The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 2147 / 3226 (66.6%)
Accept or lean toward: no 770 / 3226 (23.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 95 / 3226 (2.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 63 / 3226 (2.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 45 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 25 / 3226 (0.8%)
Skip 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 23 / 3226 (0.7%)
Accept both 12 / 3226 (0.4%)
Reject both 9 / 3226 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 3226 (0.2%)
Other 5 / 3226 (0.2%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 1454 / 3226 (45.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 1016 / 3226 (31.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 156 / 3226 (4.8%)
Accept another alternative 125 / 3226 (3.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 119 / 3226 (3.7%)
Reject both 110 / 3226 (3.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 99 / 3226 (3.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 45 / 3226 (1.4%)
Skip 41 / 3226 (1.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 29 / 3226 (0.9%)
Accept both 19 / 3226 (0.6%)
Other 13 / 3226 (0.4%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: subjective 1349 / 3226 (41.8%)
Accept or lean toward: objective 1122 / 3226 (34.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 206 / 3226 (6.4%)
Accept both 119 / 3226 (3.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 104 / 3226 (3.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 98 / 3226 (3.0%)
The question is too unclear to answer 82 / 3226 (2.5%)
Accept another alternative 63 / 3226 (2.0%)
Skip 30 / 3226 (0.9%)
Reject both 28 / 3226 (0.9%)
There is no fact of the matter 15 / 3226 (0.5%)
Other 10 / 3226 (0.3%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 1886 / 3226 (58.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no 937 / 3226 (29.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 101 / 3226 (3.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 92 / 3226 (2.9%)
Skip 51 / 3226 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 50 / 3226 (1.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 48 / 3226 (1.5%)
Accept both 18 / 3226 (0.6%)
Accept another alternative 17 / 3226 (0.5%)
Other 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Reject both 9 / 3226 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 6 / 3226 (0.2%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 1368 / 3226 (42.4%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 864 / 3226 (26.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 266 / 3226 (8.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 198 / 3226 (6.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 144 / 3226 (4.5%)
Accept both 132 / 3226 (4.1%)
Skip 73 / 3226 (2.3%)
Reject both 51 / 3226 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 49 / 3226 (1.5%)
Accept another alternative 44 / 3226 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 26 / 3226 (0.8%)
Other 11 / 3226 (0.3%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 2305 / 3226 (71.5%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 310 / 3226 (9.6%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 255 / 3226 (7.9%)
Accept another alternative 60 / 3226 (1.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 53 / 3226 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 48 / 3226 (1.5%)
Reject all 39 / 3226 (1.2%)
Skip 30 / 3226 (0.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 28 / 3226 (0.9%)
Accept more than one 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
Reject one, undecided between others 22 / 3226 (0.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 20 / 3226 (0.6%)
Other 16 / 3226 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 16 / 3226 (0.5%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 1661 / 3226 (51.5%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 591 / 3226 (18.3%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 491 / 3226 (15.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 112 / 3226 (3.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 62 / 3226 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 61 / 3226 (1.9%)
Accept another alternative 53 / 3226 (1.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 38 / 3226 (1.2%)
Reject all 37 / 3226 (1.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 32 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 30 / 3226 (0.9%)
Skip 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
Accept more than one 23 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 11 / 3226 (0.3%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 2136 / 3226 (66.2%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 599 / 3226 (18.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 227 / 3226 (7.0%)
Reject both 55 / 3226 (1.7%)
Accept another alternative 52 / 3226 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 41 / 3226 (1.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 31 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 27 / 3226 (0.8%)
Skip 25 / 3226 (0.8%)
Accept both 16 / 3226 (0.5%)
Other 16 / 3226 (0.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1 / 3226 (0.0%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 1366 / 3226 (42.3%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 772 / 3226 (23.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 372 / 3226 (11.5%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 201 / 3226 (6.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 151 / 3226 (4.7%)
Skip 74 / 3226 (2.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 47 / 3226 (1.5%)
Accept more than one 47 / 3226 (1.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 45 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 42 / 3226 (1.3%)
Reject all 37 / 3226 (1.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 33 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 23 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 16 / 3226 (0.5%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 1254 / 3226 (38.9%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 814 / 3226 (25.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 373 / 3226 (11.6%)
Accept both 231 / 3226 (7.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 178 / 3226 (5.5%)
Reject both 117 / 3226 (3.6%)
Accept another alternative 106 / 3226 (3.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 64 / 3226 (2.0%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 40 / 3226 (1.2%)
