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1054 found
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  1. Extension, Translation, and the Cantor-Bernstein Property.Thomas William Barrett & Hans Halvorson - manuscript
    The purpose of this paper is to examine in detail a particularly interesting pair of first-order theories. In addition to clarifying the overall geography of notions of equivalence between theories, this simple example yields two surprising conclusions about the relationships that theories might bear to one another. In brief, we see that theories lack both the Cantor-Bernstein and co-Cantor-Bernstein properties.
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  2. A BIBLIOGRAPHY: JOHN CORCORAN's PUBLICATIONS ON ARISTOTLE 1972–2015.John Corcoran - manuscript
    This presentation includes a complete bibliography of John Corcoran’s publications devoted at least in part to Aristotle’s logic. Sections I–IV list 20 articles, 43 abstracts, 3 books, and 10 reviews. It starts with two watershed articles published in 1972: the Philosophy & Phenomenological Research article that antedates Corcoran’s Aristotle’s studies and the Journal of Symbolic Logic article first reporting his original results; it ends with works published in 2015. A few of the items are annotated with endnotes connecting them with (...)
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  3. Zeno Paradox, Unexpected Hanging Paradox (Modeling of Reality & Physical Reality, A Historical-Philosophical View).Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    . In our research about Fuzzy Time and modeling time, "Unexpected Hanging Paradox" plays a major role. Here, we compare this paradox to the Zeno Paradox and the relations of them with our standard models of continuum and Fuzzy numbers. To do this, we review the project "Fuzzy Time and Possible Impacts of It on Science" and introduce a new way in order to approach the solutions for these paradoxes. Additionally, we have a more general discussion about paradoxes, as Philosophical (...)
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  4. Computational Reverse Mathematics and Foundational Analysis.Benedict Eastaugh - manuscript
    Reverse mathematics studies which subsystems of second order arithmetic are equivalent to key theorems of ordinary, non-set-theoretic mathematics. The main philosophical application of reverse mathematics proposed thus far is foundational analysis, which explores the limits of different foundations for mathematics in a formally precise manner. This paper gives a detailed account of the motivations and methodology of foundational analysis, which have heretofore been largely left implicit in the practice. It then shows how this account can be fruitfully applied in the (...)
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  5. Partitions and Objective Indefiniteness.David Ellerman - manuscript
    Classical physics and quantum physics suggest two meta-physical types of reality: the classical notion of a objectively definite reality with properties "all the way down," and the quantum notion of an objectively indefinite type of reality. The problem of interpreting quantum mechanics (QM) is essentially the problem of making sense out of an objectively indefinite reality. These two types of reality can be respectively associated with the two mathematical concepts of subsets and quotient sets (or partitions) which are category-theoretically dual (...)
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  6. Algunos tópicos de Lógica matemática y los Fundamentos de la matemática.Franklin Galindo - manuscript
    En este trabajo matemático-filosófico se estudian cuatro tópicos de la Lógica matemática: El método de construcción de modelos llamado Ultraproductos, la Propiedad de Interpolación de Craig, las Álgebras booleanas y los Órdenes parciales separativos. El objetivo principal del mismo es analizar la importancia que tienen dichos tópicos para el estudio de los fundamentos de la matemática, desde el punto de vista del platonismo matemático. Para cumplir con tal objetivo se trabajará en el ámbito de la Matemática, de la Metamatemática y (...)
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  7. Conceptual Schemes and the Indefinability of Goodness.Stephen Gutwald - manuscript
    The indefinability of concepts is explored through the idea of a conceptual scheme. Using the Stone duality of Boolean algebras indefinable concepts are categorized as specific types of subspaces. Additionally, indefinability is formulated as a type of algebraic independence and conceptual atomism is investigated from a mathematical perspective.
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  8. What is Mathematics: Gödel's Theorem and Around (Edition 2015).Karlis Podnieks - manuscript
    Introduction to mathematical logic, part 2.Textbook for students in mathematical logic and foundations of mathematics. Platonism, Intuition, Formalism. Axiomatic set theory. Around the Continuum Problem. Axiom of Determinacy. Large Cardinal Axioms. Ackermann's Set Theory. First order arithmetic. Hilbert's 10th problem. Incompleteness theorems. Consequences. Connected results: double incompleteness theorem, unsolvability of reasoning, theorem on the size of proofs, diophantine incompleteness, Loeb's theorem, consistent universal statements are provable, Berry's paradox, incompleteness and Chaitin's theorem. Around Ramsey's theorem.
