (26.7%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 110 / 217 (50.7%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 49 / 217 (22.6%)
Other 29 / 217 (13.4%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 29 / 217 (13.4%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 91 / 217 (41.9%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 51 / 217 (23.5%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 47 / 217 (21.7%)
Other 28 / 217 (12.9%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 135 / 217 (62.2%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 44 / 217 (20.3%)
Other 38 / 217 (17.5%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 94 / 217 (43.3%)
Other 67 / 217 (30.9%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 30 / 217 (13.8%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 26 / 217 (12.0%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 92 / 217 (42.4%)
Other 69 / 217 (31.8%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 56 / 217 (25.8%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: Humean 96 / 217 (44.2%)
Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 65 / 217 (30.0%)
Other 56 / 217 (25.8%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 81 / 217 (37.3%)
Other 78 / 217 (35.9%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 58 / 217 (26.7%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Other 84 / 217 (38.7%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 72 / 217 (33.2%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 61 / 217 (28.1%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 97 / 217 (44.7%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 79 / 217 (36.4%)
Other 41 / 217 (18.9%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 105 / 217 (48.4%)
Other 65 / 217 (30.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 47 / 217 (21.7%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 113 / 217 (52.1%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 60 / 217 (27.6%)
Other 44 / 217 (20.3%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 95 / 217 (43.8%)
Other 71 / 217 (32.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 51 / 217 (23.5%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 83 / 217 (38.2%)
Other 71 / 217 (32.7%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 63 / 217 (29.0%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 142 / 217 (65.4%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 40 / 217 (18.4%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 35 / 217 (16.1%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Other 64 / 217 (29.5%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 64 / 217 (29.5%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 56 / 217 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 33 / 217 (15.2%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 101 / 217 (46.5%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 40 / 217 (18.4%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 39 / 217 (18.0%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 24 / 217 (11.1%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 13 / 217 (6.0%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 97 / 217 (44.7%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 66 / 217 (30.4%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 28 / 217 (12.9%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 26 / 217 (12.0%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 69 / 217 (31.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 56 / 217 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 56 / 217 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 36 / 217 (16.6%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 113 / 217 (52.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 65 / 217 (30.0%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 39 / 217 (18.0%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 117 / 217 (53.9%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 54 / 217 (24.9%)
Other 46 / 217 (21.2%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Other 86 / 217 (39.6%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 78 / 217 (35.9%)
Accept or lean toward: death 53 / 217 (24.4%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 140 / 217 (64.5%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 39 / 217 (18.0%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 38 / 217 (17.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 111 / 217 (51.2%)
Other 71 / 217 (32.7%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 35 / 217 (16.1%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 65 / 217 (30.0%)
Other 59 / 217 (27.2%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 52 / 217 (24.0%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 41 / 217 (18.9%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 78 / 217 (35.9%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 58 / 217 (26.7%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 44 / 217 (20.3%)
Other 37 / 217 (17.1%)

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