Search results for 'E. Sober' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    Elliott Sober (2005). Liberdade, determinismo e causalidade. Critica.
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  2. L. Shapiro & E. Sober (2012). Against Proportionality. Analysis 72 (1):89-93.
    A statement of the form ‘C caused E’ obeys the requirement of proportionality precisely when C says no more than what is necessary to bring about E. The thesis that causal statements must obey this requirement might be given a semantic or a pragmatic justification. We use the idea that causal claims are contrastive to criticize both.
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  3.  12
    E. Sober (ed.) (1994). Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology. The Mit Press. Bradford Books.
    Changes and additions in the new edition reflect the ways in which the subject has broadened and deepened on several fronts; more than half of the-chapters are ...
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  4. W. Roche & E. Sober (2013). Explanatoriness is Evidentially Irrelevant, or Inference to the Best Explanation Meets Bayesian Confirmation Theory. Analysis 73 (4):659-668.
    In the world of philosophy of science, the dominant theory of confirmation is Bayesian. In the wider philosophical world, the idea of inference to the best explanation exerts a considerable influence. Here we place the two worlds in collision, using Bayesian confirmation theory to argue that explanatoriness is evidentially irrelevant.
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  5. E. Sober & M. Steel (2013). Screening-Off and Causal Incompleteness: A No-Go Theorem. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):513-550.
    We begin by considering two principles, each having the form causal completeness ergo screening-off. The first concerns a common cause of two or more effects; the second describes an intermediate link in a causal chain. They are logically independent of each other, each is independent of Reichenbach's principle of the common cause, and each is a consequence of the causal Markov condition. Simple examples show that causal incompleteness means that screening-off may fail to obtain. We derive a stronger result: in (...)
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  6.  60
    E. Sober (2003). An Empirical Critique of Two Versions of the Doomsday Argument – Gott's Line and Leslie's Wedge. Synthese 135 (3):415 - 430.
    I discuss two versions of the doomsday argument. According to ``Gott's Line'',the fact that the human race has existed for 200,000 years licences the predictionthat it will last between 5100 and 7.8 million more years. According to ``Leslie'sWedge'', the fact that I currently exist is evidence that increases the plausibilityof the hypothesis that the human race will come to an end sooner rather than later.Both arguments rest on substantive assumptions about the sampling process thatunderlies our observations. These sampling assumptions have (...)
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  7.  32
    J. Ellenberg & E. Sober (2011). Objective Probabilities in Number Theory. Philosophia Mathematica 19 (3):308-322.
    Philosophers have explored objective interpretations of probability mainly by considering empirical probability statements. Because of this focus, it is widely believed that the logical interpretation and the actual-frequency interpretation are unsatisfactory and the hypothetical-frequency interpretation is not much better. Probabilistic assertions in pure mathematics present a new challenge. Mathematicians prove theorems in number theory that assign probabilities. The most natural interpretation of these probabilities is that they describe actual frequencies in finite sets and limits of actual frequencies in infinite sets. (...)
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  8. E. Sober & D. S. Wilson (1998). The Evolution of Altruism. Biology and Philosophy 7:177-187.
     
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  9.  40
    Elliott Sober & E. Sober (2007). Sex Ratio Theory, Ancient and Modern: An Eighteenth-Century Debate About Intelligent Design and the Development of Models in Evolutionary Biology. In Jessica Riskin (ed.), Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press. pp. 131--62.
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  10.  4
    E. Sober (2004). An Empirical Critique of Two Versions of the Doomsday Argument – Gott's Line and Leslie's Wedge. Synthese 135 (3):415-430.
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  11.  3
    E. Sober (1985). Book Reviews : Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. By Alexander Rosenberg. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980; Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1981. Pp. XI + 227. $20.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 15 (1):89-93.
  12. J. Barresi, D. Jones, Me Lamb, Ct Palmer, Be Fredrickson, Cf Tilley, S. van de Wetering, M. Waller, Ds Wilson & E. Sober (1996). Commentary On: Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences. Authors' Reply. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (4):777-787.
     
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  13. E. Sober (1986). The Nature of Selection-Comment. Behaviorism 14 (1):89-96.
