Emotional facial expressions can inform researchers about an individual's emotional state. Recent technological advances open up new avenues to automatic Facial Expression Recognition. Based on machine learning, such technology can tremendously increase the amount of processed data. FER is now easily accessible and has been validated for the classification of standardized prototypical facial expressions. However, applicability to more naturalistic facial expressions still remains uncertain. Hence, we test and compare performance of three different FER systems with human emotion recognition for standardized posed facial expressions and for non-standardized acted facial expressions. For the standardized images, all three systems classify basic emotions accurately and they are mostly on par with human raters. For the non-standardized stimuli, performance drops remarkably for all three systems, but Azure still performs similarly to humans. In addition, all systems and humans alike tend to misclassify some of the non-standardized emotional facial expressions as neutral. In sum, emotion recognition by automated facial expression recognition can be an attractive alternative to human emotion recognition for standardized and non-standardized emotional facial expressions. However, we also found limitations in accuracy for specific facial expressions; clearly there is need for thorough empirical evaluation to guide future developments in computer vision of emotional facial expressions.
Keywords No keywords specified (fix it)
Categories (categorize this paper)
DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.627561
Edit this record
Mark as duplicate
Export citation
Find it on Scholar
Request removal from index
Revision history

Download options

PhilArchive copy

Upload a copy of this paper     Check publisher's policy     Papers currently archived: 64,262
External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
Through your library

References found in this work BETA

View all 11 references / Add more references

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Add more citations

Similar books and articles

Facial Expression and Emotion.Paul Ekman - 1993 - American Psychologist 48 (4):384-392.
On Perceiving Facial Expressions: The Role of Culture and Context.Nalini Ambady & Max Weisbuch - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 479--488.
Influence of Personality Traits on Processing of Facial Expressions.Elaine Fox & Konstantina Zougkou - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press.
Multidimensional Scaling of Facial Expressions.Robert P. Abelson & Vello Sermat - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (6):546.


Added to PP index

Total views
1 ( #1,509,497 of 2,455,691 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
1 ( #449,201 of 2,455,691 )

How can I increase my downloads?


Sorry, there are not enough data points to plot this chart.

My notes