Sex biases in subject selection: A survey of articles published in american medical journals

Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (3):245-260 (1999)
This study discusses the results of a survey of 1,800 articles published in American medical journals from 1985--1996. The study finds 9% of these articles reported research that uses only male subjects to examine medical conditions that affect both sexes; the ratio of research on female to male conditions among these articles was greater than 5:1; but 76.5% of the articles reported research that includes both male and female subjects. The study also discusses evidence that sex biases against women (and men) are decreasing. This study also offers some possible psychological, institutional, medical, and economic explanations of the sex biases in medical research published in American journals, and discusses some policy implications of sex biases in medical research. The study concludes by urging others to conduct more empirical research on sex biases in medical research.
Keywords sex biases  subject selection  medical research  NIH policies
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Reprint years 2004
DOI 10.1023/A:1009989920426
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