The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 112 / 191 (58.6%)
Lean toward: yes 34 / 191 (17.8%)
Lean toward: no 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Accept: no 14 / 191 (7.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept: Platonism 42 / 191 (22.0%)
Lean toward: Platonism 40 / 191 (20.9%)
Lean toward: nominalism 35 / 191 (18.3%)
Accept: nominalism 27 / 191 (14.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 191 (6.3%)
Reject both 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Lean toward: objective 46 / 191 (24.1%)
Lean toward: subjective 43 / 191 (22.5%)
Accept: objective 29 / 191 (15.2%)
Accept: subjective 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 13 / 191 (6.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept: yes 76 / 191 (39.8%)
Lean toward: yes 51 / 191 (26.7%)
Accept: no 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Lean toward: no 26 / 191 (13.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 50 / 191 (26.2%)
Accept: externalism 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Lean toward: internalism 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Accept: internalism 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 137 / 191 (71.7%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 30 / 191 (15.7%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Lean toward: skepticism 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept: skepticism 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject all 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Lean toward: idealism 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept: idealism 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 68 / 191 (35.6%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 49 / 191 (25.7%)
Accept: no free will 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Lean toward: no free will 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 12 / 191 (6.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Accept: libertarianism 9 / 191 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept more than one 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 132 / 191 (69.1%)
Lean toward: atheism 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Accept: theism 13 / 191 (6.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Skip 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Lean toward: theism 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: invariantism 51 / 191 (26.7%)
Lean toward: contextualism 44 / 191 (23.0%)
Accept: invariantism 32 / 191 (16.8%)
Accept: contextualism 24 / 191 (12.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Lean toward: relativism 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept: relativism 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Reject all 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: empiricism 40 / 191 (20.9%)
Lean toward: rationalism 29 / 191 (15.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 26 / 191 (13.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: rationalism 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: empiricism 21 / 191 (11.0%)
Accept both 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Reject both 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept: non-Humean 64 / 191 (33.5%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 62 / 191 (32.5%)
Lean toward: Humean 22 / 191 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 16 / 191 (8.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept: Humean 10 / 191 (5.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 56 / 191 (29.3%)
Lean toward: classical 48 / 191 (25.1%)
Lean toward: non-classical 18 / 191 (9.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept: non-classical 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept both 11 / 191 (5.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept: externalism 71 / 191 (37.2%)
Lean toward: externalism 37 / 191 (19.4%)
Accept: internalism 21 / 191 (11.0%)
Accept both 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Lean toward: internalism 13 / 191 (6.8%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 191 (4.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 191 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept: moral realism 62 / 191 (32.5%)
Lean toward: moral realism 58 / 191 (30.4%)
Lean toward: moral anti-realism 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 19 / 191 (9.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: naturalism 89 / 191 (46.6%)
Lean toward: naturalism 24 / 191 (12.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 22 / 191 (11.5%)
Accept: non-naturalism 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: physicalism 81 / 191 (42.4%)
Lean toward: physicalism 36 / 191 (18.8%)
Accept: non-physicalism 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 14 / 191 (7.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept: cognitivism 73 / 191 (38.2%)
Lean toward: cognitivism 55 / 191 (28.8%)
Lean toward: non-cognitivism 27 / 191 (14.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: internalism 45 / 191 (23.6%)
Lean toward: externalism 32 / 191 (16.8%)
Accept: internalism 31 / 191 (16.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Accept: externalism 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 52 / 191 (27.2%)
Accept: two boxes 34 / 191 (17.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 29 / 191 (15.2%)
Lean toward: two boxes 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Lean toward: one box 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Accept: one box 18 / 191 (9.4%)
Skip 10 / 191 (5.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: consequentialism 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Lean toward: deontology 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Lean toward: virtue ethics 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept more than one 19 / 191 (9.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept: consequentialism 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Accept: deontology 13 / 191 (6.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept: virtue ethics 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Accept: representationalism 44 / 191 (23.0%)
Lean toward: representationalism 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: disjunctivism 19 / 191 (9.9%)
Lean toward: disjunctivism 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Accept: qualia theory 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept another alternative 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept more than one 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Lean toward: sense-datum theory 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 4 / 191 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Lean toward: psychological view 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Accept: psychological view 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Lean toward: biological view 24 / 191 (12.6%)
Accept: biological view 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 13 / 191 (6.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 191 (6.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept: further-fact view 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept more than one 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Reject all 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Lean toward: egalitarianism 45 / 191 (23.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: egalitarianism 22 / 191 (11.5%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 18 / 191 (9.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Skip 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept more than one 8 / 191 (4.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept: communitarianism 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept: libertarianism 3 / 191 (1.6%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept: Millian 39 / 191 (20.4%)
Lean toward: Millian 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Lean toward: Fregean 34 / 191 (17.8%)
Accept: Fregean 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 191 (4.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept both 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 107 / 191 (56.0%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 53 / 191 (27.7%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept: death 46 / 191 (24.1%)
Lean toward: survival 46 / 191 (24.1%)
Lean toward: death 36 / 191 (18.8%)
Accept: survival 31 / 191 (16.2%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 49 / 191 (25.7%)
Accept: B-theory 41 / 191 (21.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 27 / 191 (14.1%)
Lean toward: A-theory 24 / 191 (12.6%)
Lean toward: B-theory 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept: A-theory 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Skip 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept both 4 / 191 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 95 / 191 (49.7%)
Lean toward: switch 48 / 191 (25.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Lean toward: don't switch 8 / 191 (4.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept: don't switch 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Other 4 / 191 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept: correspondence 67 / 191 (35.1%)
Lean toward: correspondence 56 / 191 (29.3%)
Lean toward: deflationary 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept: deflationary 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Lean toward: epistemic 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject all 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept more than one 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept: epistemic 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 51 / 191 (26.7%)
Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 40 / 191 (20.9%)
Accept: inconceivable 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 22 / 191 (11.5%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 21 / 191 (11.0%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 14 / 191 (7.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 191 (0.5%)

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