Foundations of Science

ISSN: 1233-1821

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  1. The Use of Examples in Philosophy of Technology.Mithun Bantwal Rao - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1421-1443.
    This paper is a contribution to a discussion in philosophy of technology by focusing on the epistemological status of the example. Of the various developments in the emerging, inchoate field of philosophy of technology, the “empirical turn” stands out as having left the most enduring mark on the trajectory contemporary research takes. From a historical point of view, the empirical turn can best be understood as a corrective to the overly “transcendentalizing” tendencies of “classical” philosophers of technology, such as Heidegger. (...)
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  2.  3
    The Information Encoded in Structures: Theory and Application to Molecular Cybernetics.Andrzej Bielecki & Michael Schmittel - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1327-1345.
    Theoretical frames for analyzing information in biological and molecular multicomponent structures are proposed. The mathematical foundations of the proposal are presented. Both the information encoded in structures is defined and the method of calculating the amount of this information is introduced. The proposed approach is applied to the operation of a molecular multicomponent machine.
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  3.  9
    Unfolding the Layers of Mind and World: Wellner’s Posthuman Digital Imagination.Melinda Campbell - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1371-1380.
    Galit Wellner’s exploration of new kinds of digital technologies employing AI algorithms that simulate features and functions of the human imagination leads her to propose a conceptual analysis of the imagination as a composite of perception and memory. Wellner poses the question of whether the output of such technological applications might be regarded as not merely simulating creative activity but as truly imaginative in their own right. Wellner concludes with a qualified “no.” The use of AI algorithms in conjunction with (...)
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  4.  1
    Defamiliarizing Technology, Habituation, and the Need for a Structuralist Approach.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1415-1420.
    In response to my article “Earth, Technology, Language”, Christopher Müller asks whether use-oriented theory and Wittgensteinian language can capture the structural relations of power that shape habituation and argues that digital media do not provide opportunities for empowerment and democracy because there is no co-ownership. In my reply I argue that I have shown that this can be done with the broader conception of use I propose, that the grammar of technology should also be understood in terms of implicit knowledge, (...)
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  5.  9
    Does an Ontic Whole Exist?: Conditions of Possibility and Technology Use.Bas de Boer - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1401-1407.
    In this commentary, I scrutinize Coeckelbergh’s criticism of postphenomenology, and question whether postphenomenology indeed tends to neglect the social dimension of technology use, and must necessarily be conceived as being in opposition to transcendental philosophy. Second, I suggest that the Wittgensteinian concepts that Coeckelbergh introduces are interesting additions to the concepts used in postphenomenology, but that his use of the term “transcendental” seems up to now primarily to be a rhetorical means enabling him to distance himself from postphenomenology.
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  6.  4
    Why Physics is Not Wrong on Temporal Directionality, and Why This is Not Necessarily Good News for Physicalism.Yuval Dolev - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1285-1300.
    This paper claims that, to the extent that temporal direction figures in physics at all, it is found there as part of the extra-scientific language science employs. The asymmetry between “before” and “after” is not captured by the mathematics of any theory, nor can it be derived from the laws of any theory. This, I argue, is true even of theories whose laws are not time reversal invariant. Recognizing that physics does not yield temporal direction but receives it from the (...)
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  7.  1
    Primordial Black Holes From Collapsing Antimatter.Gábor Etesi - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1381-1400.
    In this paper a simple (i.e. free of fine-tuning, etc.) new mechanism for primordial black hole formation based on the collapse of large antimatter systems in the early Universe is introduced. A peculiarity of this process is that, compared to their material counterparts, the collapse of large antimatter systems takes much less time due to the reversed thermodynamics of antimatter, an idea which has been proposed in our earlier paper Etesi (2021). This model has several testable predictions. The first is (...)
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  8.  7
    This Strange Being Called the Cosmos.Yuk Hui - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1409-1414.
    This supplementary essay aims to respond to and clarify the misunderstandings concerning the concept of cosmotechnics, the ambiguities of the term cosmos arisen in the article “For a Cosmotechnical Event,” as well as the reason for the neologism of cosmotechnics.
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  9.  14
    Deconstructing the Phantom: Duhem and the Scientific Realism Debate.Mateusz Kotowski & Krzysztof Szlachcic - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1453-1475.
    For many decades, Duhem has been considered a paradigmatic instrumentalist, and while some commentators have argued against classifying him in this way, it still seems prevalent as an interpretation of his philosophy of science. Yet such a construal bears scant resemblance to the views presented in his own works—so little, indeed, that it might be said to constitute no more than a mere phantom with respect to his actual thought. In this article, we aim to deconstruct this phantom, tracing the (...)
