Howard Sankey University of Melbourne
About me
I'm a philosopher in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies at the University of Melbourne. I work mostly in epistemology and philosophy of science. My main interests relate to scientific realism, conceptual change, method and relativism. In recent years, I've been writing mostly about the relationship between epistemic relativism and scepticism. At present, I'm interested in the justification of perceptual belief and direct realism.
My works
97 found

Order:
  1.  66
    Realism, Progress and the Historical Turn.Howard Sankey - 2017 - Foundations of Science 22 (1):201-214.
    The contemporary debate between scientific realism and anti-realism is conditioned by a polarity between two opposing arguments: the realist’s success argument and the anti-realist’s pessimistic induction. This polarity has skewed the debate away from the problem that lies at the source of the debate. From a realist point of view, the historical approach to the philosophy of science which came to the fore in the 1960s gave rise to an unsatisfactory conception of scientific progress. One of the main motivations for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Properties, Powers and Structures: Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism.Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.) - 2016 - Routledge.
    While the phrase "metaphysics of science" has been used from time to time, it has only recently begun to denote a specific research area where metaphysics meets philosophy of science—and the sciences themselves. The essays in this volume demonstrate that metaphysics of science is an innovative field of research in its own right. The principle areas covered are: The modal metaphysics of properties: What is the essential nature of natural properties? Are all properties essentially categorical? Are they all essentially dispositions, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  44
    Fifty Years of Structure. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2016 - Metascience 25 (1):65-70.
    This is an essay review of W. J. Devlin and A. Bokulich (eds.) Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions 50 years on.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  19
    Over-Measurement.K. R. Sawyer, H. Sankey & R. Lombardo - 2016 - Measurement 93:379-384.
    Measurement is a special type of evaluation that is more exact than either opinion or estimation. In the social sciences, in particular, most evaluations are not measures, but rather mixtures of opinion and estimation. Over-measurement represents anchoring to evaluations which are not measures. For an over-measured characteristic, single measures are used when instead a portfolio of possible measures should be used. There are three implications. First, measurements of characteristics which depend on the over-measured characteristic are biased. Secondly, decisions which depend (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Constructively Engaging with Relativism. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2015 - Metascience 24 (2):265-269.
    Traditional epistemology is haunted by the spectre of scepticism. Yet the more pressing concern in the contemporary intellectual scene must surely be relativism rather than scepticism. This has been the case in the history and philosophy of science since the work of Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend, to say nothing of the emergence of the sociology of scientific knowledge.In Epistemic Relativism: A Constructive Critique, Markus Seidel comes firmly to grips with this modern spectre. Though Seidel devotes attention to other forms (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6. Ciencia, realidad y racionalidad.Howard Sankey - 2015 - University of Cauca Press.
  7.  68
    Scepticism, Relativism and a Naturalistic Particularism.Howard Sankey - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (4):395-412.
    This paper presents a particularist and naturalist response to epistemic relativism. The response is based on an analysis of the source of epistemic relativism, according to which epistemic relativism is closely related to Pyrrhonian scepticism. The paper starts with a characterization of epistemic relativism. Such relativism is explicitly distinguished from epistemological contextualism. Next the paper presents an argument for epistemic relativism that is based on the Pyrrhonian problem of the criterion. It then considers a response to the problem of the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8. Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey - 2014 - Routledge.
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  64
    Chisholm, scepticisme et relativisme.Howard Sankey - 2014 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 10 (6).
    Cet article esquisse une réponse particulariste et naturaliste au relativisme épistémique. La réponse est basée sur une analyse spécifique de la source de relativisme épistémique. Selon cette analyse, le relativisme épistémique doit être considérée en lien proche avec le scepticisme pyrrhonien, car le relativisme est basée sur le problème du critère qui a été propose par les ces anciens sceptiques. L’article commence avec une caractérisation du relativisme épistémique. Puis il présente un argument pour le relativisme épistémique sur la base du (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  97
    On Relativism and Pluralism: Response to Steven Bland.Howard Sankey - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 47:98-103.