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  9. Random Formula Generators.Ariel Jonathan Roffé & Joaquín Toranzo Calderón - manuscript
    In this article, we provide three generators of propositional formulae for arbitrary languages, which uniformly sample three different formulae spaces. They take the same three parameters as input, namely, a desired depth, a set of atomics and a set of logical constants (with specified arities). The first generator returns formulae of exactly the given depth, using all or some of the propositional letters. The second does the same but samples up-to the given depth. The third generator outputs formulae with exactly (...)
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  10. Category Theory: A Gentle Introduction.Peter Smith - manuscript
    This Gentle Introduction is very much still work in progress. Roughly aimed at those who want something a bit more discursive, slower-moving, than Awodey's or Leinster's excellent books. -/- The current [Jan 2018] version is 291pp.
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  11. Informal and Formal Proofs, Metalogic, and the Groundedness Problem.Mario Bacelar Valente - manuscript
    When modeling informal proofs like that of Euclid’s Elements using a sound logical system, we go from proofs seen as somewhat unrigorous – even having gaps to be filled – to rigorous proofs. However, metalogic grounds the soundness of our logical system, and proofs in metalogic are not like formal proofs and look suspiciously like the informal proofs. This brings about what I am calling here the groundedness problem: how can we decide with certainty that our metalogical proofs are rigorous (...)
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  12. Provably Games.J. P. Aguilera & D. W. Blue - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-22.
    We isolate two abstract determinacy theorems for games of length $\omega_1$ from work of Neeman and use them to conclude, from large-cardinal assumptions and an iterability hypothesis in the region of measurable Woodin cardinals thatif the Continuum Hypothesis holds, then all games of length $\omega_1$ which are provably $\Delta_1$ -definable from a universally Baire parameter are determined;all games of length $\omega_1$ with payoff constructible relative to the play are determined; andif the Continuum Hypothesis holds, then there is a model of (...)
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  13. Metrically Homogeneous Graphs of Diameter Three.Daniela Amato, Gregory Cherlin & H. Dugald Macpherson - forthcoming - Journal of Mathematical Logic.
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  14. Dependent Choice, Properness, and Generic Absoluteness.David Asperó & Asaf Karagila - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-25.
    We show that Dependent Choice is a sufficient choice principle for developing the basic theory of proper forcing, and for deriving generic absoluteness for the Chang model in the presence of large cardinals, even with respect to $\mathsf {DC}$ -preserving symmetric submodels of forcing extensions. Hence, $\mathsf {ZF}+\mathsf {DC}$ not only provides the right framework for developing classical analysis, but is also the right base theory over which to safeguard truth in analysis from the independence phenomenon in the presence of (...)
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  15. How Much Propositional Logic Suffices for Rosser's Essential Undecidability Theorem?Guillermo Badia, Petr Cintula, Petr Hajek & Andrew Tedder - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic.
    In this paper we explore the following question: how weak can a logic be for Rosser’s essential undecidability result to be provable for a weak arithmetical theory? It is well known that Robinson’s Q is essentially undecidable in intuitionistic logic, and P. Hájek proved it in the fuzzy logic BL for Grzegorczyk’s variant of Q which interprets the arithmetic operations as nontotal nonfunctional relations. We present a proof of essential undecidability in a much weaker substructural logic and for a much (...)
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  16. How Much Propositional Logic Suffices for Rosser’s Essential Undecidability Theorem?Guillermo Badia, Petr Cintula, Petr Hajek & Andrew Tedder - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-18.
    In this paper we explore the following question: how weak can a logic be for Rosser's essential undecidability result to be provable for a weak arithmetical theory? It is well known that Robinson's Q is essentially undecidable in intuitionistic logic, and P. Hajek proved it in the fuzzy logic BL for Grzegorczyk's variant of Q which interprets the arithmetic operations as non-total non-functional relations. We present a proof of essential undecidability in a much weaker substructural logic and for a much (...)
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  17. Defining Measures in a Mereological Space.Giuseppina Barbieri & Giangiacomo Gerla - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    We explore the notion of a measure in a mereological structure and we deal with the difficulties arising. We show that measure theory on connection spaces is closely related to measure theory on the class of ortholattices and we present an approach akin to Dempster’s and Shafer’s. Finally, the paper contains some suggestions for further research.
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  18. Structural Relativity and Informal Rigour.Neil Barton - forthcoming - In Objects, Structures, and Logics, FilMat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics.
    Informal rigour is the process by which we come to understand particular mathematical structures and then manifest this rigour through axiomatisations. Structural relativity is the idea that the kinds of structures we isolate are dependent upon the logic we employ. We bring together these ideas by considering the level of informal rigour exhibited by our set-theoretic discourse, and argue that different foundational programmes should countenance different underlying logics (intermediate between first- and second-order) for formulating set theory. By bringing considerations of (...)