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  10.  11
    Technologizing the Transcendental, Not Discarding It.Pieter Lemmens - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1307-1315.
    In this reply I further defend my claim that the transcendental should always remain a primary concern for philosophy of technology as a philosophical enterprise, contra the empirical turn’s rejection of it. Yet, instead of emphasizing the non-technological conditions of technology, as ‘classic’ thinkers of technology such as Heidegger did, it should recognize technology itself as the transcendental operator par excellence. Starting from Heidegger’s ontological understanding of transcendence I show that while technical artifacts may indeed always conform to a certain (...)
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  11.  13
    Nature Chose Abduction: Support From Brain Research for Lipton’s Theory of Inference to the Best Explanation.Peter B. Seddon - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1489-1505.
    This paper presents arguments and evidence from psychology and neuroscience supporting Lipton’s 2004 claim that scientists create knowledge through an abductive process that he calls “Inference to the Best Explanation”. The paper develops two conclusions. Conclusion 1 is that without conscious effort on our part, our brains use a process very similar to abduction as a powerful way of interpreting sensory information. To support Conclusion 1, evidence from psychology and neuroscience is presented that suggests that what we humans perceive through (...)
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  12.  3
    Necessity, Entailment, Shared Agonism.Dominic Smith - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1317-1325.
    This short paper offers a series of responses to Jochem Zwier and Timothy Barker’s comments on my extended paper ‘Taking Exception: Philosophy of Technology as a Multidimensional Problem Space.’ Part one responds to questions concerning the modality of the renewed understanding of the theme of the transcendental that was argued for in my initial paper: I argue for the deep _contingency_ of such a move, against any sense that it is _necessary._ Part two takes this consideration of modality further, considering (...)
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  13.  3
    A Geometric Milieu Inside the Brain.Arturo Tozzi, Alexander Yurkin & James F. Peters - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1477-1488.
    The brain, rather than being homogeneous, displays an almost infinite topological genus, since it is punctured with a high number of “cavities”. We might think to the brain as a sponge equipped with countless, uniformly placed, holes. Here we show how these holes, termed topological vortexes, stand for nesting, non-concentric brain signal cycles resulting from the activity of inhibitory neurons. Such inhibitory spike activity is inversely correlated with its counterpart, i.e., the excitatory spike activity propagating throughout the whole brain tissue. (...)
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  14.  7
    Cosmotechnical Thought Between Substantivism and the Empirical Turn.Andrés Vaccari - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1279-1284.
    In this article I respond to Yuk Hui by revisiting the crossroads in the philosophy of technology as represented by the philosophies of Stiegler and Ihde. Whereas Hui proposes the concept of cosmotechnics as an integrating perspective, I conceive of the crossroads in other terms, namely from the perspective of substantivism. I characterize our present situation, what a philosophy of technology should address and then examine Hui’s notion of cosmotechnics from this alternative perspective. My main concern is to show future (...)
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  15.  6
    Exploring in Between Small and Big: On Algorithmic Mediation, the Importance of Relation, and the Terms of Debate.Yoni Van Den Eede - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1301-1305.
    In this contribution I reply to Heather Wiltse and Róisín Lally’s commentaries. Both stress the importance of not only looking at gaps, but also accounting for relation and connection—an endeavor which was less visible in my original piece but which I wholly support, and on which I elaborate more here, making use of the example of ‘algorithmic mediation.’ In the process, I attempt to clear up some possible misunderstandings with regard to my initial formulations, as concerns object-oriented ontology’s stance on (...)
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  16.  29
    Digital Imagination, Fantasy, AI Art.Galit Wellner - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1445-1451.
    In this reply to my reviewers, I touch upon Husserl’s notion of fantasy. Whereas Kant positions fantasy outside the scope of his own work, Husserl brings it back. The importance of this notion lies in freeing imagination from the tight link to images, as for Husserl imagination is an activity that functions as a “quasi perception.” Ihde and Stiegler enrich Husserl’s analysis of imagination with various aspects of technology: Ihde shows how changes in the technologies that mediate our imagination will (...)
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  17.  6
    Lacan’s Dialectics of Knowledge Production: The Four Discourses as a Detour to Hegel.Hub Zwart - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (4):1347-1370.
