In Bartłomiej Skowron (ed.), Contemporary Polish Ontology. De Gruyter. pp. 109-132 (2020)

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Abstract
The main goal of this paper is to outline a general formal-logical theory of language construed as a particular ontological being. The theory itself will be referred to as an ontology of language, because it is motivated by the fact that language plays a special role: it reflects ontology, and ontology reflects the world. Linguistic expressions will be regarded as having a dual ontological status: they are to be understood as either concreta – i.e. tokens, in the sense of material, physical objects – or types, in the sense of classes of tokens – i.e. abstract objects. Such a duality will then be taken into account in the logical theory of syntax, semantics and pragmatics presented here. We point to the possibility of constructing the latter on two different levels, one stemming from concreta, construed as linguistic tokens of expressions, the other from their classes – namely types, conceived as abstract, ideal beings. The aim of this work is not only to outline such a theory with respect to the dual ontological nature of the expressions of language in terms that take into account a functional approach to language itself, but also to show that the logic based on it is ontologically neutral in the sense that it is abstracted from the level at which certain existential assumptions relating to the ontological nature of these linguistic expressions and their extra-linguistic ontological counterparts (objects) would have to be embraced.
Keywords formal logic,  ontology,  ontology of language,  syntax  expression-token  expression-type,   semantics,   meaning, denotation,  ontic categories
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DOI 10.1515/9783110669411-007
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