The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept: yes 21 / 61 (34.4%)
Lean toward: no 12 / 61 (19.7%)
Lean toward: yes 11 / 61 (18.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept: no 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 61 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Lean toward: nominalism 16 / 61 (26.2%)
Lean toward: Platonism 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept: nominalism 9 / 61 (14.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Reject both 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Accept: Platonism 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept: subjective 18 / 61 (29.5%)
Lean toward: objective 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Lean toward: subjective 11 / 61 (18.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Accept: objective 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Lean toward: yes 16 / 61 (26.2%)
Accept: yes 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Lean toward: no 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept: no 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 16 / 61 (26.2%)
Lean toward: internalism 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept both 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Accept: externalism 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 5 / 61 (8.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: internalism 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept: non-skeptical realism 37 / 61 (60.7%)
Lean toward: non-skeptical realism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Lean toward: skepticism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: skepticism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Lean toward: idealism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject all 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: idealism 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept: compatibilism 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Lean toward: compatibilism 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Accept: no free will 5 / 61 (8.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: no free will 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept: libertarianism 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 61 (1.6%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept: atheism 40 / 61 (65.6%)
Lean toward: atheism 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Reject both 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 61 (4.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Lean toward: theism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: theism 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Lean toward: contextualism 17 / 61 (27.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept: contextualism 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Lean toward: invariantism 6 / 61 (9.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: invariantism 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Skip 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Lean toward: relativism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: relativism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Lean toward: empiricism 20 / 61 (32.8%)
Accept: empiricism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Lean toward: rationalism 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept both 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: rationalism 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Skip 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept: non-Humean 23 / 61 (37.7%)
Lean toward: Humean 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Lean toward: non-Humean 9 / 61 (14.8%)
Accept: Humean 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Other 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept: classical 21 / 61 (34.4%)
Lean toward: classical 14 / 61 (23.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Accept: non-classical 4 / 61 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept both 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Lean toward: non-classical 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Lean toward: externalism 17 / 61 (27.9%)
Accept: externalism 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Lean toward: internalism 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 61 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: internalism 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept both 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Other 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Lean toward: moral anti-realism 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Accept: moral realism 12 / 61 (19.7%)
Lean toward: moral realism 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept: moral anti-realism 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 3 / 61 (4.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 61 (3.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept: naturalism 26 / 61 (42.6%)
Lean toward: naturalism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept: non-naturalism 7 / 61 (11.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: non-naturalism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept: physicalism 33 / 61 (54.1%)
Lean toward: physicalism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Accept: non-physicalism 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Lean toward: non-physicalism 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Lean toward: non-cognitivism 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Lean toward: cognitivism 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Accept: cognitivism 13 / 61 (21.3%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 7 / 61 (11.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept: non-cognitivism 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 18 / 61 (29.5%)
Lean toward: internalism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Lean toward: externalism 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 8 / 61 (13.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Skip 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept: externalism 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept: internalism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Agnostic/undecided 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept: two boxes 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Lean toward: one box 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Lean toward: two boxes 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Accept: one box 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 61 (8.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Reject both 2 / 61 (3.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Lean toward: consequentialism 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Accept: consequentialism 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Lean toward: deontology 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Lean toward: virtue ethics 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 61 (8.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept: deontology 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept: virtue ethics 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject all 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept more than one 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Lean toward: representationalism 15 / 61 (24.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 9 / 61 (14.8%)
Accept: representationalism 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Lean toward: qualia theory 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 3 / 61 (4.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept: disjunctivism 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: qualia theory 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Lean toward: sense-datum theory 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: sense-datum theory 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept: psychological view 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Lean toward: psychological view 6 / 61 (9.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 6 / 61 (9.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: biological view 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept: biological view 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept another alternative 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: further-fact view 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Reject all 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Lean toward: further-fact view 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept more than one 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Lean toward: egalitarianism 12 / 61 (19.7%)
Lean toward: libertarianism 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Lean toward: communitarianism 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Accept: egalitarianism 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Skip 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept more than one 2 / 61 (3.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject all 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Lean toward: Fregean 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Lean toward: Millian 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept: Fregean 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept: Millian 7 / 61 (11.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept: scientific realism 32 / 61 (52.5%)
Lean toward: scientific realism 11 / 61 (18.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Lean toward: scientific anti-realism 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept another alternative 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept: scientific anti-realism 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Lean toward: survival 12 / 61 (19.7%)
Accept: survival 10 / 61 (16.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept: death 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Lean toward: death 6 / 61 (9.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Skip 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Accept: B-theory 25 / 61 (41.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: B-theory 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: A-theory 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 3 / 61 (4.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept another alternative 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept: A-theory 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept both 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept: switch 24 / 61 (39.3%)
Lean toward: switch 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 61 (9.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 4 / 61 (6.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Skip 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Reject both 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept: correspondence 19 / 61 (31.1%)
Lean toward: deflationary 14 / 61 (23.0%)
Lean toward: correspondence 11 / 61 (18.0%)
Accept: deflationary 7 / 61 (11.5%)
The question is too unclear to answer 4 / 61 (6.6%)
Accept: epistemic 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Lean toward: epistemic 1 / 61 (1.6%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 10 / 61 (16.4%)
Accept: inconceivable 9 / 61 (14.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 8 / 61 (13.1%)
Accept: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 7 / 61 (11.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 6 / 61 (9.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: inconceivable 5 / 61 (8.2%)
Lean toward: metaphysically possible 4 / 61 (6.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 3 / 61 (4.9%)
Accept: metaphysically possible 2 / 61 (3.3%)
Accept another alternative 1 / 61 (1.6%)
Other 1 / 61 (1.6%)

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