The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 32 / 61 (52.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Other 14 / 61 (23.0%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 25 / 61 (41.0%)
Other 21 / 61 (34.4%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 15 / 61 (24.6%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 29 / 61 (47.5%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 18 / 61 (29.5%)
Other 14 / 61 (23.0%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 30 / 61 (49.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no 22 / 61 (36.1%)
Other 9 / 61 (14.8%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Other 26 / 61 (42.6%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 12 / 61 (19.7%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 48 / 61 (78.7%)
Other 9 / 61 (14.8%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 2 / 61 (3.3%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 37 / 61 (60.7%)
Other 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 9 / 61 (14.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 5 / 61 (8.2%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 47 / 61 (77.0%)
Other 12 / 61 (19.7%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 2 / 61 (3.3%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Other 26 / 61 (42.6%)
Accept or lean toward: contextualism 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 9 / 61 (14.8%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 3 / 61 (4.9%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 31 / 61 (50.8%)
Other 21 / 61 (34.4%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 9 / 61 (14.8%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 32 / 61 (52.5%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 19 / 61 (31.1%)
Other 10 / 61 (16.4%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 35 / 61 (57.4%)
Other 19 / 61 (31.1%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 7 / 61 (11.5%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Other 29 / 61 (47.5%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 9 / 61 (14.8%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 22 / 61 (36.1%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 22 / 61 (36.1%)
Other 17 / 61 (27.9%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 37 / 61 (60.7%)
Other 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 9 / 61 (14.8%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 44 / 61 (72.1%)
Other 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 6 / 61 (9.8%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 28 / 61 (45.9%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 18 / 61 (29.5%)
Other 15 / 61 (24.6%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Other 37 / 61 (60.7%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 13 / 61 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 11 / 61 (18.0%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 29 / 61 (47.5%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 17 / 61 (27.9%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 15 / 61 (24.6%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 22 / 61 (36.1%)
Other 20 / 61 (32.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 9 / 61 (14.8%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 26 / 61 (42.6%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 2 / 61 (3.3%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Other 32 / 61 (52.5%)
Accept or lean toward: psychological view 13 / 61 (21.3%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 6 / 61 (9.8%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 27 / 61 (44.3%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 17 / 61 (27.9%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 7 / 61 (11.5%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 27 / 61 (44.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 19 / 61 (31.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 15 / 61 (24.6%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 43 / 61 (70.5%)
Other 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 4 / 61 (6.6%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Other 25 / 61 (41.0%)
Accept or lean toward: survival 22 / 61 (36.1%)
Accept or lean toward: death 14 / 61 (23.0%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept or lean toward: B-theory 30 / 61 (49.2%)
Other 24 / 61 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 7 / 61 (11.5%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 38 / 61 (62.3%)
Other 23 / 61 (37.7%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 30 / 61 (49.2%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 21 / 61 (34.4%)
Other 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 3 / 61 (4.9%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Other 24 / 61 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 17 / 61 (27.9%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 6 / 61 (9.8%)

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