    In Seminar XVII, entitled The reverse side of psychoanalysis, Jacques Lacan presents his famous theorem of the four discourses. In this rereading I propose to demonstrate that Lacan’s theorem entails a transferable dialectical method for studying processes of knowledge production, enabling contemporary scholars to develop a diagnostic of the present, notably scholars interested in issues such as the vicissitudes of knowledge production under capitalism, the crisis of the university and the proliferation of electronic gadgets. In short, I will argue that (...)
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  18.  17
    Computer Simulations as Scientific Instruments.Ramón Alvarado - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1183-1205.
    Computer simulations have conventionally been understood to be either extensions of formal methods such as mathematical models or as special cases of empirical practices such as experiments. Here, I argue that computer simulations are best understood as instruments. Understanding them as such can better elucidate their actual role as well as their potential epistemic standing in relation to science and other scientific methods, practices and devices.
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  19.  2
    Bernhard Riemann, the Ear, and an Atom of Consciousness.Andrew Bell, Bryn Davies & Habib Ammari - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):855-873.
    Why did Bernhard Riemann, arguably the most original mathematician of his generation, spend the last year of life investigating the mechanism of hearing? Fighting tuberculosis and the hostility of eminent scientists such as Hermann Helmholtz, he appeared to forsake mathematics to prosecute a case close to his heart. Only sketchy pages from his last paper remain, but here we assemble some significant clues and triangulate from them to build a broad picture of what he might have been driving at. Our (...)
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  20.  8
    How Does an Entity Acquire Identity? Reassembling Relativistic Physics with Actor-Network Theory.Mariano Croce & Emilia Margoni - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1055-1071.
    What is it that determines the identity of an entity? Processualism is a theoretical perspective that offers a startling answer to this question. The identity of an entity—whether human or nonhuman, animate or inanimate—depends on the set of relations in which this entity is located. And as the sets of relations are several, so are the identities that an entity can take. This article discusses this conclusion by integrating processual accounts from different fields of inquiry, such as relativistic physics and (...)
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  21.  7
    On the Ontological Status of Mechanisms and Processes in the Social World.Henrique Estides Delgado - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):987-1000.
    This paper gives a philosophical outline of the importance of plausible ontologies in the social sciences and argues how mechanisms and processes should be placed as the foundation in the social world. The argumentation is mainly based on a critical appraisal of the use of mechanisms and processes in the works of Norbert Elias, Charles Tilly, and Jon Elster. I start by elaborating on how inquiries of scientific interest evolve to shed light on cases, facts and the things that constitute (...)
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  22.  8
    Physics is Organized Around Transformations Connecting Contextures in a Polycontextural World.Johannes Falk, Edwin Eichler, Katja Windt & Marc-Thorsten Hütt - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1229-1251.
    The rich body of physical theories defines the foundation of our understanding of the world. Its mathematical formulation is based on classical Aristotelian logic. In the philosophy of science the ambiguities, paradoxes, and the possibility of subjective interpretations of facts have challenged binary logic, leading, among other developments, to Gotthard Günther’s theory of polycontexturality. Günther’s theory explains how observers with subjective perception can become aware of their own subjectivity and provides means to describe contradicting or even paradox observations in a (...)
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  23.  4
    Quantumbit Cosmology Explains Effects of Rotation Curves of Galaxies.Thomas Görnitz & Uwe Schomäcker - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):885-914.
    Some terms identify enigmata of today’s cosmology: “Inflation” is expected to explain the homogeneity and isotropy of the cosmic background. The repulsive force of a “dark energy” shall prevent a re-collapse of the cosmos. The additional gravitational effect of a “dark matter” was originally supposed to explain the deviations of the rotation curves of the galaxies from Kepler’s laws. Adopting a theory founded on the core notion of absolute quantum information–Protyposis–being a cosmological concept from the outset, the observed phenomena can (...)
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  24.  5
    A General Theory of Objectivity: Contributions From the Reformational Philosophy Tradition.Richard M. Gunton, Marinus D. Stafleu & Michael J. Reiss - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):941-955.
    Objectivity in the sciences is a much-touted yet problematic concept. It is sometimes held up as characterising scientific knowledge, yet operational definitions are diverse and call for such paradoxical genius as the ability to see without a perspective, to predict repeatability, to elicit nature’s own self-revelation, or to discern the structure of reality with inerrancy. Here we propose a positive and general definition of objectivity based on work in the Reformational philosophy tradition. We recognise a suite of relation-frames–ways in which (...)
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  25.  14
    Postphenomenology, the Empirical Turn and “Transcendentality”.Don Ihde - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):851-854.
