Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):1-15 (2013)
AbstractMinimizing the costs that others impose upon oneself and upon those in whom one has a fitness stake, such as kin and allies, is a key adaptive problem for many organisms. Our ancestors regularly faced such adaptive problems. One solution to this problem is to impose retaliatory costs on an aggressor so that the aggressor and other observers will lower their estimates of the net benefits to be gained from exploiting the retaliator in the future. We posit that humans have an evolved cognitive system that implements this strategy which we conceptualize as a revenge system. The revenge system produces a second adaptive problem: losing downstream gains from the individual on whom retaliatory costs have been imposed. We posit, consequently, a subsidiary computational system designed to restore particular relationships after cost-imposing interactions by inhibiting revenge and motivating behaviors that signal benevolence for the harmdoer. The operation of these systems depends on estimating the risk of future exploitation by the harmdoer and the expected future value of the relationship with the harmdoer. We review empirical evidence regarding the operation of these systems, discuss the causes of cultural and individual differences in their outputs, and sketch their computational architecture
Similar books and articles
A systems view on revenge and forgiveness systems.Tyler J. Wereha & Timothy P. Racine - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):39-39.
Two arguments against the punishment-forbearance account of forgiveness.Brandon Warmke - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):915-920.
Forgiveness: A Cognitive-Motivational Anatomy.Maria Miceli & Cristiano Castelfranchi - 2011 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 41 (3):260-290.
Forgiveness and Revenge. By Trudy Govier. [REVIEW]William O. Stephens - 2003 - Essays in Philosophy 4 (2).
Forgiveness and Reconciliation in the Workplace: A Multi-Level Perspective and Research Agenda. [REVIEW]Michael E. Palanski - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (3):275-287.
The virtue of forgiveness as a human resource management strategy.M. J. Kurzynski - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (1):77-85.
Forgiveness and Revenge.Margaret Urban Walker - 2003 - International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):252-254.
Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.Pat Barclay - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):17-18.
Forgiveness and revenge by Trudy Govier London: Routledge, 2002, pp. 205+X, £14.99. [REVIEW]Susan Mendus - 2004 - Philosophy 79 (1):146-149.
The role of agency in distributed cognitive systems.Ronald N. Giere - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):710-719.
Added to PP
Historical graph of downloads
Citations of this work
Punishment is Organized around Principles of Communicative Inference.Arunima Sarin, Mark K. Ho, Justin W. Martin & Fiery A. Cushman - 2021 - Cognition 208 (C):104544.
“False positive” emotions, responsibility, and moral character.Rajen A. Anderson, Rachana Kamtekar, Shaun Nichols & David A. Pizarro - 2021 - Cognition 214 (C):104770.
The grammar of anger: Mapping the computational architecture of a recalibrational emotion.Aaron Sell, Daniel Sznycer, Laith Al-Shawaf, Julian Lim, Andre Krauss, Aneta Feldman, Ruxandra Rascanu, Lawrence Sugiyama, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby - 2017 - Cognition 168:110-128.
Punishment in Humans: From Intuitions to Institutions.Fiery Cushman - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 10 (2):117-133.
References found in this work
The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture.Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes.Richard E. Nisbett & Timothy D. Wilson - 1977 - Psychological Review 84 (3):231-59.