Network effect and economic development: Towards a link-value theory

Science and Philosophy 9 (2):161-175 (2021)
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The article presents sociological considerations in regards to the advent of globalism. With the implosion of capitalism and the acceleration of globalization, the concept of globalism is in need of new interpretations. Some sociologists indeed would see it solely as the ideology of globalization. In the article, globalism is regarded as a social system not only with ideological characteristics but also economic ones. This radically changes the very logic of capitalism, which is focused on linear and monocentric production. Through the theory of link-value the article illustrates the process by which economic development takes place. It is shown that as well as the assets identified by the main economic schools, development is based on factors such as infrastructure investments, technologies, and networking. Today, with globalism, it is economic ties that create wealth and they are more important than the production process itself. Such transformation is highlighted through the growth of the financial and commercial dimensions, as well as the change in industrial activities. The article deals with the fundamental importance of the global value chain in nowadays, as well as the reshoring and the nearshoring. After illustrating the evolution of territorial networks, several case histories are presented: from the new economic centres of globalism to the decline of industrial districts. Finally, the article examines new generations models of innovation and culture districts. Keywords : Economic development; Globalism; Production processes; Global value chain; Territorial networks; Open innovation. [1] Sunto L'articolo espone alcune considerazioni sociologiche relative all'avvento del globalismo. Con l'implosione del capitalismo e l'accelerazione della globalizzazione, il concetto di globalismo necessita di nuove interpretazioni. Alcuni sociologi infatti lo considerano solamente come l'ideologia della globalizzazione. Nell'articolo, il globalismo è considerato come un sistema sociale con caratteristiche non solo ideologiche ma anche economiche. Questo cambia radicalmente la logica stessa del capitalismo, che è incentrato sulla produzione lineare e monocentrica. Attraverso la teoria del valore-legame l'articolo illustra il processo attraverso il quale si crea lo sviluppo economico. Viene dimostrato che oltre ai fattori proposti dalle principali scuole economiche, quali le infrastrutture pubbliche e la tecnologia, lo sviluppo dipende anche dal networking. Oggi, con il globalismo, sono i legami economici che creano ricchezza e questi ultimi diventano più importanti del processo produttivo in sé. Tale trasformazione è evidenziata dalla crescita delle dimensioni finanziarie e commerciali dell’economia, nonché dal mutamento delle attività industriali. Nell’articolo viene trattata l’importanza che attualmente rivestono le catene globali del valore, ma anche i nuovi fenomeni del reshoring e del nearshoring. Dopo aver illustrato l’evoluzione delle forme di networking territoriale, vengono presentati diversi casi-studio: dai nuovi poli produttivi globalizzati al declino dei distretti industriali. Nella parte finale dell’articolo vengono illustrati modelli distrettuali di nuova generazione come quelli dell’innovazione e della cultura. Parole Chiave : Sviluppo economico; Globalismo; Processi produttivi; Catena globale del valore; Reti territoriali; Innovazione aperta.



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