David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Ezio Di Nucci
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1013-1025 (2005)
A number of recent biologists have used multi-level selection theory to help explain the major transitions in evolution. I argue that in doing so, they have shifted from a ‘synchronic’ to a ‘diachronic’ formulation of the levels of selection question. The implications of this shift in perspective are explored, in relation to an ambiguity in the meaning of multi-level selection. Though the ambiguity is well-known, it has never before been discussed in the context of the major transitions.
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Maureen A. O’Malley & John Dupré (2007). Size Doesn't Matter: Towards a More Inclusive Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):155-191.
Paul E. Smaldino (2014). The Cultural Evolution of Emergent Group-Level Traits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (3):243-254.
Richard E. Michod (2005). On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Multicellular Organism. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.
Samir Okasha (2009). Individuals, Groups, Fitness and Utility: Multi-Level Selection Meets Social Choice Theory. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):561-584.
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