Skip 27 / 3226 (0.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Other 11 / 3226 (0.3%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 1472 / 3226 (45.6%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 1027 / 3226 (31.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 288 / 3226 (8.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 200 / 3226 (6.2%)
Skip 68 / 3226 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 49 / 3226 (1.5%)
Accept another alternative 41 / 3226 (1.3%)
Reject both 30 / 3226 (0.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 21 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 12 / 3226 (0.4%)
Accept both 9 / 3226 (0.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 9 / 3226 (0.3%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 1432 / 3226 (44.4%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 651 / 3226 (20.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 468 / 3226 (14.5%)
Accept both 221 / 3226 (6.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 141 / 3226 (4.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 89 / 3226 (2.8%)
Skip 69 / 3226 (2.1%)
There is no fact of the matter 62 / 3226 (1.9%)
Accept an intermediate view 34 / 3226 (1.1%)
Accept another alternative 25 / 3226 (0.8%)
Reject both 22 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 12 / 3226 (0.4%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 1404 / 3226 (43.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 830 / 3226 (25.7%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 283 / 3226 (8.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 152 / 3226 (4.7%)
Agnostic/undecided 145 / 3226 (4.5%)
Accept both 131 / 3226 (4.1%)
Skip 76 / 3226 (2.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 64 / 3226 (2.0%)
Reject both 55 / 3226 (1.7%)
Accept another alternative 47 / 3226 (1.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 22 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 17 / 3226 (0.5%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 1694 / 3226 (52.5%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 997 / 3226 (30.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 130 / 3226 (4.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 86 / 3226 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 81 / 3226 (2.5%)
Accept another alternative 58 / 3226 (1.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 53 / 3226 (1.6%)
Skip 48 / 3226 (1.5%)
Reject both 42 / 3226 (1.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 15 / 3226 (0.5%)
Accept both 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Other 11 / 3226 (0.3%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 1619 / 3226 (50.2%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 826 / 3226 (25.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 287 / 3226 (8.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 193 / 3226 (6.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 88 / 3226 (2.7%)
Skip 55 / 3226 (1.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 52 / 3226 (1.6%)
Reject both 31 / 3226 (1.0%)
Accept both 29 / 3226 (0.9%)
Accept another alternative 27 / 3226 (0.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 12 / 3226 (0.4%)
Other 7 / 3226 (0.2%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 1741 / 3226 (54.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 941 / 3226 (29.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 125 / 3226 (3.9%)
Agnostic/undecided 86 / 3226 (2.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 80 / 3226 (2.5%)
Accept another alternative 65 / 3226 (2.0%)
Reject both 48 / 3226 (1.5%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 46 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept both 39 / 3226 (1.2%)
Skip 33 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 14 / 3226 (0.4%)
Other 8 / 3226 (0.2%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 1872 / 3226 (58.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 671 / 3226 (20.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 231 / 3226 (7.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 115 / 3226 (3.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 84 / 3226 (2.6%)
Skip 64 / 3226 (2.0%)
Accept both 58 / 3226 (1.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 44 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 42 / 3226 (1.3%)
Reject both 25 / 3226 (0.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Other 9 / 3226 (0.3%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 1155 / 3226 (35.8%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 917 / 3226 (28.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 498 / 3226 (15.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 168 / 3226 (5.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 126 / 3226 (3.9%)
Accept both 109 / 3226 (3.4%)
The question is too unclear to answer 84 / 3226 (2.6%)
Skip 79 / 3226 (2.4%)
Reject both 40 / 3226 (1.2%)
Accept another alternative 32 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 10 / 3226 (0.3%)
Other 8 / 3226 (0.2%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1254 / 3226 (38.9%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 708 / 3226 (21.9%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 628 / 3226 (19.5%)
Agnostic/undecided 278 / 3226 (8.6%)
Skip 188 / 3226 (5.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 51 / 3226 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 50 / 3226 (1.5%)
Reject both 23 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 17 / 3226 (0.5%)
Accept both 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Accept another alternative 9 / 3226 (0.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 9 / 3226 (0.3%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 804 / 3226 (24.9%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 786 / 3226 (24.4%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 656 / 3226 (20.3%)
Accept more than one 230 / 3226 (7.1%)
Accept an intermediate view 132 / 3226 (4.1%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 125 / 3226 (3.9%)
Accept another alternative 115 / 3226 (3.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 115 / 3226 (3.6%)
Reject all 90 / 3226 (2.8%)
There is no fact of the matter 48 / 3226 (1.5%)
Reject one, undecided between others 41 / 3226 (1.3%)
Skip 38 / 3226 (1.2%)
The question is too unclear to answer 31 / 3226 (1.0%)