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  19. Bolzano’s Mathematical Infinite.Anna Bellomo & Guillaume Massas - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-80.
    Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) is commonly thought to have attempted to develop a theory of size for infinite collections that follows the so-called part-whole principle, according to which the whole is always greater than any of its proper parts. In this paper, we develop a novel interpretation of Bolzano's mature theory of the infinite and show that, contrary to mainstream interpretations, it is best understood as a theory of infinite sums. Our formal results show that Bolzano's infinite sums can be equipped (...)
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  20. Characterizing Existence of a Measurable Cardinal Via Modal Logic.G. Bezhanishvili, N. Bezhanishvili, J. Lucero-Bryan & J. van Mill - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-15.
    We prove that the existence of a measurable cardinal is equivalent to the existence of a normal space whose modal logic coincides with the modal logic of the Kripke frame isomorphic to the powerset of a two element set.
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  21. The Additive Groups of ℤ and ℚ with Predicates for Being Square‐Free.Neer Bhardwaj & Minh Chieu Tran - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-26.
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  22. Frege’s Theory of Real Numbers: A Consistent Rendering.Francesca Boccuni & Marco Panza - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-44.
    Frege's definition of the real numbers, as envisaged in the second volume of Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, is fatally flawed by the inconsistency of Frege's ill-fated Basic Law V. We restate Frege's definition in a consistent logical framework and investigate whether it can provide a logical foundation of real analysis. Our conclusion will deem it doubtful that such a foundation along the lines of Frege's own indications is possible at all.
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  23. Logics of Formal Inconsistency Enriched with Replacement: An Algebraic and Modal Account.Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio & David Fuenmayor - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic.
    One of the most expected properties of a logical system is that it can be algebraizable, in the sense that an algebraic counterpart of the deductive machinery could be found. Since the inception of da Costa's paraconsistent calculi, an algebraic equivalent for such systems have been searched. It is known that these systems are non self-extensional (i.e., they do not satisfy the replacement property). More than this, they are not algebraizable in the sense of Blok-Pigozzi. The same negative results hold (...)
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  24. The Well-Ordered Society Under Crisis: A Formal Analysis of Public Reason Vs. Convergence Discourse.Hun Chung - forthcoming - American Journal of Political Science:1-20.
    A well-ordered society faces a crisis whenever a sufficient number of noncompliers enter into the political system. This has the potential to destabilize liberal democratic political order. This article provides a formal analysis of two competing solutions to the problem of political stability offered in the public reason liberalism literature—namely, using public reason or using convergence discourse to restore liberal democratic political order in the well-ordered society. The formal analyses offered in this article show that using public reason fails completely, (...)
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  25. On a Problem of Friedman and its Solution by Rybakov.Jeroen P. Goudsmit - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic:1-48.
    Rybakov (1984a) proved that the admissible rules of IPC are decidable. We give a proof of the same theorem, using the same core idea, but couched in the many notions that have been developed in the mean time. In particular, we illustrate how the argument can be interpreted as using refinements of the notions of exactness and extendibility.
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  26. On the Invariance of Gödel’s Second Theorem with Regard to Numberings.Balthasar Grabmayr - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-34.
    The prevalent interpretation of Gödel’s Second Theorem states that a sufficiently adequate and consistent theory does not prove its consistency. It is however not entirely clear how to justify this informal reading, as the formulation of the underlying mathematical theorem depends on several arbitrary formalisation choices. In this paper I examine the theorem’s dependency regarding Gödel numberings. I introduce deviant numberings, yielding provability predicates satisfying Löb’s conditions, which result in provable consistency sentences. According to the main result of this paper (...)
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  27. Compatibility and Accessibility: Lattice Representations for Semantics of Non-Classical and Modal Logics.Wesley Holliday - forthcoming - In David Fernández Duque & Alessandra Palmigiano (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Vol. 14. London: College Publications.
    In this paper, we study three representations of lattices by means of a set with a binary relation of compatibility in the tradition of Ploščica. The standard representations of complete ortholattices and complete perfect Heyting algebras drop out as special cases of the first representation, while the second covers arbitrary complete lattices, as well as complete lattices equipped with a negation we call a protocomplementation. The third topological representation is a variant of that of Craig, Haviar, and Priestley. We then (...)
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  28. Free Definite Description Theory – Sequent Calculi and Cut Elimination.Andrzej Indrzejczak - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy:1.
