11 found

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  1.  36
    Durand of St.-Pourçain on Reflex Acts and State Consciousness.Peter John Hartman - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (3):215-240.
    Some of my mental states are conscious and some of them are not. Sometimes I am so focused on the wine in front of me that I am unaware that I am thinking about it; but sometimes, of course, I take a reflexive step back and become aware of my thinking about the wine in front of me. What marks the difference between a conscious mental state and an unconscious one? In this paper, I focus on Durand of St.-Pourçain’s rejection (...)
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  2.  2
    The First of All Natural Sciences: Roger Bacon on Perspectiva and Human Knowledge.Mattia Mantovani - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (3):186-214.
    This article is devoted to Roger Bacon’s understanding of perspectiva as “the first of all natural sciences.” After considering a few alternative medieval definitions and classifications of this discipline – such as al-Fārābī’s, Grosseteste’s and Kilwardby’s – the author turns to Bacon’s arguments for according to perspectiva so exceptional a role. He shows that Bacon’s arguments are grounded in his peculiar understanding of the visual process: according to Bacon, vision is indeed the only sense in which perception takes place “by (...)
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  3.  4
    A Fourteenth-Century Scholastic Dispute on Astrological Interrogations.C. Philipp E. Nothaft - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (3):241-285.
    This article examines and edits an anonymous text from the late 1330s, which was written to refute the arguments presented in a lost quaestio disputata by an unknown Parisian philosopher. At the heart of this scholastic dispute was the question whether the astrological branch known as interrogations was an effective and legitimate means of predicting the future. The philosopher’s negative answers to this question as well as the rebuttals preserved in our anonymous text offer valuable new insights into the debate (...)
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  4.  1
    La Raison Chez Hugues de Saint-Victor : Du Feuilleté des Acceptions À la Cohérence D’Un Sens, D’Une Pensée, D’Un Programme Éducatif.Dominique Poirel - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (3):143-185.
    Three conclusions can be drawn from the study of the word ratio and its derivatives in the works of Hugh of Saint-Victor. First, the approximately 1500 occurrences present an exceptional diversity of meanings. Second, these meanings are not tightly separated from each other, but tend to tile or merge: not only are there many passages where the translator can legitimately hesitate between two or more interpretations, but the author himself plays on this malleability of significations, as if to refer his (...)
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  5.  5
    Is Matter the Same as Its Potency? Some Fourteenth-Century Answers.Russell L. Friedman - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):123-142.
    Is prime matter the same as its potency, its readiness to take on the entire gamut of corporeal substantial forms? This question, arising from a passage in Averroes, lies at the core of later medieval hylomorphism and was hotly debated. The present article looks at three answers to the question by figures from the first half of the fourteenth century: Gerald Ot who takes a Scotistic approach to the issue, John of Jandun and Peter Auriol taking an Averroan tack, and (...)
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  6.  7
    Aquinas on Passive Powers.Gloria Frost - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):33-51.
    Aquinas thinks that if we want to understand causal interactions between material substances, we cannot focus exclusively on agents and their active powers. In his view, there are also passive potencies which enable material substances to be acted upon. He claims that for every type of active potency, there is a corresponding passive potency. This article aims to clarify Aquinas’s views about the passive potencies of material substances. It recovers his thinking on three key questions: first, what is the basis (...)
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  7.  5
    James of Viterbo on Seminal Reasons as Inchoationes Formarum.Mark Gossiaux - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):52-78.
    This article examines James of Viterbo’s theory of seminal reasons as inchoate forms. James intends this theory to explain how the eduction of substantial forms from the potency of matter does not entail that such forms are created ex nihilo. Substantial forms that come to be in generation preexist in matter as forms in potency. The form in potency is an inchoation of, or aptitude or propensity for, the form that comes to be in act. Generation is thus understood by (...)
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  8.  8
    Introduction: Special Issue on Powers and Essences.Can Laurens Löwe - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):1-9.
    This article examines Bonaventure’s account of the soul and its powers, which seeks to strike a middle path between the better-known identity and distinction views of the thirteenth century. Bonaventure contends that the powers of the soul are neither fully distinct from the soul nor completely identical to it. The article argues that Bonaventure’s view comprises four key theses. Bonaventure maintains that the soul’s powers are necessary features of the soul; that they depend on the soul; that they are in (...)
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  9.  12
    Potens Per Accidens Sine Accidentibus: Ockham on Material Substances and Their Essential Powers.Daniel J. Simpson - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):102-122.
    Medieval scholastics share a commitment to a substance-accident ontology and to an analysis of efficient causation in which agents act in virtue of their powers. Given these commitments, it seems ready-made which entities are the agents or powers: substances are agents and their accidents powers. William of Ockham, however, offers a rather different analysis concerning material substances and their essential powers, which this article explores. The article first examines Ockham’s account of propria and his reasons for claiming that a material (...)
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  10.  9
    Perfect Subjects, Shields, and Retractions: Three Models of Impassibility.Zita V. Toth - 2021 - Vivarium 59 (1-2):79-101.
    According to theological consensus at least from the thirteenth century, at the End of Times our body will be resurrected and reunited with our soul. The resurrected body, although numerically identical to our present one, will be quite different: it will possess clarity, agility, subtility, and the inability to suffer. It is the last of these characteristics that will be of most concern in the present article. There are two reasons why impassibility presents a problem in the medieval framework. The (...)
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  11.  9
    The Roots of Occasionalism? Causation, Metaphysical Dependence, and Soul-Body Relations in Augustine.Tamer Nawar - 2021 - Vivarium 59:1-27.
    It has long been thought that Augustine holds that corporeal objects cannot act upon incorporeal souls. However, precisely how and why Augustine imposes limitations upon the causal powers of corporeal objects remains obscure. In this paper, the author clarifies Augustine’s views about the causal and dependence relations between body and soul. He argues that, contrary to what is often thought, Augustine allows that corporeal objects do act upon souls and merely rules out that corporeal objects exercise a particular kind of (...)
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