     
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  14.  15
    H. E. (1910). The Apparatus Criticus of the Culex. By A. E. Housman. Transactions of the Cambridge Philological Society. Vol. VI. Part I. Pp. 23. Cambridge University Press, 1908. 1s. 6d. Net. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 24 (05):162-.
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  15.  19
    Elliott Sober & Andrew Levine (2003). A Reply to Paul Nolan's 'What's Darwinian About Historical Materialism? A Critique of Levine and Sober'. Historical Materialism 11 (3):177-181.
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  16. Adrian Heathcote (1988). E. Sober: "The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus". [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66:260.
     
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  17. Richard Swinburne (1976). SOBER, E.: "Simplicity". [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 27:412.
     
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  18. D. Edgington (1978). SOBER, E. "Simplicity". [REVIEW] Mind 87:623.
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  19. Michael Hunter (1998). Michael Heyd, ‘Be Sober and Reasonable’: The Critique of Enthusiasm in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996. Pp. Xi+312. ISBN 90-04-10118-7. $92.00. Dfl. 142.00. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 31 (1):63-102.
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  20.  32
    Peter Godfrey-Smith (1999). Procrustes Probably: Comments on Sober's "Physicalism From a Probabilistic Point of View". Philosophical Studies 95 (1-2):175-181.
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  21.  25
    Rodrigo Cid (2010). Freedom, Determinism, and Causality de Elliott Sober. Filosofia Unisinos 11 (3):348-350.
    A primeira tese de Sober é que não podemos agir livremente, a não ser que o Argumento da Causalidade ou o Argumento da Inevitabilidade tenham alguma falha. O Argumento da Causalidade é o seguinte: nossos estados mentais causam movimentos corporais; mas nossos estados mentais são causados por fatores do mundo físico. Nossa personalidade pode ser reconduzida à nossa experiência e à nossa genética. E tanto a experiência quanto a genética foram causados por itens do mundo físico. Assim, o meio (...)
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  22.  84
    Joseph A. Baltimore (2010). Defending the Piggyback Principle Against Shapiro and Sober's Empirical Approach. Synthese 175 (2):151-168.
    Jaegwon Kim’s supervenience/exclusion argument attempts to show that non-reductive physicalism is incompatible with mental causation. This influential argument can be seen as relying on the following principle, which I call “the piggyback principle”: If, with respect to an effect, E, an instance of a supervenient property, A, has no causal powers over and above, or in addition to, those had by its supervenience base, B, then the instance of A does not cause E (unless A is identical with B). In (...)
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  23.  2
    Fred Gifford (1986). Sober's Use of Unanimity in the Units of Selection Problem. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:473 - 482.
    Sober argues that the units of selection problem in evolutionary biology is to be understood and solved by applying the general analysis of what it means for C to cause E in a population. The account he utilizes is the unanimity account, according to which C causes E in a population when C raises the probability of E in each causal context. I argue that he does not succeed here, both because the unanimity account is not well grounded in (...)
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  24. Lawrence A. Shapiro (2000). Multiple Realizations. Journal of Philosophy 97 (12):635-654.
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  25.  7
    Paul Noordhof (1996). Accidental Associations, Local Potency, and a Dilemma for Dretske. Mind and Language 11 (2):216-22.
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  26.  63
    R. Goode & P. E. Griffiths (1995). The Misuse of Sober's Selection for/Selection of Distinction. Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):99-108.
    Elliott Sober''s selection for/selection of distinction has been widely used to clarify the idea that some properties of organisms are side-effects of selection processes. It has also been used, however, to choose between different descriptions of an evolutionary product when assigning biological functions to that product. We suggest that there is a characteristic error in these uses of the distinction. Complementary descriptions of function are misrepresented as mutually excluding one another. This error arises from a failure to appreciate that (...)
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  27.  54
    Nevin Climenhaga (forthcoming). How Explanation Guides Confirmation. Philosophy of Science.
    Where E is the proposition that [If H and O were true, H would explain O], William Roche and Elliot Sober have argued that P(H|O&E) = P(H|O). In this paper I argue that not only is this equality not generally true, it is false in the very kinds of cases that Roche and Sober focus on, involving frequency data. In fact, in such cases O raises the probability of H only given that there is an explanatory connection between (...)