    We provide an application of a sequent calculus framework to the formalization of definite descriptions. It is a continuation of research undertaken in [20, 22]. In the present paper a so-called free description theory is examined in the context of different kinds of free logic, including systems applied in computer science and constructive mathematics for dealing with partial functions. It is shown that the same theory in different logics may be formalised by means of different rules and gives results of (...)
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  29. Disjunctions with Stopping Conditions.Roman Kossak & Bartosz Wcisło - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic:1-28.
  30. Complexity of the Infinitary Lambek Calculus with Kleene Star.Stepan Kuznetsov - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-27.
    We consider the Lambek calculus, or noncommutative multiplicative intuitionistic linear logic, extended with iteration, or Kleene star, axiomatised by means of an $\omega $ -rule, and prove that the derivability problem in this calculus is $\Pi _1^0$ -hard. This solves a problem left open by Buszkowski, who obtained the same complexity bound for infinitary action logic, which additionally includes additive conjunction and disjunction. As a by-product, we prove that any context-free language without the empty word can be generated by a (...)
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  31. Tractarian Logicism: Operations, Numbers, Induction.Gregory Landini - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-41.
  32. Groups of Worldview Transformations Implied by Einstein’s Special Principle of Relativity Over Arbitrary Ordered Fields.Judit X. Madarász, Mike Stannett & Gergely Székely - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-28.
    In 1978, Yu. F. Borisov presented an axiom system using a few basic assumptions and four explicit axioms, the fourth being a formulation of the relativity principle; and he demonstrated that this axiom system had (up to choice of units) only two models: a relativistic one in which worldview transformations are Poincaré transformations and a classical one in which they are Galilean. In this paper, we reformulate Borisov’s original four axioms within an intuitively simple, but strictly formal, first-order logic framework, (...)
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  33. Forcing Axioms and Coronas of [Math]-Algebras.Paul McKenney & Alessandro Vignati - forthcoming - Journal of Mathematical Logic.
    Journal of Mathematical Logic, Ahead of Print. We prove rigidity results for large classes of corona algebras, assuming the Proper Forcing Axiom. In particular, we prove that a conjecture of Coskey and Farah holds for all separable [math]-algebras with the metric approximation property and an increasing approximate identity of projections.
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  34. Sigma-Prikry Forcing II: Iteration Scheme.Alejandro Poveda, Assaf Rinot & Dima Sinapova - forthcoming - Journal of Mathematical Logic:2150019.
    In Part I of this series [5], we introduced a class of notions of forcing which we call [Formula: see text]-Prikry, and showed that many of the known Prikry-type notions of forcing that centers around singular cardinals of countable cofinality are [Formula: see text]-Prikry. We proved that given a [Formula: see text]-Prikry poset [Formula: see text] and a [Formula: see text]-name for a nonreflecting stationary set [Formula: see text], there exists a corresponding [Formula: see text]-Prikry poset that projects to [Formula: (...)
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  35. Sigma-Prikry Forcing II: Iteration Scheme.Alejandro Poveda, Assaf Rinot & Dima Sinapova - forthcoming - Journal of Mathematical Logic.
    In Part I of this series [5], we introduced a class of notions of forcing which we call Σ-Prikry, and showed that many of the known Prikry-type notions of forcing that centers around singular cardi...
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  36. Variations on Determinacy And.Ramez L. Sami - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-10.
  37. Definability Aspects of the Denjoy Integral.Walsh Sean - forthcoming - Fundamenta Mathematicae.
    The Denjoy integral is an integral that extends the Lebesgue integral and can integrate any derivative. In this paper, it is shown that the graph of the indefinite Denjoy integral f↦∫xaf is a coanalytic non-Borel relation on the product space M[a,b]×C[a,b], where M[a,b] is the Polish space of real-valued measurable functions on [a,b] and where C[a,b] is the Polish space of real-valued continuous functions on [a,b]. Using the same methods, it is also shown that the class of indefinite Denjoy integrals, (...)
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  38. Natural Formalization: Deriving the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem in Zf.Wilfried Sieg & Patrick Walsh - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-44.
    Natural Formalization proposes a concrete way of expanding proof theory from the meta-mathematical investigation of formal theories to an examination of “the concept of the specifically mathematical proof.” Formal proofs play a role for this examination in as much as they reflect the essential structure and systematic construction of mathematical proofs. We emphasize three crucial features of our formal inference mechanism: (1) the underlying logical calculus is built for reasoning with gaps and for providing strategic directions, (2) the mathematical frame (...)
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  39. A Note on Choice Principles in Second-Order Logic.Benjamin Siskind, Paolo Mancosu & Stewart Shapiro - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-12.