    This paper responds to criticism presented by Steven Bland of my naturalistic approach to epistemic relativism. In my view, the central argument for epistemic relativism derives from the Pyrrhonian problem of the criterion. This opens relativism to an anti-sceptical response. I combine Roderick Chisholm’s particularist response to the problem of the criterion with a reliabilist conception of epistemic warrant. A distinction is made between epistemic norms which provide genuine warrant and those which do not. On the basis of this distinction, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11.  90
    Relativism, Particularism and Reflective Equilibrium.Howard Sankey - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (2):281-292.
    In previous work, I have sought to show that the basic argument for epistemic relativism derives from the problem of the criterion that stems from ancient Pyrrhonian scepticism. Because epistemic relativism depends upon a sceptical strategy, it is possible to respond to relativism on the basis of an anti-sceptical strategy. I argue that the particularist response to scepticism proposed by Roderick Chisholm may be combined with a naturalistic and reliabilist conception of epistemic warrant as the basis for a satisfactory response (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  72
    Revisiting Structure. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2014 - Metascience 23 (1):43-47.
    This is a book review of Vasso Kindi and Theodore Arabatzis (Eds.), Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13. Scientific Realism and Basic Common Sense.Howard Sankey - 2014 - Kairos 10:11-24.
    This paper considers the relationship between science and common sense. It takes as its point of departure, Eddington’s distinction between the table of physics and the table of common sense, as well as Eddington’s suggestion that science shows common sense to be false. Against the suggestion that science shows common sense to be false, it is argued that there is a form of common sense, basic common sense, which is not typically overthrown by scientific research. Such basic common sense is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14. Properties, Powers and Structures: Issues in the Metaphysics of Realism.Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.) - 2013 - Routledge.
    While the phrase "metaphysics of science" has been used from time to time, it has only recently begun to denote a specific research area where metaphysics meets philosophy of science—and the sciences themselves. The essays in this volume demonstrate that metaphysics of science is an innovative field of research in its own right. The principle areas covered are: The modal metaphysics of properties: What is the essential nature of natural properties? Are all properties essentially categorical? Are they all essentially dispositions, (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  84
    How the Epistemic Relativist May Use the Sceptic's Strategy: A Reply to Markus Seidel.Howard Sankey - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):140-144.
    This paper is a response to an objection that Markus Seidel has made to my analysis of epistemic relativism. Seidel argues that the epistemic relativist is unable to base a relativist account of justification on the sceptical problem of the criterion in the way that I have suggested in earlier work. In response to Seidel, I distinguish between weak and strong justification, and argue that all the relativist needs is weak justification. In addition, I explain my reasons for employing the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  16.  3
    How the Epistemic Relativist May Use the Sceptic’s Strategy: A Reply to Markus Seidel.Howard Sankey - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 44 (1):140-144.
    This paper is a response to an objection that Markus Seidel has made to my analysis of epistemic relativism. Seidel argues that the epistemic relativist is unable to base a relativist account of justification on the sceptical problem of the criterion in the way that I have suggested in earlier work. In response to Seidel, I distinguish between weak and strong justification, and argue that all the relativist needs is weak justification. In addition, I explain my reasons for employing the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17. Methodological Incommensurability and Epistemic Relativism.Howard Sankey - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):33-41.
    This paper revisits one of the key ideas developed in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In particular, it explores the methodological form of incommensurability which may be found in the original edition of Structure. It is argued that such methodological incommensurability leads to a form of epistemic relativism. In later work, Kuhn moved away from the original idea of methodological incommensurability with his idea of a set of epistemic values that provides a basis for rational theory choice, but do not (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  18.  86
    On Reason and Rationality. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2013 - Metascience 22 (3):677-679.
