Spirituality with and without Religion—Differential Relationships with Personality

Archive for the Psychology of Religion 34 (1):33-61 (2012)
  Copy   BIBTEX


This study contributes to the exploration of self-rated spirituality by anchoring self-ratings of spirituality and religiosity in an integrative model of personality. For the measurement of personality dispositions and characteristic adaptations, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire have been administered to a sample of German-speaking students. A three-step study design is employed. First, previous findings on associations between personality and religiosity/spirituality are replicated and supplemented. Second, sources of meaning are shown to explain a considerably higher amount of unique variance in religiosity and spirituality than do personality dispositions. Third, two types of spirituality—religious-and-spiritual and spiritual-but-not-religious—are identified and distinguished on the basis of personality traits. The spiritual-but-not-religious type shows significantly higher degrees of Neuroticism, and lower degrees of Agreeableness. Possible interpretations and lines of future research on ‘spirituality without religion’ are sketched out



    Upload a copy of this work     Papers currently archived: 91,271

External links

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server

Through your library

Similar books and articles

Meaning-Making in an Atheist World.William J. F. Keenan & Tatjana Schnell - 2011 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (1):55-78.
Towards Religious-Spirituality: A Multidimensional Matrix of Religion and Spirituality.Sahaya G. Selvam - 2013 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 12 (36):129-152.
Narrative, transcendence & meaning: an essay on the question about the meaning of life.Martin Holmberg - 1994 - Stockholm, Sweden: Distributor, Almqvist & Wiksell International.
Spirituality in narratives of meaning.Francois Wessels & Julian C. Müller - 2013 - HTS Theological Studies 69 (2):1-7.
Sources of Dissatisfaction with Answers to the Question of the Meaning of Life.Timothy J. Mawson - 2010 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (2):19 - 41.


Added to PP

61 (#255,936)

6 months
9 (#269,798)

Historical graph of downloads
How can I increase my downloads?

Author's Profile

References found in this work

Meaning-Making in an Atheist World.William J. F. Keenan & Tatjana Schnell - 2011 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (1):55-78.

Add more references