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  28.  12
    Paul E. Griffiths (1997). A Sober View of Life. Biology and Philosophy 12 (3):427-431.
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  29. P. E. Griffiths (2002). Review of Sober and Wilson 1998. [REVIEW] Mind 111:178-182.
     
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  30. Anna Vaninskaya (2008). 'My Mother, Drunk or Sober': GK Chesterton and Patriotic Anti-Imperialism. History of European Ideas 34 (4):535-547.
    In the Edwardian period, the essays, novels, and criticism of G.K. Chesterton gave voice to a unique but emblematic form of patriotic anti-imperialism. The article places his views in the context of the Liberal Little Englander reaction to the Boer War, and offers two comparative case studies. The first focuses on Chesterton's inheritance of the late-Victorian anti-imperialist rhetoric of William Morris; the second assesses his fraught relationship with internationalism, as represented in the writings of Morris's political collaborator, E.B. Bax. Chesterton's (...)
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  31.  64
    C. E. Cleland (2011). Prediction and Explanation in Historical Natural Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):551-582.
    In earlier work ( Cleland [2001] , [2002]), I sketched an account of the structure and justification of ‘prototypical’ historical natural science that distinguishes it from ‘classical’ experimental science. This article expands upon this work, focusing upon the close connection between explanation and justification in the historical natural sciences. I argue that confirmation and disconfirmation in these fields depends primarily upon the explanatory (versus predictive or retrodictive) success or failure of hypotheses vis-à-vis empirical evidence. The account of historical explanation that (...)
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  32.  36
    Tomasz Bigaj (2003). The Indispensability Argument – a New Chance for Empiricism in Mathematics? Foundations of Science 8 (2):173-200.
    In recent years, the so-calledindispensability argument has been given a lotof attention by philosophers of mathematics.This argument for the existence of mathematicalobjects makes use of the fact, neglected inclassical schools of philosophy of mathematics,that mathematics is part of our best scientifictheories, and therefore should receive similarsupport to these theories. However, thisobservation raises the question about the exactnature of the alleged connection betweenexperience and mathematics (for example: is itpossible to falsify empirically anymathematical theorems?). In my paper I wouldlike to address this (...)
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  33.  11
    George Barmpalias & Andrew E. M. Lewis (2006). A C.E. Real That Cannot Be SW-Computed by Any Ω Number. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 47 (2):197-209.
    The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
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  34.  8
    R. E. Tully (1976). Moore's Defence of Common Sense: A Reappraisal After Fifty Years: R. E. Tully. Philosophy 51 (197):289-306.
    G. E. Moore's ‘A Defence of Common Sense’ has generated the kind of interest and contrariety which often accompany what is new, provocative, and even important in philosophy. Moore himself reportedly agreed with Wittgenstein's estimate that this was his best article, while C. D. Broad has lamented its very great but largely unfortunate influence. Although the essay inspired Wittgenstein to explore the basis of Moore's claim to know many propositions of common sense to be true, A. J. Ayer judges its (...)
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  35.  3
    José Fernando da Silva (2015). Wittgenstein e a imanência da Arte na Ética. Revista de Filosofia Moderna E Contemporânea 3 (1):49-67.
    Esse artigo mostra o significado da unicidade da ética e da estética no Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Primeiro, ele apresenta os principais aspectos ética tractatiana: que ela não hierarquiza fatos, que ela é eudemonista, e que ela não propõe qualquer finalidade externa às ações do sujeito ético. Segundo, ele mostra que a obra de arte é a expressão da vida de um ponto de vista ético, ou seja, ela é a expressão do significado da vida de um ponto de vista da eternidade. (...)
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  36.  48
    Mariarosaria Taddeo (2010). Modelling Trust in Artificial Agents, A First Step Toward the Analysis of E-Trust. Minds and Machines 20 (2):243-257.
    This paper provides a new analysis of e - trust , trust occurring in digital contexts, among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. The analysis endorses a non-psychological approach and rests on a Kantian regulative ideal of a rational agent, able to choose the best option for itself, given a specific scenario and a goal to achieve. The paper first introduces e-trust describing its relevance for the contemporary society and then presents a new theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. (...)
