David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
Learn more about PhilPapers
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (1):1-13 (1991)
Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve U.S. energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful of energy resources and does not increase energy security. Considerably more energy, much of it high- grade fossil fuels, is required to produce ethanol than is available in the energy output. About 72% more energy is used to produce a gallon of ethanol than the energy in a gallon of ethanol. Ethanol production from corn is not renewable energy. Its production uses more non- renewable fossil energy resources in growing the corn and in the fermentation/distillation process than is produced as ethanol energy. Ethanol produced from corn and other food crops is also an unreliable and therefore a non-secure source of energy, because of the likelihood of uncontrollable climatic fluctuations, particularly droughts which reduce crop yields. The expected priority for corn and other food crops would be for food and feed. Increasing ethanol production would increase degradation of agricultural land and water and pollute the environment. In U.S. corn production, soil erodes some 18- times faster than soil is reformed, and, where irrigated, corn production mines water faster than recharge of aquifers. Increasing the cost of food and diverting human food resources to the costly and inefficient production of ethanol fuel raise major ethical questions. These occur at a time when more food is needed to meet the basic needs of a rapidly growing world population.
|Keywords||ethanol food energy environment pollution|
|Categories||categorize this paper)|
Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University's proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)
|Through your library|
References found in this work BETA
David Pimentel (1982). Biomass Energy. BioScience 32 (10):769-769.
Citations of this work BETA
Mario Giampietro & Sandra G. F. Bukkens (1992). Sustainable Development: Scientific and Ethical Assessments. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 5 (1):27-57.
David Pimentel, Megan Herz, Michele Glickstein, Mathew Zimmerman, Richard Allen, Katrina Becker, Jeff Evans, Benita Hussain, Ryan Sarsfeld, Anat Grosfeld & Thomas Seidel (2002). Renewable Energy: Current and Potential Issues. BioScience 52 (12):1111.
Similar books and articles
Larry L. Rasmussen (2011). Energy: The Challenges to and From Religion. Zygon 46 (4):985-1002.
Derek Lovejoy (1996). Limits to Growth? Science and Society 60 (3):266 - 278.
Grazyna Jasienska (2003). Energy Metabolism and the Evolution of Reproductive Suppression in the Human Female. Acta Biotheoretica 51 (1):1-18.
Bruce A. McDaniel (1983). Economic and Social Foundations of Solar Energy. Environmental Ethics 5 (2):155-168.
Larry L. Rasmussen, Normand M. Laurendeau & Dan Solomon (2011). Introduction to “the Energy Transition: Religious and Cultural Perspectives”. Zygon 46 (4):872-889.
William B. Irvine (2011). Overcoming Energy Gluttony: A Philosophical Perspective. Zygon 46 (4):915-928.
L. Lakatos, G. Hevessy & J. Kovács (2011). Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Energy and Wind-Power Utilization. World Futures 67 (6):395 - 408.
Lino Paula & Frans Birrer (2006). Including Public Perspectives in Industrial Biotechnology and the Biobased Economy. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (3):253-267.
Tiziano Gomiero, Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel (2010). Biofuels: Efficiency, Ethics, and Limits to Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Services. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (5):403-434.
Narendra Katkar (2011). 'Speed of Light -A Fundamental Retrospection to Prospection'. Journal of American Science 7 (5):16.
Added to index2009-01-28
Total downloads25 ( #101,765 of 1,696,808 )
Recent downloads (6 months)2 ( #250,888 of 1,696,808 )
How can I increase my downloads?