The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 146 / 191 (76.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no 28 / 191 (14.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: Platonism 82 / 191 (42.9%)
Accept or lean toward: nominalism 62 / 191 (32.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 191 (6.3%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Reject both 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 75 / 191 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 71 / 191 (37.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 13 / 191 (6.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 127 / 191 (66.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no 54 / 191 (28.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 88 / 191 (46.1%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 50 / 191 (26.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 167 / 191 (87.4%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 2 / 191 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 117 / 191 (61.3%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 21 / 191 (11.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 11 / 191 (5.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept more than one 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 157 / 191 (82.2%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Skip 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: invariantism 83 / 191 (43.5%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 68 / 191 (35.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject all 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 61 / 191 (31.9%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 52 / 191 (27.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 26 / 191 (13.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 23 / 191 (12.0%)
Accept both 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Reject both 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 126 / 191 (66.0%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 32 / 191 (16.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 16 / 191 (8.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 10 / 191 (5.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 104 / 191 (54.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept both 11 / 191 (5.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 108 / 191 (56.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 34 / 191 (17.8%)
Accept both 17 / 191 (8.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 191 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 120 / 191 (62.8%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 42 / 191 (22.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 113 / 191 (59.2%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 34 / 191 (17.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 22 / 191 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 117 / 191 (61.3%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 42 / 191 (22.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 14 / 191 (7.3%)
Accept another alternative 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 128 / 191 (67.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 35 / 191 (18.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 76 / 191 (39.8%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 60 / 191 (31.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Accept or lean toward: two boxes 54 / 191 (28.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 52 / 191 (27.2%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 29 / 191 (15.2%)
Skip 10 / 191 (5.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 47 / 191 (24.6%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 46 / 191 (24.1%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 31 / 191 (16.2%)
Accept more than one 19 / 191 (9.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 15 / 191 (7.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Accept another alternative 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Accept or lean toward: representationalism 82 / 191 (42.9%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 33 / 191 (17.3%)
Accept another alternative 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept more than one 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 71 / 191 (37.2%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 38 / 191 (19.9%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 20 / 191 (10.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 12 / 191 (6.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 191 (5.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept more than one 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Reject all 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 67 / 191 (35.1%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 28 / 191 (14.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 25 / 191 (13.1%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 21 / 191 (11.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 9 / 191 (4.7%)
Accept more than one 8 / 191 (4.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Skip 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Reject all 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 191 (2.1%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept or lean toward: Millian 77 / 191 (40.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 67 / 191 (35.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Accept another alternative 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Reject both 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept both 4 / 191 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 160 / 191 (83.8%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject both 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: death 82 / 191 (42.9%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 77 / 191 (40.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 7 / 191 (3.7%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Other 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept or lean toward: B-theory 56 / 191 (29.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 49 / 191 (25.7%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 39 / 191 (20.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 27 / 191 (14.1%)
Skip 8 / 191 (4.2%)
Accept both 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 191 (1.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Reject both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 143 / 191 (74.9%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 12 / 191 (6.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 11 / 191 (5.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 191 (2.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 191 (2.6%)
Other 4 / 191 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Skip 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject both 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept both 1 / 191 (0.5%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 123 / 191 (64.4%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 37 / 191 (19.4%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 7 / 191 (3.7%)
Accept more than one 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Reject all 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 191 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 191 (1.0%)
Skip 1 / 191 (0.5%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 91 / 191 (47.6%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 47 / 191 (24.6%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 35 / 191 (18.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 191 (3.1%)
Reject all 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 191 (2.1%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 191 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 191 (0.5%)

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