    This article is a book review of: M. C. Amoretti and N. Vassallo (eds.), Reason and Rationality, Metascience 22: 3 (2013), 677-9.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19. On the Evolution of Criteria of Theory Choice. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2013 - Metascience 22 (1):169-172.
    This article is a book review of Anastasios Brenner's book Raison Scientifique et Valeurs Humaines.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  69
    Measurability Invariance, Continuity and a Portfolio Representation.Kim Sawyer, Howard Sankey & Ric Lombardo - 2013 - Measurement 46 (1):89-96.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Thinking About Religion: Examining Progress in Religious Cognition.Aaron C. T. Smith & Howard Sankey - 2013 - In Gregory W. Dawes & James Maclaurin (eds.), A New Science of Religion. Routledge.
  22. Kuhn, Normativity and History and Philosophy of Science.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Epistemologia:103-111.
    This paper addresses the relationship between the history and philosophy of science by way of the issue of epistemic normativity. After brief discussion of the relationship between history and philosophy of science in Kuhn’s own thinking, the paper focuses on the implications of the history of science for epistemic normativity. There may be historical evidence for change of scientific methodology, which may seem to support a position of epistemic relativism. However, the fact that the methods of science undergo variation does (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  23. Philosophical Fairytales From Feyerabend. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2012 - Metascience 21 (2):471-476.
    This article is a review of Paul Feyerabend's book, The Tyranny of Science.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  24. Reference, Success and Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Kairos 5:31-42.
    The paper discusses the version of entity realism presented by Ian Hacking in his book, Representing and Intervening. Hacking holds that an ontological form of scientific realism, entity realism, may be defended on the basis of experimental practices which involve the manipulation of unobservable entities. There is much to be said in favour of the entity realist position that Hacking defends, especially the pragmatist orientation of his approach to realism. But there are problems with the position. The paper explores two (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25.  2
    Scepticism, Relativism and the Argument From the Criterion.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 43 (1):182-190.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26. Scepticism, Relativism and the Argument From the Criterion.Howard Sankey - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):182-190.
    This article explores the relationship between epistemic relativism and Pyrrhonian scepticism. It is argued that a fundamental argument for contemporary epistemic relativism derives from the Pyrrhonian problem of the criterion. Pyrrhonian scepticism is compared and contrasted with Cartesian scepticism about the external world and Humean scepticism about induction. Epistemic relativism is characterized as relativism due to the variation of epistemic norms, and is contrasted with other forms of cognitive relativism, such as truth relativism, conceptual relativism and ontological relativism. An argument (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  27. Epistemic Relativism and the Problem of the Criterion.Howard Sankey - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):562-570.
    This paper explores the relationship between scepticism and epistemic relativism in the context of recent history and philosophy of science. More specifically, it seeks to show that significant treatments of epistemic relativism by influential figures in the history and philosophy of science draw upon the Pyrrhonian problem of the criterion. The paper begins with a presentation of the problem of the criterion as it occurs in the work of Sextus Empiricus. It is then shown that significant treatments of epistemic relativism (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  28.  1
    Epistemic Relativism and the Problem of the Criterion.Howard Sankey - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (4):562-570.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. El realismo cientifico y el punto de vista del Ojo de Dios.Howard Sankey - 2011 - Revista Disertaciones 2:59-74.
    This article is a Spanish translation of 'Scientific Realism and the God's Eye Point of View'.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30. The Scope and Multidimensionality of the Scientific Realism Debate.Howard Sankey & Dimitri Ginev - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):263-283.
    At stake in the classical realism-debate is the clash between realist and anti-realist positions. In recent years, the classical form of this debate has undergone a double transformation. On the one hand, the champions of realism began to pay more attention to the interpretative dimensions of scientific research. On the other hand, anti-realists of various sorts realized that the rejection of the hypostatization of a “reality out there” does not imply the denial of working out a philosophically adequate concept of (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  71
    A View From Sydney: How to Stove the Enemies of Science. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):289-292.
