The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 20 / 31 (64.5%)
Other 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no 5 / 31 (16.1%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 9 / 31 (29.0%)
Other 7 / 31 (22.6%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 17 / 31 (54.8%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 9 / 31 (29.0%)
Other 5 / 31 (16.1%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 21 / 31 (67.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no 9 / 31 (29.0%)
Other 1 / 31 (3.2%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Other 10 / 31 (32.3%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 8 / 31 (25.8%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 28 / 31 (90.3%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 23 / 31 (74.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 4 / 31 (12.9%)
Other 2 / 31 (6.5%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 2 / 31 (6.5%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 25 / 31 (80.6%)
Other 3 / 31 (9.7%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Other 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 8 / 31 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 7 / 31 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Other 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 12 / 31 (38.7%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 4 / 31 (12.9%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: Humean 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Other 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 16 / 31 (51.6%)
Other 9 / 31 (29.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 6 / 31 (19.4%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 17 / 31 (54.8%)
Other 7 / 31 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 7 / 31 (22.6%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Other 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 20 / 31 (64.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Other 5 / 31 (16.1%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 27 / 31 (87.1%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 3 / 31 (9.7%)
Other 1 / 31 (3.2%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 17 / 31 (54.8%)
Other 7 / 31 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 7 / 31 (22.6%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Other 10 / 31 (32.3%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 8 / 31 (25.8%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept or lean toward: two boxes 19 / 31 (61.3%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 8 / 31 (25.8%)
Other 4 / 31 (12.9%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 18 / 31 (58.1%)
Other 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 4 / 31 (12.9%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 17 / 31 (54.8%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 8 / 31 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 4 / 31 (12.9%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 2 / 31 (6.5%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 13 / 31 (41.9%)
Other 10 / 31 (32.3%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 2 / 31 (6.5%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 17 / 31 (54.8%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 11 / 31 (35.5%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 2 / 31 (6.5%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 1 / 31 (3.2%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 8 / 31 (25.8%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 8 / 31 (25.8%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 24 / 31 (77.4%)
Other 4 / 31 (12.9%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Other 12 / 31 (38.7%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 11 / 31 (35.5%)
Accept or lean toward: death 8 / 31 (25.8%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 19 / 31 (61.3%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 10 / 31 (32.3%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 2 / 31 (6.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 24 / 31 (77.4%)
Other 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 1 / 31 (3.2%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 9 / 31 (29.0%)
Other 4 / 31 (12.9%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 3 / 31 (9.7%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 15 / 31 (48.4%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 7 / 31 (22.6%)
Other 6 / 31 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 3 / 31 (9.7%)

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