Other 15 / 3226 (0.5%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Accept or lean toward: representationalism 844 / 3226 (26.2%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 631 / 3226 (19.6%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 435 / 3226 (13.5%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 358 / 3226 (11.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 214 / 3226 (6.6%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 190 / 3226 (5.9%)
Accept another alternative 106 / 3226 (3.3%)
Skip 102 / 3226 (3.2%)
Reject all 99 / 3226 (3.1%)
Reject one or two, undecided between others 74 / 3226 (2.3%)
Accept more than one 61 / 3226 (1.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 46 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept an intermediate view 34 / 3226 (1.1%)
Other 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 8 / 3226 (0.2%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 1071 / 3226 (33.2%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 517 / 3226 (16.0%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 407 / 3226 (12.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 341 / 3226 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 224 / 3226 (6.9%)
Accept more than one 122 / 3226 (3.8%)
Accept another alternative 114 / 3226 (3.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 94 / 3226 (2.9%)
Reject all 84 / 3226 (2.6%)
Accept an intermediate view 77 / 3226 (2.4%)
Skip 68 / 3226 (2.1%)
The question is too unclear to answer 62 / 3226 (1.9%)
Reject one, undecided between others 26 / 3226 (0.8%)
Other 19 / 3226 (0.6%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 974 / 3226 (30.2%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 582 / 3226 (18.0%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 541 / 3226 (16.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 343 / 3226 (10.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 162 / 3226 (5.0%)
Accept more than one 119 / 3226 (3.7%)
Accept another alternative 98 / 3226 (3.0%)
Accept an intermediate view 90 / 3226 (2.8%)
Reject all 89 / 3226 (2.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 75 / 3226 (2.3%)
Skip 69 / 3226 (2.1%)
Reject one, undecided between others 46 / 3226 (1.4%)
There is no fact of the matter 20 / 3226 (0.6%)
Other 18 / 3226 (0.6%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Accept or lean toward: Fregean 1001 / 3226 (31.0%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 851 / 3226 (26.4%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 709 / 3226 (22.0%)
Agnostic/undecided 192 / 3226 (6.0%)
Skip 102 / 3226 (3.2%)
Reject both 87 / 3226 (2.7%)
Accept another alternative 81 / 3226 (2.5%)
Accept an intermediate view 74 / 3226 (2.3%)
The question is too unclear to answer 54 / 3226 (1.7%)
Accept both 32 / 3226 (1.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 28 / 3226 (0.9%)
Other 15 / 3226 (0.5%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 2121 / 3226 (65.7%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 577 / 3226 (17.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 139 / 3226 (4.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 103 / 3226 (3.2%)
Agnostic/undecided 67 / 3226 (2.1%)
Reject both 51 / 3226 (1.6%)
The question is too unclear to answer 45 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 43 / 3226 (1.3%)
Skip 35 / 3226 (1.1%)
Accept both 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
There is no fact of the matter 13 / 3226 (0.4%)
Other 8 / 3226 (0.2%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 1117 / 3226 (34.6%)
Accept or lean toward: death 955 / 3226 (29.6%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 455 / 3226 (14.1%)
Agnostic/undecided 213 / 3226 (6.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 157 / 3226 (4.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 118 / 3226 (3.7%)
Skip 93 / 3226 (2.9%)
Reject both 26 / 3226 (0.8%)
Accept both 25 / 3226 (0.8%)
Accept another alternative 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
Other 24 / 3226 (0.7%)
Accept an intermediate view 19 / 3226 (0.6%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Insufficiently familiar with the issue 1213 / 3226 (37.6%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 708 / 3226 (21.9%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 496 / 3226 (15.4%)
Agnostic/undecided 279 / 3226 (8.6%)
Skip 175 / 3226 (5.4%)
Accept both 90 / 3226 (2.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 77 / 3226 (2.4%)
Reject both 52 / 3226 (1.6%)
There is no fact of the matter 45 / 3226 (1.4%)
Accept another alternative 39 / 3226 (1.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 30 / 3226 (0.9%)
Other 22 / 3226 (0.7%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 2016 / 3226 (62.5%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 287 / 3226 (8.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 277 / 3226 (8.6%)
Agnostic/undecided 172 / 3226 (5.3%)
There is no fact of the matter 127 / 3226 (3.9%)
The question is too unclear to answer 97 / 3226 (3.0%)
Skip 86 / 3226 (2.7%)
Reject both 65 / 3226 (2.0%)
Accept another alternative 37 / 3226 (1.1%)
Other 27 / 3226 (0.8%)
Accept an intermediate view 18 / 3226 (0.6%)
Accept both 17 / 3226 (0.5%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 1450 / 3226 (44.9%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 670 / 3226 (20.8%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 447 / 3226 (13.9%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 172 / 3226 (5.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 107 / 3226 (3.3%)
Accept another alternative 71 / 3226 (2.2%)
Reject all 68 / 3226 (2.1%)
Accept more than one 60 / 3226 (1.9%)
Skip 58 / 3226 (1.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 40 / 3226 (1.2%)
Accept an intermediate view 31 / 3226 (1.0%)
Reject one, undecided between others 28 / 3226 (0.9%)
Other 15 / 3226 (0.5%)
There is no fact of the matter 9 / 3226 (0.3%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 1139 / 3226 (35.3%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 777 / 3226 (24.1%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 607 / 3226 (18.8%)
Insufficiently familiar with the issue 234 / 3226 (7.3%)
Agnostic/undecided 156 / 3226 (4.8%)
The question is too unclear to answer 87 / 3226 (2.7%)
Skip 64 / 3226 (2.0%)
There is no fact of the matter 58 / 3226 (1.8%)
Reject all 37 / 3226 (1.1%)
Other 27 / 3226 (0.8%)
Accept another alternative 19 / 3226 (0.6%)
Reject one, undecided between others 11 / 3226 (0.3%)
Accept an intermediate view 6 / 3226 (0.2%)
Accept more than one 4 / 3226 (0.1%)

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