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  37.  51
    Erik D. Reichle, Keith Rayner & Alexander Pollatsek (2003). The E-Z Reader Model of Eye-Movement Control in Reading: Comparisons to Other Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (4):445-476.
    The E-Z Reader model (Reichle et al. 1998; 1999) provides a theoretical framework for understanding how word identification, visual processing, attention, and oculomotor control jointly determine when and where the eyes move during reading. In this article, we first review what is known about eye movements during reading. Then we provide an updated version of the model (E-Z Reader 7) and describe how it accounts for basic findings about eye movement control in reading. We then review several alternative models of (...)
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  38. Michael Baumgartner (2013). Rendering Interventionism and Non‐Reductive Physicalism Compatible. Dialectica 67 (1):1-27.
    In recent years, the debate on the problem of causal exclusion has seen an ‘interventionist turn’. Numerous non-reductive physicalists (e.g. Shapiro and Sober 2007) have argued that Woodward's (2003) interventionist theory of causation provides a means to empirically establish the existence of non-reducible mental-to-physical causation. By contrast, Baumgartner (2010) has presented an interventionist exclusion argument showing that interventionism is in fact incompatible with non-reductive physicalism. In response, a number of revised versions of interventionism have been suggested that are compatible (...)
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  39.  99
    Anthony Skelton (2016). E. F. Carritt (1876-1964). In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    E. F. Carritt (1876-1964) was educated at and taught in Oxford University. He made substantial contributions both to aesthetics and to moral philosophy. The focus of this entry is his work in moral philosophy. His most notable works in this field are The Theory of Morals (1928) and Ethical and Political Thinking (1947). Carritt developed views in metaethics and in normative ethics. In meta-ethics he defends a cognitivist, non-naturalist moral realism and was among the first to respond to A. J. (...)
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  40.  84
    Angela Potochnik (2007). Optimality Modeling and Explanatory Generality. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):680-691.
    The optimality approach to modeling natural selection has been criticized by many biologists and philosophers of biology. For instance, Lewontin (1979) argues that the optimality approach is a shortcut that will be replaced by models incorporating genetic information, if and when such models become available. In contrast, I think that optimality models have a permanent role in evolutionary study. I base my argument for this claim on what I think it takes to best explain an event. In certain contexts, optimality (...)
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  41.  15
    Michael Ruse (ed.) (2007). Philosophy of Biology. Prometheus Books.
    Biologists study life in its various physical forms, while philosophers of biology seek answers to questions about the nature, purpose, and impact of this research. What permits us to distinguish between living and nonliving things even though both are made of the same minerals? Is the complex structure of organisms proof that a creative force is working its will in the physical universe, or are existing life-forms the random result of an evolutionary process working itself out over eons of time? (...)
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  42. Andre Ariew (1999). Innateness is Canalization: In Defense of a Developmental Account of Innateness. In Philosophy of Science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. pp. S19-S27.
    Lorenz proposed in his (1935) articulation of a theory of behavioral instincts that the objective of ethology is to distinguish behaviors that are “innate” from behaviors that are “learned” (or “acquired”). Lorenz’s motive was to open the investigation of certain “adaptive” behaviors to evolutionary theorizing. Accordingly, since innate behaviors are “genetic”, they are open to such investigation. By Lorenz’s light an innate/acquired or learned dichotomy rested on a familiar Darwinian distinction between genes and environments. Ever since Lorenz, ascriptions of innateness (...)
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  43. Michael Baumgartner (2009). Interdefining Causation and Intervention. Dialectica 63 (2):175-194.
    Non-reductive interventionist theories of causation and methodologies of causal reasoning embedded in that theoretical framework have become increasingly popular in recent years. This paper argues that one variant of an interventionist account of causation, viz. the one presented, for example, in Woodward (2003 ), is unsuited as a theoretical fundament of interventionist methodologies of causal reasoning, because it renders corresponding methodologies incapable of uncovering a causal structure in a finite number of steps. This finding runs counter to Woodward's own assessment (...)
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  44.  5
    Mark Coeckelbergh (2013). E-Care as Craftsmanship: Virtuous Work, Skilled Engagement, and Information Technology in Health Care. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):807-816.
