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  1. Written Institutional Ethics Policies on Euthanasia: An Empirical-Based Organizational-Ethical Framework.Joke Lemiengre, Bernadette Dierckx de Casterlé, Paul Schotsmans & Chris Gastmans - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (2):215-228.
    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for (...)
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  • Judgement of Suffering in the Case of a Euthanasia Request in The Netherlands.J. A. C. Rietjens, D. G. van Tol, M. Schermer & A. van der Heide - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (8):502-507.
    Introduction: In The Netherlands, physicians have to be convinced that the patient suffers unbearably and hopelessly before granting a request for euthanasia. The extent to which general practitioners (GPs), consulted physicians and members of the euthanasia review committees judge this criterion similarly was evaluated. Methods: 300 GPs, 150 consultants and 27 members of review committees were sent a questionnaire with patient descriptions. Besides a “standard case” of a patient with physical suffering and limited life expectancy, the descriptions included cases in (...)
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  • Are General Practitioners Prepared to End Life on Request in a Country Where Euthanasia is Legalised?: Table 1.M. Sercu, P. Pype, T. Christiaens, M. Grypdonck, A. Derese & M. Deveugele - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (5):274-280.
    Background In 2002, Belgium set a legal framework for euthanasia, whereby granting and performing euthanasia is entrusted entirely to physicians, and—as advised by Belgian Medical Deontology—in the context of a trusted patient–physician relationship. Euthanasia is, however, rarely practiced, so the average physician will not attain routine in this matter. Aim To explore how general practitioners in Flanders (Belgium) deal with euthanasia. This was performed via qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 52 general practitioners (GPs). Results Although GPs can understand a (...)
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  • Reporting of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands: Descriptive Study.Hilde Buiting, Johannes van Delden, Bregje Onwuteaka-Philpsen, Judith Rietjens, Mette Rurup, Donald van Tol, Joseph Gevers, Paul van der Maas & Agnes van der Heide - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):18-.
    BackgroundAn important principle underlying the Dutch Euthanasia Act is physicians' responsibility to alleviate patients' suffering. The Dutch Act states that euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are not punishable if the attending physician acts in accordance with criteria of due care. These criteria concern the patient's request, the patient's suffering (unbearable and hopeless), the information provided to the patient, the presence of reasonable alternatives, consultation of another physician and the applied method of ending life. To demonstrate their compliance, the Act requires physicians (...)
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  • Two Decades of Research on Euthanasia From the Netherlands. What Have We Learnt and What Questions Remain?Judith Ac Rietjens, Paul J. van der Maas, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes Jm van Delden & Agnes van der Heide - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):271-283.
    Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown (...)
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  • Euthanasia Requests in Dementia Cases; What Are Experiences and Needs of Dutch Physicians? A Qualitative Interview Study.Jaap Schuurmans, Romy Bouwmeester, Lamar Crombach, Tessa van Rijssel, Lizzy Wingens, Kristina Georgieva, Nadine O’Shea, Stephanie Vos, Bram Tilburgs & Yvonne Engels - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-9.
    In the Netherlands, in 2002, euthanasia became a legitimate medical act, only allowed when the due care criteria and procedural requirements are met. Legally, an Advanced Euthanasia Directive can replace direct communication if a patient can no longer express his own wishes. In the past decade, an exponential number of persons with dementia share a euthanasia request with their physician. The impact this on physicians, and the consequent support needs, remained unknown. Our objective was to gain more insight into the (...)
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  • Pressure in Dealing with Requests for Euthanasia or Assisted Suicide. Experiences of General Practitioners.Marike E. De Boer, Marja F. I. A. Depla, Marjolein den Breejen, Pauline Slottje, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen & Cees M. P. M. Hertogh - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):425-429.
    The majority of Dutch physicians feel pressure when dealing with a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. This study aimed to explore the content of this pressure as experienced by general practitioners. We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 Dutch GPs, focusing on actual cases. The interviews were transcribed and analysed with use of the framework method. Six categories of pressure GPs experienced in dealing with EAS requests were revealed: emotional blackmail, control and direction by others, doubts about fulfilling the (...)
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  • Do Guidelines on Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in Dutch Hospitals and Nursing Homes Reflect the Law? A Content Analysis.B. A. M. Hesselink, B. D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, A. J. G. M. Janssen, H. M. Buiting, M. Kollau, J. A. C. Rietjens & H. R. W. Pasman - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (1):35-42.
    To describe the content of practice guidelines on euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) and to compare differences between settings and guidelines developed before or after enactment of the euthanasia law in 2002 by means of a content analysis. Most guidelines stated that the attending physician is responsible for the decision to grant or refuse an EAS request. Due care criteria were described in the majority of guidelines, but aspects relevant for assessing these criteria were not always described. Half of the (...)
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  • Two Decades of Research on Euthanasia From the Netherlands. What Have We Learnt and What Questions Remain?and Agnes van der Heide Judith A. C. Rietjens, Paul J. Van der Maas, Bregje D. Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Johannes J. M. Van Delden - 2009 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):271.
    Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown (...)
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