  32.  82
    Descartes's Language Test and Ape Language Research.Howard Sankey - 2010 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):111-123.
    Some philosophers (e.g. Descartes) argue that there is an evidential relationship between language and thought, such that presence of language is indicative of mind. Recent language acquisition research with apes such as chimpanzees and bonobos attempts to demonstrate the capacity of these primates to acquire at least rudimentary linguistic capacity. This paper presents a case study of the ape language research and explores the consequences of the research with respect to the argument that animals lack mind because they fail to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. El cambio en el concepto de incommensurabilidad de Kuhn.Howard Sankey - 2010 - Cuadernos de Epistemologia 4:11-31.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34.  87
    A Curious Disagreement: Response to Hoyningen-Huene and Oberheim.Howard Sankey - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):210-212.
    In this response, doubts are expressed relating to the treatment by Hoyningen-Huene and Oberheim of the relation between incommensurability and content comparison. A realist response is presented to their treatment of ontological replacement. Further questions are raised about the coherence of the neo-Kantian idea of the world-in-itself as well as the phenomenal worlds hypothesis. The notion of common sense is clarified. Meta-incommensurability is dismissed as a rhetorical device which obstructs productive discussion.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  2
    A Curious Disagreement: Response to Hoyningen-Huene and Oberheim.Howard Sankey - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (2):210-212.
    In this response, doubts are expressed relating to the treatment by Hoyningen-Huene and Oberheim of the relation between incommensurability and content comparison. A realist response is presented to their treatment of ontological replacement. Further questions are raised about the coherence of the neo-Kantian idea of the world-in-itself as well as the phenomenal worlds hypothesis. The notion of common sense is clarified. Meta-incommensurability is dismissed as a rhetorical device which obstructs productive discussion.Keywords: Scientific realism; Incommensurability; Meta-incommensurability; Paul Hoyningen-HueneArticle Outline.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36.  69
    Review of Stathis Psillos, Philosophy of Science A–Z. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (1):115-117.
  37. Scientific Realism and the Semantic Incommensurability Thesis.Howard Sankey - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (2):196-202.
    This paper reviews the situation with respect to the referential approach to the problem of semantic incommensurability. It argues that the thesis of semantic incommensurability does not pose a significant threat to scientific realism. However, there exists a "non-realist" defence of incommensurability, according to which the referential approach begs the question against advocates of the incommensurability thesis. This defence is criticized, and the basis for a realist response to incommensurability is presented.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  38.  1
    Scientific Realism and the Semantic Incommensurability Thesis.Howard Sankey - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (2):196-202.
    This paper reconsiders the challenge presented to scientific realism by the semantic incommensurability thesis. A twofold distinction is drawn between methodological and semantic incommensurability, and between semantic incommensurability due to variation of sense and due to discontinuity of reference. Only the latter presents a challenge to scientific realism. The realist may dispose of this challenge on the basis of a modified causal theory of reference, as argued in the author’s 1994 book, The incommensurability thesis. This referential response has been the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Some Reflections on Experimental Incommensurability.Howard Sankey - 2008 - In Lena Soler, Howard Sankey & Paul Hoyningen-Huene (eds.), Rethinking Scientific Change and Theory Comparison. Springer. pp. 341-347.
  40.  1
    Scientific Realism And The Inevitability Of Science.Howard Sankey - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 39 (2):259-264.
    This paper examines the question of whether scientific realism is committed to the inevitability of science or is consistent with claims of the contingency of science. In order to address this question, a general characterization of the position of scientific realism is presented. It is then argued that scientific realism has no evident implications with regard to the inevitability of science. A historical case study is presented in which contingency plays a significant role, and the appropriate realist response to this (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Scientific Realism and the Inevitability of Science.Howard Sankey - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (2):259-264.
