In A. U. Frank, W. Kuhn & D. M. Mark (eds.), Spatial Information Theory: Proceedings of COSIT '95. New York: Springer. pp. 475-484 (1995)

Authors
Barry Smith
State University of New York, Buffalo
Abstract
The paper is an exercise in descriptive ontology, with specific applications to problems in the geographical sphere. It presents a general typology of spatial boundaries, based in particular on an opposition between bona fide or physical boundaries on the one hand, and fiat or human-demarcation-induced boundaries on the other. Cross-cutting this opposition are further oppositions in the realm of boundaries, for example between: crisp and indeterminate, complete and incomplete, enduring and transient, symmetrical and asymmetrical. The resulting typology generates a corresponding categorization of the different sorts of objects which (complete) boundaries determine or demarcate. The theory is applied first of all in the areas of geography and of administrative and property law. Indications are then given as to how the typology may be applied also in other fields where physical and fiat boundaries are at work, including the field of cognitive linguistics and the related field of the ontology of truth.
Keywords geospatial ontology  fiat objects  map semantics
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References found in this work BETA

Fiat Objects.Barry Smith - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):131-148.
Über Gegenstände Höherer Ordnung Und Deren Verhältnisse Zur Inneren Wahrnehmung.Alexius Meinong - 1899 - Zeitschrift für Psychologie Und Physiologie Der Sinnesorgane 21:182--272.

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Citations of this work BETA

Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries.Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):401-420.
Fiat Objects.Barry Smith - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):131-148.
Truthmaker Realism.Barry Smith - 1999 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 77 (3):274 – 291.
SNAP and SPAN: Towards Dynamic Spatial Ontology.Pierre Grenon & Barry Smith - 2004 - Spatial Cognition and Computation 4 (1):69–103.

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