    Ever since Achterhuis designated American philosophy of technology “empirical” there has been a Continental “push-back” defending the first generation of European—mostly Heidegger’s essentialistic “transcendental”—philosophy of technology. While I prefer a “concrete” turn—to avoid confusing with British “empiricism”—in a belief that particular technologies are different from others—this is a quibble. I admit I was very taken by Richard Rorty’s “anti-essentialism” and “non-foundationalism” in his version of pragmatism, and have adapted much of that stance into postphenomenology. In this contribution I reply to (...)
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  26.  9
    Stimmung/Nastrój as Content of Modern Science: On Musical Metaphors in Ludwik Fleck’s Theory of Thought Styles and Thought Collectives.Paweł Jarnicki - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1207-1228.
    Thought style and thought collective are two well-known concepts from Ludwik Fleck’s theory of science, which he originally formulated in Polish and German. This paper contends that these two concepts cannot be fully understood without a third—Stimmung/nastrój, which is one of the musical metaphors that play an important role in Fleck’s thinking. Because it is most often translated into English as “mood”, Fleck’s musical metaphors are mostly lost in translation, appearing as mere rhetoric. Only if and when we understand Stimmung/nastrój (...)
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  27.  27
    Ontological Pluralism and Multi-Quantificational Ontology.Zbigniew Król & Józef Lubacz - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):921-940.
    This paper explores some variants and aspects of multi-quantificational criteria of existence, examining these in the context of the debate between monism and pluralism in analytical philosophy. Assuming familiarity with the findings to date, we seek to apply to these the newly introduced concepts of “substitution” and “substitutional model”. Possible applications of formal theories involving multiple types of existential quantifier are highlighted, together with their methods of construction. These considerations then lead to a thesis asserting the irrelevance of both multi-quantificational (...)
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  28.  2
    The Paternity of the Modern Computer.Juan A. Lara, Juan Pazos, Aurea Anguera de Sojo & Shadi Aljawarneh - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1029-1040.
    In recent decades, there has been a proliferation among the scientific community of works that focus on Alan Turing’s contributions to the design and development of the modern computer. However, there are significant discrepancies among these studies, to such a point that some of them cast serious doubts on Alan Turing’s work with respect to today’s computer, and there are others that staunchly defend his leading role, as well as other studies that set out more well-balanced opinions. Faced with this (...)
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  29.  15
    In Memory of Bernard Stiegler.Pieter Lemmens - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1021-1028.
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  30.  6
    Correction to: A Landmark in the History of Science: H. von Foerster’s Cybernetics of Cybernetics.Carlos Eduardo Maldonado & Eduardo Villar Concha - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):881-883.
    The original article was published with errors. The corrections are provided here.
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  31.  5
    A QBist Ontology.U. J. Mohrhoff - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1253-1277.
    This paper puts forward an ontology that is indebted to QBism, Kant, Bohr, Schrödinger, the philosophy of the Upanishads, and the evolutionary philosophy of Sri Aurobindo. Central to it is that reality is relative to consciousness or experience. Instead of a single mind-independent reality, there are different poises of consciousness, including a consciousness to which “we are all really only various aspects of the One”. This ontology helps clear up unresolved issues in the philosophy of science, such as arise from (...)
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  32.  9
    Cosmos and Technology.Frédéric Neyrat - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1049-1054.
    In response to Yuk Hui’s essay “For a Cosmotechnical Event,” I argue that the cosmos can only be metaphysically apprehended through a deepening of its astrophysical understanding. This understanding makes the universe—and the Earth—a contingent, historical, and an-archic formation. Dasein is therefore under planetary condition, seeking to ensure that the Earth is finally able to recognize its strangeness. The technologies capable of accompanying an Earth traversed by the abyss of the universe should be able to express a resolutely a-modern, a-human, (...)
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  33.  8
    Conceptual Frameworks on the Relationship Between Physics–Mathematics in the Newton Principia Geneva Edition (1822).Raffaele Pisano & Paolo Bussotti - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3).
    The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to show the principal aspects of the way in which Newton conceived his mathematical concepts and methods and applied them to rational mechanics in his Principia; (2) to explain how the editors of the Geneva Edition interpreted, clarified, and made accessible to a broader public Newton’s perfect but often elliptic proofs. Following this line of inquiry, we will explain the successes of Newton’s mechanics, but also the problematic aspects of his perfect geometrical (...)
