The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 192 / 234 (82.1%)
Accept or lean toward: no 30 / 234 (12.8%)
Other 12 / 234 (5.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 119 / 234 (50.9%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 74 / 234 (31.6%)
Other 41 / 234 (17.5%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 110 / 234 (47.0%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 78 / 234 (33.3%)
Other 46 / 234 (19.7%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 172 / 234 (73.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no 46 / 234 (19.7%)
Other 16 / 234 (6.8%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 112 / 234 (47.9%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 68 / 234 (29.1%)
Other 54 / 234 (23.1%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 200 / 234 (85.5%)
Other 17 / 234 (7.3%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 10 / 234 (4.3%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 7 / 234 (3.0%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 130 / 234 (55.6%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 50 / 234 (21.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 31 / 234 (13.2%)
Other 23 / 234 (9.8%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 167 / 234 (71.4%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 44 / 234 (18.8%)
Other 23 / 234 (9.8%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: invariantism 101 / 234 (43.2%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 81 / 234 (34.6%)
Other 46 / 234 (19.7%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 6 / 234 (2.6%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: rationalism 82 / 234 (35.0%)
Other 81 / 234 (34.6%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 71 / 234 (30.3%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 168 / 234 (71.8%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 45 / 234 (19.2%)
Other 21 / 234 (9.0%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 146 / 234 (62.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 45 / 234 (19.2%)
Other 43 / 234 (18.4%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 129 / 234 (55.1%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 56 / 234 (23.9%)
Other 49 / 234 (20.9%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 155 / 234 (66.2%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 59 / 234 (25.2%)
Other 20 / 234 (8.5%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 102 / 234 (43.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 78 / 234 (33.3%)
Other 54 / 234 (23.1%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 123 / 234 (52.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 80 / 234 (34.2%)
Other 31 / 234 (13.2%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 167 / 234 (71.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 36 / 234 (15.4%)
Other 31 / 234 (13.2%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 88 / 234 (37.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 74 / 234 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 72 / 234 (30.8%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 89 / 234 (38.0%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 88 / 234 (37.6%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 57 / 234 (24.4%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 67 / 234 (28.6%)
Other 65 / 234 (27.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 57 / 234 (24.4%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 45 / 234 (19.2%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 82 / 234 (35.0%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 73 / 234 (31.2%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 40 / 234 (17.1%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 27 / 234 (11.5%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 12 / 234 (5.1%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 77 / 234 (32.9%)
Other 76 / 234 (32.5%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 41 / 234 (17.5%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 40 / 234 (17.1%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 108 / 234 (46.2%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 66 / 234 (28.2%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 31 / 234 (13.2%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 29 / 234 (12.4%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept or lean toward: Millian 113 / 234 (48.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 66 / 234 (28.2%)
Other 55 / 234 (23.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 203 / 234 (86.8%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 19 / 234 (8.1%)
Other 12 / 234 (5.1%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 93 / 234 (39.7%)
Accept or lean toward: death 91 / 234 (38.9%)
Other 50 / 234 (21.4%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept or lean toward: B-theory 98 / 234 (41.9%)
Other 80 / 234 (34.2%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 56 / 234 (23.9%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 164 / 234 (70.1%)
Other 58 / 234 (24.8%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 12 / 234 (5.1%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 142 / 234 (60.7%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 54 / 234 (23.1%)
Other 32 / 234 (13.7%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 6 / 234 (2.6%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 82 / 234 (35.0%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 77 / 234 (32.9%)
Other 38 / 234 (16.2%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 37 / 234 (15.8%)

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