    This paper examines the question of whether scientific realism is committed to the inevitability of science or is consistent with claims of the contingency of science. In order to address this question, a general characterization of the position of scientific realism is presented. It is then argued that scientific realism has no evident implications with regard to the inevitability of science. A historical case study is presented in which contingency plays a significant role, and the appropriate realist response to this (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  42. Scientific Realism and the Rationality of Science.Howard Sankey - 2008 - Ashgate.
    Scientific realism is the position that the aim of science is to advance on truth and increase knowledge about observable and unobservable aspects of the mind-independent world which we inhabit. This book articulates and defends that position. In presenting a clear formulation and addressing the major arguments for scientific realism Sankey appeals to philosophers beyond the community of, typically Anglo-American, analytic philosophers of science to appreciate and understand the doctrine. The book emphasizes the epistemological aspects of scientific realism and contains (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  43. Rethinking Scientific Change and Theory Comparison.Lena Soler, Howard Sankey & Paul Hoyningen-Huene - 2008 - Springer.
    The volume is a collection of essays devoted to the analysis of scientific change and stability. It explores the balance and tension that exist between commensurability and continuity on the one hand, and incommensurability and discontinuity on the other. Moreover, it discusses some central epistemological consequences regarding the nature of scientific progress, rationality and realism. In relation to these topics, it investigates a number of new avenues, and revisits some familiar issues, with a focus on the history and philosophy of (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. Theories of Scientific Method.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey - 2007 - Acumen Publishing.
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45. Theories of Scientific Method: An Introduction.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey - 2007 - Routledge.
    What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Review of Sherrilyn Roush, Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 61 (1):158-159.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47. Why is It Rational to Believe Scientific Theories Are True?Howard Sankey - 2006 - In Colin Cheyne & John Worrall (eds.), Rationality and Reality: Conversations with Alan Musgrave. Springer. pp. 109--132.
    Alan Musgrave is one of the foremost contemporary defenders of scientific realism. He is also one of the leading exponents of Karl Popper’s critical rationalist philosophy. In this paper, my main focus will be on Musgrave’s realism. However, I will emphasize epistemological aspects of realism. This will lead me to address aspects of his critical rationalism as well.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  48. Scientific Realism and the God's Eye Point of View.Howard Sankey - 2004 - Epistemologia 27 (2):211-226.
    According to scientific realism, the aim of science is to discover the truth about both observable and unobservable aspects of the mind-independent, objective reality, which we inhabit. It has been objected by Putnam and others that such a metaphysically realist position presupposes a God’s Eye point of view, of which no coherent sense can be made. In this paper, I will argue for two claims. First, scientific realism does not require the adoption of a God’s Eye point of view. Instead, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  49.  63
    Review of Thomas Nickles, (Ed.), Thomas Kuhn[REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 2003 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (3).
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Review of T.S. Kuhn, The Road Since ‘Structure’: Philosophical Essays, 1970–1993, with an Autobiographical Interview. [REVIEW]Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (1):137-142.
  51. Qu'est-ce que le realisme scientifique?Howard Sankey - 2002 - Reseaux 94:69-82.
    Les tables, les chaises, les gens assis sur des chaises, à des tables sont des objets composés de matière. Selon la science, la matière se compose principalement d'atomes. Les atomes sont faits d'électrons, de neutrons et de protons. Les neutrons et les protons forment un noyau autour duquel orbitent les électrons. Outre ces particules, les physiciens en ont découvert un grand nombre d'autres, comme les photons, les quarks et les neutrinos.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  52. Realism, Method and Truth.Howard Sankey - 2002 - In Michele Marsonet (ed.), The Problem of Realism. Ashgate. pp. 64.
    But while it is evident that there is a close relation between method and rational justification, substantive questions remain about the relation between method and truth. For example, are scientists whom method licenses in accepting a theory or experimental result thereby licensed in accepting the theory or result as true? Does use of scientific method lead scientists to discover the truth about the world? Questions such as these are questions about the truth-conduciveness of method. While they relate directly to the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  53. Incommensurability and Related Matters.Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.) - 2001 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  54.  1
    Scientific Realism.Howard Sankey - 2001 - Theoria 48:35-54.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  55. Scientific Realism: An Elaboration and a Defence.Howard Sankey - 2001 - Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 98 (98):35-54.