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  40. Rigour and Proof.Oliver Tatton-Brown - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-29.
    This paper puts forward a new account of rigorous mathematical proof and its epistemology. One novel feature is a focus on how the skill of reading and writing valid proofs is learnt, as a way of understanding what validity itself amounts to. The account is used to address two current questions in the literature: that of how mathematicians are so good at resolving disputes about validity, and that of whether rigorous proofs are necessarily formalizable.
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  41. Cantor's Abstractionism and Hume's Principle.Claudio Ternullo & Luca Zanetti - forthcoming - History and Philosophy of Logic:1-17.
    Richard Kimberly Heck and Paolo Mancosu have claimed that the possibility of non-Cantorian assignments of cardinalities to infinite concepts shows that Hume's Principle (HP) is not implicit in the concept of cardinal number. Neologicism would therefore be threatened by the ‘good company' HP is kept by such alternative assignments. In his review of Mancosu's book, Bob Hale argues, however, that ‘getting different numerosities for different countable infinite collections depends on taking the groups in a certain order – but it is (...)
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  42. The Characterization of Weihrauch Reducibility in Systems Containing E-Pa Ω + Qf-Ac0;0.Patrick Uftring - forthcoming - Journal of Symbolic Logic:1-35.
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  43. Notice of Retraction: Pseudofinite Difference Field.Tingxiang Zou - forthcoming - Journal of Mathematical Logic:1993001.
    Journal of Mathematical Logic, Ahead of Print.
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  44. Adequate Predimension Inequalities in Differential Fields.Vahagn Aslanyan - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (1):103030.
    In this paper we study predimension inequalities in differential fields and define what it means for such an inequality to be adequate. Adequacy was informally introduced by Zilber, and here we give a precise definition in a quite general context. We also discuss the connection of this problem to definability of derivations in the reducts of differentially closed fields. The Ax-Schanuel inequality for the exponential differential equation (proved by Ax) and its analogue for the differential equation of the j-function (established (...)
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  45. Computational Logic. Vol. 1: Classical Deductive Computing with Classical Logic. 2nd Ed.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - London: College Publications.
    This is the 3rd edition. Although a number of new technological applications require classical deductive computation with non-classical logics, many key technologies still do well—or exclusively, for that matter—with classical logic. In this first volume, we elaborate on classical deductive computing with classical logic. The objective of the main text is to provide the reader with a thorough elaboration on both classical computing – a.k.a. formal languages and automata theory – and classical deduction with the classical first-order predicate calculus with (...)
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  46. Mutual translatability, equivalence, and the structure of theories.Thomas William Barrett & Hans Halvorson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (3):1-36.
    This paper presents a simple pair of first-order theories that are not definitionally (nor Morita) equivalent, yet are mutually conservatively translatable and mutually 'surjectively' translatable. We use these results to clarify the overall geography of standards of equivalence and to show that the structural commitments that theories make behave in a more subtle manner than has been recognized.
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  47. On Representations of Intended Structures in Foundational Theories.Neil Barton, Moritz Müller & Mihai Prunescu - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (2):283-296.
    Often philosophers, logicians, and mathematicians employ a notion of intended structure when talking about a branch of mathematics. In addition, we know that there are foundational mathematical theories that can find representatives for the objects of informal mathematics. In this paper, we examine how faithfully foundational theories can represent intended structures, and show that this question is closely linked to the decidability of the theory of the intended structure. We argue that this sheds light on the trade-off between expressive power (...)
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  48. On Farkas' Lemma and Related Propositions in BISH.Josef Berger & Gregor Svindland - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (2):103059.
    In this paper we analyse in the framework of constructive mathematics (BISH) the validity of Farkas' lemma and related propositions, namely the Fredholm alternative for solvability of systems of linear equations, optimality criteria in linear programming, Stiemke's lemma and the Superhedging Duality from mathematical finance, and von Neumann's minimax theorem with application to constructive game theory.
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  49. The Vietoris Functor and Modal Operators on Rings of Continuous Functions.G. Bezhanishvili, L. Carai & P. J. Morandi - 2022 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 173 (1):103029.
  50. Combinatorics of Ultrafilters on Cohen and Random Algebras.Jörg Brendle & Francesco Parente - 2022 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 87 (1):109-126.
    We investigate the structure of ultrafilters on Boolean algebras in the framework of Tukey reducibility. In particular, this paper provides several techniques to construct ultrafilters which are not Tukey maximal. Furthermore, we connect this analysis with a cardinal invariant of Boolean algebras, the ultrafilter number, and prove consistency results concerning its possible values on Cohen and random algebras.
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1 — 50 / 1054