Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):346-346 (2003)

Abstract
In animals' natural lives, uncertainty is normal; and certainty, exceptional. Evaluating ambiguous information is essential for survival: Does what is seen, heard, or smelled mean danger? Does that gesture mean aggression or fear? Is he confident or uncertain? If they are conscious of anything, the content of animals' awareness probably includes crucial uncertainties, both their own and those of others.
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DOI 10.1017/S0140525X03290087
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The Study of Animal Metacognition.J. David Smith - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (9):389-396.

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