    This paper describes the position of scientific realism and presents the basic lines of argument for the position. Simply put, scientific realism is the view that the aim of science is knowledge of the truth about observable and unobservable aspects of a mind-independent, objective reality. Scientific realism is supported by several distinct lines of argument. It derives from a non-anthropocentric conception of our place in the natural world, and it is grounded in the epistemology and metaphysics of common sense. Further, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  56. Introduction.Howard Sankey & Paul Hoyningen-Huene - 2001 - In Paul Hoyningen-Huene & Howard Sankey (eds.), Incommensurability and Related Matters. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  57. After Popper, Kuhn, and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method.Robert Nola & Howard Sankey (eds.) - 2000 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Some think that issues to do with scientific method are last century's stale debate; Popper was an advocate of methodology, but Kuhn, Feyerabend, and others are alleged to have brought the debate about its status to an end. The papers in this volume show that issues in methodology are still very much alive. Some of the papers reinvestigate issues in the debate over methodology, while others set out new ways in which the debate has developed in the last decade. The (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  58. Est-il rationnel de chercher la vérité?Howard Sankey - 2000 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 98 (3):589-602.
    This paper addresses the question of whether it is rational for scientists to pursue the realist aim of truth. The point of departure is a pair of objections to the aim of truth due to the anti-realist author, Larry Laudan: first, it is not rational to pursue an aim such as truth which we cannot know we have reached; second, truth is not a legitimate aim for science because it cannot be shown to be attained. Against Laudan, it is argued (...)
    Translate
      Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  59. Kuhn's Ontological Relativism.Howard Sankey - 2000 - Science and Education 9 (1-2):59--75.
  60. Methodological Pluralism, Normative Naturalism and the Realist Aim of Science.Howard Sankey - 2000 - In Howard Sankey & Robert Nola (eds.), After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method.
    There are two chief tasks which confront the philosophy of scientific method. The first task is to specify the methodology which serves as the objective ground for scientific theory appraisal and acceptance. The second task is to explain how application of this methodology leads to advance toward the aim(s) of science. In other words, the goal of the theory of method is to provide an integrated explanation of both rational scientific theory choice and scientific progress.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  61. The Language of Science: Meaning Variance and Theory Comparison.Howard Sankey - 2000 - Language Sciences 22 (2):117-136.
    The paper gives an overview of key themes of twentieth century philosophical treatment of the language of science, with special emphasis on the meaning variance of scientific terms and the comparison of alternative theories. These themes are dealt with via discussion of the topics of: (a) the logical positivist principle of verifiability and the problem of the meaning of theoretical terms, (b) the postpositivist thesis of semantic incommensurability, and (c) the scientific realist response to incommensurability based on the causal theory (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  62.  89
    Causation and Laws of Nature.Howard Sankey (ed.) - 1999 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Because the book represents a good cross-section of authors currently working on these themes in the Australasian region, it conveys something of the interest ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  63.  93
    The Theory-Dependence of Observation.Howard Sankey - 1999 - Cogito 13 (3):201-206.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  64.  75
    Hilary Putnam's Internal Realism.Howard Sankey - 1998 - Cogito 12 (1):33-39.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  65.  2
    Hilary Putnam’s Internal Realism.Howard Sankey - 1998 - Cogito 12 (1):33-39.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  66. Taxonomic Incommensurability.Howard Sankey - 1998 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 12 (1):7 – 16.
