Artificial Intelligence and Law 5 (4):291-322 (1997)

Abstract
Automated decision systems are often used to enforce legislation.As such, they have considerable regulating effects. These systemsregulate the behaviour of users and addressees mainly throughstandardization. This research classifies these systems intocategories according to which the regulating effects can bedescribed more clearly. Furthermore, this categorization resultsin a better understanding how problems encountered with atpresent can be avoided in the future. Many problems result fromthe way the development process has been organized. It turns outthe development process can be divided according to the time thesystems are developed with regard to the legislation they aim toenforce. Present procedures lack good monitoring of thedevelopment process. To this end, legal procedures are needed toensure that a legally correct product will be made, partiesinvolved should change their tune, system developers should bemore concerned with the legal status of the system and thelegislator should be actively involved in the development of thesystem. Moreover, an ex ante-evaluation should notice thepossible regulating effects caused by the system to ensure acorrect balance of the pros and cons. It should be ensured thatthese systems are effectively put to control. Transparency isindispensable.
Keywords automated legal decision systems  regulating effects  system development  transparency  control
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DOI 10.1023/A:1008298517919
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