The PhilPapers SurveysPreliminary Survey results (Back to contents)

Note: set response grain to "fine" for details on "other" responses.

Population  AOS Response details

A priori knowledge: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 135 / 187 (72.2%)
Accept or lean toward: no 31 / 187 (16.6%)
Other 21 / 187 (11.2%)

Abstract objects: Platonism or nominalism?

Accept or lean toward: nominalism 69 / 187 (36.9%)
Accept or lean toward: Platonism 60 / 187 (32.1%)
Other 58 / 187 (31.0%)

Aesthetic value: objective or subjective?

Accept or lean toward: objective 76 / 187 (40.6%)
Accept or lean toward: subjective 67 / 187 (35.8%)
Other 44 / 187 (23.5%)

Analytic-synthetic distinction: yes or no?

Accept or lean toward: yes 134 / 187 (71.7%)
Accept or lean toward: no 40 / 187 (21.4%)
Other 13 / 187 (7.0%)

Epistemic justification: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 73 / 187 (39.0%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 62 / 187 (33.2%)
Other 52 / 187 (27.8%)

External world: idealism, skepticism, or non-skeptical realism?

Accept or lean toward: non-skeptical realism 162 / 187 (86.6%)
Other 11 / 187 (5.9%)
Accept or lean toward: skepticism 10 / 187 (5.3%)
Accept or lean toward: idealism 4 / 187 (2.1%)

Free will: compatibilism, libertarianism, or no free will?

Accept or lean toward: compatibilism 116 / 187 (62.0%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 27 / 187 (14.4%)
Other 25 / 187 (13.4%)
Accept or lean toward: no free will 19 / 187 (10.2%)

God: theism or atheism?

Accept or lean toward: atheism 143 / 187 (76.5%)
Other 26 / 187 (13.9%)
Accept or lean toward: theism 18 / 187 (9.6%)

Knowledge claims: contextualism, relativism, or invariantism?

Accept or lean toward: contextualism 81 / 187 (43.3%)
Accept or lean toward: invariantism 56 / 187 (29.9%)
Other 43 / 187 (23.0%)
Accept or lean toward: relativism 7 / 187 (3.7%)

Knowledge: empiricism or rationalism?

Accept or lean toward: empiricism 69 / 187 (36.9%)
Other 62 / 187 (33.2%)
Accept or lean toward: rationalism 56 / 187 (29.9%)

Laws of nature: Humean or non-Humean?

Accept or lean toward: non-Humean 93 / 187 (49.7%)
Other 52 / 187 (27.8%)
Accept or lean toward: Humean 42 / 187 (22.5%)

Logic: classical or non-classical?

Accept or lean toward: classical 90 / 187 (48.1%)
Other 71 / 187 (38.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-classical 26 / 187 (13.9%)

Mental content: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: externalism 97 / 187 (51.9%)
Other 52 / 187 (27.8%)
Accept or lean toward: internalism 38 / 187 (20.3%)

Meta-ethics: moral realism or moral anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: moral realism 107 / 187 (57.2%)
Accept or lean toward: moral anti-realism 52 / 187 (27.8%)
Other 28 / 187 (15.0%)

Metaphilosophy: naturalism or non-naturalism?

Accept or lean toward: naturalism 86 / 187 (46.0%)
Accept or lean toward: non-naturalism 56 / 187 (29.9%)
Other 45 / 187 (24.1%)

Mind: physicalism or non-physicalism?

Accept or lean toward: physicalism 100 / 187 (53.5%)
Accept or lean toward: non-physicalism 50 / 187 (26.7%)
Other 37 / 187 (19.8%)

Moral judgment: cognitivism or non-cognitivism?

Accept or lean toward: cognitivism 136 / 187 (72.7%)
Accept or lean toward: non-cognitivism 26 / 187 (13.9%)
Other 25 / 187 (13.4%)

Moral motivation: internalism or externalism?

Accept or lean toward: internalism 84 / 187 (44.9%)
Accept or lean toward: externalism 72 / 187 (38.5%)
Other 31 / 187 (16.6%)

Newcomb's problem: one box or two boxes?

Other 91 / 187 (48.7%)
Accept or lean toward: two boxes 58 / 187 (31.0%)
Accept or lean toward: one box 38 / 187 (20.3%)

Normative ethics: deontology, consequentialism, or virtue ethics?

Other 69 / 187 (36.9%)
Accept or lean toward: consequentialism 44 / 187 (23.5%)
Accept or lean toward: virtue ethics 38 / 187 (20.3%)
Accept or lean toward: deontology 36 / 187 (19.3%)

Perceptual experience: disjunctivism, qualia theory, representationalism, or sense-datum theory?

Other 87 / 187 (46.5%)
Accept or lean toward: representationalism 47 / 187 (25.1%)
Accept or lean toward: disjunctivism 32 / 187 (17.1%)
Accept or lean toward: qualia theory 18 / 187 (9.6%)
Accept or lean toward: sense-datum theory 3 / 187 (1.6%)

Personal identity: biological view, psychological view, or further-fact view?

Accept or lean toward: psychological view 74 / 187 (39.6%)
Other 67 / 187 (35.8%)
Accept or lean toward: biological view 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Accept or lean toward: further-fact view 22 / 187 (11.8%)

Politics: communitarianism, egalitarianism, or libertarianism?

Other 73 / 187 (39.0%)
Accept or lean toward: egalitarianism 67 / 187 (35.8%)
Accept or lean toward: communitarianism 24 / 187 (12.8%)
Accept or lean toward: libertarianism 23 / 187 (12.3%)

Proper names: Fregean or Millian?

Other 75 / 187 (40.1%)
Accept or lean toward: Fregean 56 / 187 (29.9%)
Accept or lean toward: Millian 56 / 187 (29.9%)

Science: scientific realism or scientific anti-realism?

Accept or lean toward: scientific realism 136 / 187 (72.7%)
Other 31 / 187 (16.6%)
Accept or lean toward: scientific anti-realism 20 / 187 (10.7%)

Teletransporter (new matter): survival or death?

Accept or lean toward: survival 74 / 187 (39.6%)
Accept or lean toward: death 58 / 187 (31.0%)
Other 55 / 187 (29.4%)

Time: A-theory or B-theory?

Other 132 / 187 (70.6%)
Accept or lean toward: B-theory 32 / 187 (17.1%)
Accept or lean toward: A-theory 23 / 187 (12.3%)

Trolley problem (five straight ahead, one on side track, turn requires switching, what ought one do?): switch or don't switch?

Accept or lean toward: switch 147 / 187 (78.6%)
Other 28 / 187 (15.0%)
Accept or lean toward: don't switch 12 / 187 (6.4%)

Truth: correspondence, deflationary, or epistemic?

Accept or lean toward: correspondence 87 / 187 (46.5%)
Accept or lean toward: deflationary 58 / 187 (31.0%)
Other 28 / 187 (15.0%)
Accept or lean toward: epistemic 14 / 187 (7.5%)

Zombies: inconceivable, conceivable but not metaphysically possible, or metaphysically possible?

Accept or lean toward: conceivable but not metaphysically possible 59 / 187 (31.6%)
Other 51 / 187 (27.3%)
Accept or lean toward: metaphysically possible 50 / 187 (26.7%)
Accept or lean toward: inconceivable 27 / 187 (14.4%)

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