The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 63 / 84 (75.0%)
Accept or lean toward: no 13 / 84 (15.5%)
Other 8 / 84 (9.5%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 31 / 84 (36.9%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 30 / 84 (35.7%)
Other 23 / 84 (27.4%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 29 / 84 (34.5%)
Other 29 / 84 (34.5%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 26 / 84 (31.0%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 55 / 84 (65.5%)
Accept or lean toward: no 22 / 84 (26.2%)
Other 7 / 84 (8.3%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 34 / 84 (40.5%)
Other 29 / 84 (34.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 21 / 84 (25.0%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 64 / 84 (76.2%)
Other 9 / 84 (10.7%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 6 / 84 (7.1%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 5 / 84 (6.0%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 48 / 84 (57.1%)
Other 15 / 84 (17.9%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 12 / 84 (14.3%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 9 / 84 (10.7%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 60 / 84 (71.4%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 13 / 84 (15.5%)
Other 11 / 84 (13.1%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 38 / 84 (45.2%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 25 / 84 (29.8%)
Other 21 / 84 (25.0%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Other 38 / 84 (45.2%)
Accept or lean toward: empiricism 29 / 84 (34.5%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 17 / 84 (20.2%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 46 / 84 (54.8%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 21 / 84 (25.0%)
Other 17 / 84 (20.2%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 40 / 84 (47.6%)
Other 34 / 84 (40.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 10 / 84 (11.9%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 52 / 84 (61.9%)
Other 17 / 84 (20.2%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 15 / 84 (17.9%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 54 / 84 (64.3%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 20 / 84 (23.8%)
Other 10 / 84 (11.9%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 37 / 84 (44.0%)
Other 30 / 84 (35.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 17 / 84 (20.2%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 46 / 84 (54.8%)
Other 22 / 84 (26.2%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 16 / 84 (19.0%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 60 / 84 (71.4%)
Other 14 / 84 (16.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 10 / 84 (11.9%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 34 / 84 (40.5%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 31 / 84 (36.9%)
Other 19 / 84 (22.6%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 38 / 84 (45.2%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 25 / 84 (29.8%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 21 / 84 (25.0%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Other 26 / 84 (31.0%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 22 / 84 (26.2%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 20 / 84 (23.8%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 16 / 84 (19.0%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 33 / 84 (39.3%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 19 / 84 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 19 / 84 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 9 / 84 (10.7%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 4 / 84 (4.8%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 32 / 84 (38.1%)
Other 27 / 84 (32.1%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 13 / 84 (15.5%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 12 / 84 (14.3%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 35 / 84 (41.7%)
Other 26 / 84 (31.0%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 13 / 84 (15.5%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 10 / 84 (11.9%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 40 / 84 (47.6%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 28 / 84 (33.3%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 16 / 84 (19.0%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 59 / 84 (70.2%)
Other 17 / 84 (20.2%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 8 / 84 (9.5%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 40 / 84 (47.6%)
Accept or lean toward: death 26 / 84 (31.0%)
Other 18 / 84 (21.4%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 54 / 84 (64.3%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 15 / 84 (17.9%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 15 / 84 (17.9%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 67 / 84 (79.8%)
Other 13 / 84 (15.5%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 4 / 84 (4.8%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 34 / 84 (40.5%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 23 / 84 (27.4%)
Other 22 / 84 (26.2%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 5 / 84 (6.0%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 31 / 84 (36.9%)
Other 19 / 84 (22.6%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 18 / 84 (21.4%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 16 / 84 (19.0%)

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