    In a shift of position that has gone largely unnoticed by the great majority of commentators, Thomas Kuhn's version of the incommensurability thesis underwent a major transformation over the last decade and a half of his life. In his later work, Kuhn argued that incommensurability is a relation of translation failure between local subsets of interdefined theoretical terms, which encapsulate the taxonomic structure of a theory. Incommensurability arises because it is impossible to transfer the natural categories employed within one taxonomic (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   14 citations  
  67. Induction and Natural Kinds.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Principia 1 (2):239-254.
    The paper sketches an ontological solution to an epistemological problem in the philosophy of science. Taking the work of Hilary Kornblith and Brian Ellis as a point of departure, it presents a realist solution to the Humean problem of induction, which is based on a scientific essentialist interpretation of the principle of the uniformity of nature. More specifically, it is argued that use of inductive inference in science is rationally justified because of the existence of real, natural kinds of things, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  68. Induction and Natural Kinds.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Principia: Revista Internacional de Epistemologia 1 (2):240-254.
    The paper sketches an ontological solution to an epistemological problem in the philosophy of science. Taking the work of Hilary Kornblith and Brian Ellis as a point of departure, it presents a realist solution to the Humean problem of induction, which is based on a scientific essentialist interpretation of the principle of the uniformity of nature. More specifically, it is argued that use of inductive inference in science is rationally justified because of the existence of real, natural kinds of things, (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  69. Incommensurability: The Current State of Play.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Theoria 12 (3):425-445.
    The incommensurability thesis is the thesis that the content of some alternative scientific theories is incomparable due to translation failure between the vocabulary the theories employ. This paper presents an overview of the main issues which have arisen in the debate about incommensurability. It also briefly outlines a response to the thesis based on a modified causal theory of reference which allows change of reference subsequent to initial baptism, as well as a role to description in the determination of reference. (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  70. Rationality, Relativism and Incommensurability.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Ashgate.
  71. Scientific Realism and the Problem of Progress.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Cogito 11 (2):89-94.
  72. The Semantic Stance of Scientific Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Philosophia 25 (1 - 4):481-482.
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  73. Van Fraassen's Constructive Empiricism.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Cogito 11 (3):175-181.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  74.  2
    Van Fraassen’s Constructive Empiricism.Howard Sankey - 1997 - Cogito 11 (3):175-181.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  75. Underdetermination in Economics. The Duhem-Quine Thesis.K. R. Sawyer, Clive Beed & H. Sankey - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (1):1-23.
    This paper considers the relevance of the Duhem-Quine thesis in economics. In the introductory discussion which follows, the meaning of the thesis and a brief history of its development are detailed. The purpose of the paper is to discuss the effects of the thesis in four specific and diverse theories in economics, and to illustrate the dependence of testing the theories on a set of auxiliary hypotheses. A general taxonomy of auxiliary hypotheses is provided to demonstrate the confounding of auxiliary (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  76.  84
    Normative Naturalism and the Challenge of Relativism: Laudan Versus Worrall on the Justification of Methodological Principles.Howard Sankey - 1996 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 10 (1):37 – 51.
    In a recent exchange, John Worrall and Larry Laudan have debated the merits of the model of rational scientific change proposed by Laudan in his book Science and Values. On the model advocated by Laudan, rational change may take place at the level of scientific theory and methodology, as well as at the level of the epistemic aims of science. Moreover, the rationality of a change which occurs at any one of these three levels may be dependent on considerations at (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  77.  70
    Interview with Paul Hoyningen-Huene.Howard Sankey - 1996 - Metascience 5 (2):59-70.
    This is an interview of Paul Hoyningen-Huene conducted by Howard Sankey in 1996 in Tuscany.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  78. The Problem of Rational Theory-Choice.Howard Sankey - 1995 - Epistemologia 18 (2):299-312.
    The problem of rational theory-choice is the problem of whether choice of theory by a scientist may be objectively rational in the absence of an invariant scientific method. In this paper I offer a solution to the problem, but the solution I propose may come as something of a surprise. For I wish to argue that the work of the very authors who have put the rationality of such choice in question, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend, contains all that is (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  79. The Semantic Stance of Scientific Entity Realism.Howard Sankey - 1995 - Philosophia 24 (3-4):481-482.
