Filozofska Istrazivanja 26 (4):783-797 (2006)

Authors
Marita Brčić Kuljiš
University of Split
Abstract
Immanuel Kant, svojim kopernikanskim obratom, vraća čovjeku središnje mjesto u svijetu. Čovjek se, u njegovoj filozofiji, shvaća kao individua koja posjeduje slobodu. Ta sloboda izvor ima u umu, a čovjek je postaje svjestan tek kada djeluje u skladu s moralnim zakonom. Na taj način Kant slobodu pridružuje svakom pojedincu, kao prirođeno pravo, koje nijedan pozitivni zakon ne može dovesti u pitanje. Svojim moralnim zakonom on čovjeka čini odgovornim, kako za sebe tako i za čitav svijet. Ta se odgovornost za svijet krije u ideji vječnoga mira za koju se Kant zalaže. Vječni mir jest ideja uma kojoj svaki pojedinac treba težiti. Tek će se u miru moći realizirati sva ljudska prava, a prvenstveno sloboda. Svojim je shvaćanjem slobode – ali i jednakosti, tolerancije, samostalnosti i javne upotrebe uma – Kant neupitno snažno utjecao na liberalnu misao. Ono što ih najviše povezuje jest vjera u pojedinca. I Kant i liberali vjeruju da je svaki pojedinac sam po sebi poseban i da želi ostvariti ono najbolje u sebi i za sebe, ali time i pridonijeti razvoju boljeg i pravednijeg svijeta.Immanuel Kant, with his Copernican Revolution, returns to human being central place in theworld. In his philosophy human being is understood as an individual that possess freedom. Thatfreedom has source in human mind but person is aware of it only when he acts according to themoral law. Thus Kant attaches freedom to every individual as a natural right which no positivelaw cannot get into question. With the moral law Kant makes every human being responsiblefor itself, but also for the whole world. This responsibility for the world has been contained inKant’s idea of perpetual peace. For him perpetual peace is an idea of the mind that every personhas to incline. Only when peace is going to role in the whole world, human rights, especiallyfreedom, are going to be realized. Kant’s concept of the freedom, but also of the equality, tole­rance, indipendence, public use of mind, has done a big influence on liberal thought. The thingthat brings them together is trust in an individual. Both Kant and liberals belive in the fact thatevery person is specific and wants to accomplish the best things in himself and for himself, butalso with that makes contribution for the development of a better and justly world
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