Ann Microbiol Res 2 (1):45-50 (2018)

Abstract
Microbial biofilm created huge burden in treatment of both community and hospital infections. A biofilm is complex communities of bacteria attached to a surface or interface enclosed in an exopolysaccharide matrix and protected from unfavorable conditions such as presence of antibiotics, host defense or oxidative stresses. Biofilms are often considered hot spot for horizontal gene transfer among same or different bacterial species. Furthermore, bacteria with increased hydrophobicity facilitate biofilm formation by reducing repulsion between the extracellular matrix and the bacterium. There is a marked increase in the rate of persons nonresponsive to antibiotic therapy for infections of the Urinary Tract (UTIs), burns and upper respiratory tract due to biofilm formations. It is estimated that 90% of nosocomial infections are mediated by biofilm. The role of biofilm in infections has become so great that the treatment of such antibiotic resistance infections is proving difficult and costly to health care systems. The biofilm related infections varied from dental plaque, destruction of prosthetic valve to death of cystic fibrosis patients. This review aims to provide a summary of role of bacterial biofilm and its clinical implications for the patients.
Keywords Biofilm, Bacterial infections, Antibiotic resistance, Plasmids
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