    Contemporary health care relies on electronic devices. These technologies are not ethically neutral but change the practice of care. In light of Sennett’s work and that of other thinkers (Dewey, Dreyfus, Borgmann) one worry is that “e-care”—care by means of new information and communication technologies—does not promote skilful and careful engagement with patients and hence is neither conducive to the quality of care nor to the virtues of the care worker. Attending to the kinds of knowledge involved in care work (...)
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  45.  98
    Tim Lewens (2009). What is Wrong with Typological Thinking? Philosophy of Science 76 (3):355-371.
    What, if anything, is wrong with typological thinking? The question is important, for some evolutionary developmental biologists appear to espouse a form of typology. I isolate four allegations that have been brought against it. They include the claim that typological thinking is mystical; the claim that typological thinking is at odds with the fact of evolution; the claim that typological thinking is committed to an objectionable metaphysical view, which Elliott Sober calls the ‘natural state model’; and finally the view (...)
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  46. Mahesh Ananth (2005). Psychological Altruism Vs. Biological Altruism: Narrowing the Gap with the Baldwin Effect. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3):217-239.
    This paper defends the position that the supposed gap between biological altruism and psychological altruism is not nearly as wide as some scholars (e.g., Elliott Sober) insist. Crucial to this defense is the use of James Mark Baldwin's concepts of “organic selection”and “social heredity” to assist in revealing that the gap between biological and psychological altruism is more of a small lacuna. Specifically, this paper argues that ontogenetic behavioral adjustments, which are crucial to individual survival and reproduction, are also (...)
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  47.  15
    Douglas W. Oard, Jason R. Baron, Bruce Hedin, David D. Lewis & Stephen Tomlinson (2010). Evaluation of Information Retrieval for E-Discovery. Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (4):347-386.
    The effectiveness of information retrieval technology in electronic discovery (E-discovery) has become the subject of judicial rulings and practitioner controversy. The scale and nature of E-discovery tasks, however, has pushed traditional information retrieval evaluation approaches to their limits. This paper reviews the legal and operational context of E-discovery and the approaches to evaluating search technology that have evolved in the research community. It then describes a multi-year effort carried out as part of the Text Retrieval Conference to develop evaluation methods (...)
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  48. Massimo Pigliucci (2013). The Nature of Evolutionary Biology: At the Borderlands Between Historical and Experimental Science. In Kostas Kampourakis (ed.), The Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer.
    The scientific status of evolutionary theory seems to be more or less perennially under question. I am not referring here (just) to the silliness of young Earth creation- ism (Pigliucci 2002; Boudry and Braeckman 2010), or even of the barely more intel- lectually sophisticated so-called Intelligent Design theory (Recker 2010; Brigandt this volume), but rather to discussions among scientists and philosophers of science concerning the epistemic status of evolutionary theory (Sober 2010). As we shall see in what follows, this (...)
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  49. Charles Pigden (2007). Desiring to Desire: Russell, Lewis and G.E.Moore. In Susana Nuccetelli & Gary Seay (eds.), Themes from G.E.Moore. Oxford University Press. pp. 244-260.
    I have two aims in this paper. In §§2-4 I contend that Moore has two arguments (not one) for the view that that ‘good’ denotes a non-natural property not to be identified with the naturalistic properties of science and common sense (or, for that matter, the more exotic properties posited by metaphysicians and theologians). The first argument, the Barren Tautology Argument (or the BTA), is derived, via Sidgwick, from a long tradition of anti-naturalist polemic. But the second argument, the Open (...)
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  50.  27
    Kevin D. Hoover (2003). Nonstationary Time Series, Cointegration, and the Principle of the Common Cause. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (4):527-551.
    Elliot Sober ([2001]) forcefully restates his well-known counterexample to Reichenbach's principle of the common cause: bread prices in Britain and sea levels in Venice both rise over time and are, therefore, correlated; yet they are ex hypothesi not causally connected, which violates the principle of the common cause. The counterexample employs nonstationary data—i.e., data with time-dependent population moments. Common measures of statistical association do not generally reflect probabilistic dependence among nonstationary data. I demonstrate the inadequacy of the counterexample and (...)
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