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  80.  63
    Scientific Rationality Versus Social Construction.Geoffrey Bowker & Howard Sankey - 1994 - Cogito 8 (1):38-45.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  81.  3
    Scientific Rationality Versus Social Construction.Geoffrey Bowker & Howard Sankey - 1994 - Cogito 8 (1):38-45.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  82. The Incommensurability Thesis.Howard Sankey - 1994 - Avebury.
  83.  73
    Five Varieties of Cognitive Relativisrn.Howard Sankey - 1993 - Cogito 7 (2):106-111.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  84.  3
    Five Varieties of Cognitive Relativisrn.Howard Sankey - 1993 - Cogito 7 (2):106-111.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  85. Kuhn's Changing Concept of Incommensurability.Howard Sankey - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (4):759-774.
    Since 1962 Kuhn's concept of incommensurability has undergone a process of transformation. His current account of incommensurability has little in common with his original account of it. Originally, incommensurability was a relation of methodological, observational and conceptual disparity between paradigms. Later Kuhn restricted the notion to the semantical sphere and assimilated it to the indeterminacy of translation. Recently he has developed an account of it as localized translation failure between subsets of terms employed by theories.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   15 citations  
  86. Kuhn's Model of Scientific Theory Change.Howard Sankey - 1993 - Cogito 7 (1):18-24.
  87.  4
    Kuhn’s Model of Scientific Theory Change.Howard Sankey - 1993 - Cogito 7 (1):18-24.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  88.  85
    A Dialogue on Scientific Realism.David Cockburn & Howard Sankey - 1992 - Cogito 6 (3):163-169.
  89.  79
    Translation and Languagehood.Howard Sankey - 1992 - Philosophia 21 (3-4):335-337.
  90.  73
    Review of Brian Ellis Truth and Objectivity and Paul HorwichTruth. [REVIEW]Howard Sankey - 1992 - Philosophical Quarterly 42 (169):496.
  91. Feyerabend and the Description Theory of Reference.Howard Sankey - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:223-232.
    In his early work Feyerabend argues that certain theories are incommensurable due to semantic variance. In this paper it is argued that Feyerabend relies on a description theory of reference in the course of his argument for incommensurability and in his analysis of the relevant kind of semantic variance. Against this it is objected that such reliance on the description theory eliminates ostensive reference determination and obscures the presence of theoretical conflict.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  92.  4
    Feyerabend and the Description Theory of Reference.Howard Sankey - 1991 - Journal of Philosophical Research 16:223-232.
    In his early work Feyerabend argues that certain theories are incommensurable due to semantic variance. In this paper it is argued that Feyerabend relies on a description theory of reference in the course of his argument for incommensurability and in his analysis of the relevant kind of semantic variance. Against this it is objected that such reliance on the description theory eliminates ostensive reference determination and obscures the presence of theoretical conflict.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  93.  97
    Incommensurability and the Indeterminacy of Translation.Howard Sankey - 1991 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (2):219 – 223.
    In this paper it is argued that the concept of translation failure involved in Kuhn's thesis of incommensurability is distinct from that of translational indeterminacy in Quine's sense. At most, Kuhnian incommensurability constitutes a weak form of indeterminacy, quite distinct from Quine's. There remains, however, a convergence between the two views of translation, namely, that there is no single adequate translation between languages.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  94. Incommensurability, Translation and Understanding.Howard Sankey - 1991 - Philosophical Quarterly 41 (165):414-426.
  95.  49
    Translation Failure Between Theories.Howard Sankey - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (2):223-236.
  96.  82
    A Dialogue on Scientific Rationality.Howard Sankey & David Cockburn - 1991 - Cogito 5 (3):135-140.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  97. In Defence of Untranslatability.Howard Sankey - 1990 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 68 (1):1 – 21.
Is this list right?