The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 25 / 38 (65.8%)
Accept or lean toward: no 11 / 38 (28.9%)
Other 2 / 38 (5.3%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 16 / 38 (42.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 17 / 38 (44.7%)
Other 15 / 38 (39.5%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 6 / 38 (15.8%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 25 / 38 (65.8%)
Accept or lean toward: no 11 / 38 (28.9%)
Other 2 / 38 (5.3%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 15 / 38 (39.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 27 / 38 (71.1%)
Other 9 / 38 (23.7%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 1 / 38 (2.6%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 1 / 38 (2.6%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 28 / 38 (73.7%)
Other 7 / 38 (18.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 2 / 38 (5.3%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 1 / 38 (2.6%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 26 / 38 (68.4%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 7 / 38 (18.4%)
Other 5 / 38 (13.2%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 20 / 38 (52.6%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 8 / 38 (21.1%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Other 18 / 38 (47.4%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 14 / 38 (36.8%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 6 / 38 (15.8%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 20 / 38 (52.6%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Other 8 / 38 (21.1%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 21 / 38 (55.3%)
Other 15 / 38 (39.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 2 / 38 (5.3%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 21 / 38 (55.3%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 17 / 38 (44.7%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 14 / 38 (36.8%)
Other 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 16 / 38 (42.1%)
Other 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 10 / 38 (26.3%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 19 / 38 (50.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Other 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 21 / 38 (55.3%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Other 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 19 / 38 (50.0%)
Other 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 28 / 38 (73.7%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 6 / 38 (15.8%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 4 / 38 (10.5%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 9 / 38 (23.7%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 6 / 38 (15.8%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 11 / 38 (28.9%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 4 / 38 (10.5%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 21 / 38 (55.3%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 4 / 38 (10.5%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 3 / 38 (7.9%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 17 / 38 (44.7%)
Other 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 5 / 38 (13.2%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 4 / 38 (10.5%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 12 / 38 (31.6%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 23 / 38 (60.5%)
Other 8 / 38 (21.1%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 7 / 38 (18.4%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Other 15 / 38 (39.5%)
Accept or lean toward: death 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 11 / 38 (28.9%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 27 / 38 (71.1%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 8 / 38 (21.1%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 3 / 38 (7.9%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 21 / 38 (55.3%)
Other 13 / 38 (34.2%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 4 / 38 (10.5%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 17 / 38 (44.7%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 14 / 38 (36.8%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 4 / 38 (10.5%)
Other 3 / 38 (7.9%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 12 / 38 (31.6%)
Other 10 / 38 (26.3%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 9 / 38 (23.7%)
Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 7 / 38 (18.4%)

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