Natural kinds and freaks of nature

Philosophy of Science 49 (1):67-90 (1982)
Essentialism--understood as the doctrine that there are natural kinds--can be sustained with respect to the most fundamental physical entities of the world, as I elsewhere argue. In this paper I take up the question of the existence of natural kinds among complex structures built out of these elementary ones. I consider a number of objections to essentialism, in particular Locke's puzzle about the existence of borderline cases. A number of recent attempts to justify biological taxonomy are critically examined. I conclude that theory partially justifies such taxonomies but supports only a weaker form of essentialism
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DOI 10.1086/289035
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Ronald de Sousa (1989). Kinds of Kinds: Individuality and Biological Species. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 3 (2):119 – 135.

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