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  34.  2
    Commentary to “Practicing Dialectics of Technoscience During the Anthropocene” by Hub Zwart.Hans-Jörg Rheinberger - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):981-985.
    Hub Zwart’s article is about the idea—and the practice—of an embedded philosophy of science, that is, a philosophy participating in and at the same time reflecting about the current state of the sciences facing the Anthropocene, to which I am very sympathetic. There are, however, two caveats. The first is that participation is always in danger to end up in a more or less uncritical eulogy, in the present case of synthetic biology. The second is that I have doubts about (...)
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  35.  7
    The Transcendental of Technology Is Said in Many Ways.Alberto Romele - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):975-980.
    In this contribution, the author contends that the way in which Pieter Lemmens interprets the transcendental of technology, particularly through the work of Bernard Stiegler, is only one of the possible ways of understanding the transcendental of technology. His thesis is that there are many other transcendentals of technology besides technology itself. The task of a philosophy of technology beyond the empirical turn could precisely consist in exploring these multiple transcendentals of technology, along with their multiple relations. In the first (...)
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  36.  12
    Neglected Pragmatism: Discussing Abduction to Dissolute Classical Dichotomies.Alger Sans Pinillos - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1107-1125.
    Many parts of the contemporary philosophical debate have been built on the radicalization of conclusions derived from the acceptance of a certain set of classical dichotomies. It also discusses how pragmatism and abduction are currently presented to solve the problems arising from these dichotomies. For this reason, the efforts of this article have been directed to analyze the impact of this fact on the philosophy of science and logic. The starting point is that accepting abduction implies, in many ways, accepting (...)
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  37.  3
    Desperate Acts and Compromises.Alexander Wilson - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1001-1008.
    This article expands on what Bernard Stiegler describes as “The Ordeal of Truth”. Through an evolutionary account of cognition and its exteriorization in human technology, I highlight a recurring tension in philosophy between the “as-if” nature of our models and representations, and the doubt that infects even our most stable understanding of the world. Truth is here associated to the process of metastabilization that characterizes the biological organism. The famous case of Clive Wearing’s severe amnesia, as well as the fictional (...)
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  38.  7
    Maneuvering in the Interval: Reflections on Immanent Entanglements.Heather Wiltse - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):915-920.
    Both perspective and leverage are needed in order to arrive at a place where it is possible to do the philosophical work required in order to adequately account for our present sociotechnical landscape. One of the key characteristics of this landscape is the collapse of scale, as things become more like fluid assemblages and the economic incentives of surveillance capitalism turn ordinary things into surveillance devices tuned for others’ profit. In this context we need a language not only of imagination (...)
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  39.  2
    Maneuvering in the Interval: Reflections on Immanent Entanglements.Heather Wiltse - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):915-920.
    Both perspective and leverage are needed in order to arrive at a place where it is possible to do the philosophical work required in order to adequately account for our present sociotechnical landscape. One of the key characteristics of this landscape is the collapse of scale, as things become more like fluid assemblages and the economic incentives of surveillance capitalism turn ordinary things into surveillance devices tuned for others’ profit. In this context we need a language not only of imagination (...)
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  40.  31
    The Empirical and the Holistic Turn: A Hegelian Dialectics of Technoscience Revisited.Hub Zwart - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (3):1041-1048.
    My effort to address the comments made by the two distinguished scholars, consists of three steps. I will start with a brief resume of Hegel’s dialectical logic, to provide a scaffold for the debate. Subsequently, I will address the comments made. In the case of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, I will focus on his reference to Althusser. In the case of Bart Gremmen, I will focus on the dialectics of biology, notably on his reference to Mendel. Finally, I will address the tension (...)
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  41.  6
    Man is a “Rope” Stretched Between Virosphere and Humanoid Robots: On the Urgent Need of an Ethical Code for Ecosystem Survival.Luigi F. Agnati, Deanna Anderlini, Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli & Guido Maura - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):311-325.
    In this paper we compare the strategies applied by two successful biological components of the ecosystem, the viruses and the human beings, to interact with the environment. Viruses have had and still exert deep and vast actions on the ecosystem especially at the genome level of most of its biotic components. We discuss on the importance of the human being as contraptions maker in particular of robots, hence of machines capable of automatically carrying out complex series of actions. Beside the (...)
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  42.  5
    The Transcendental and the Agonistic: A Media Philosophy Perspective.Timothy Barker - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):521-525.
    This critical response to Dominic Smith’s ‘Taking Exception: Philosophy of Technology as a Multidimensional Problem Space’ begins by outlining the key contributions of his essay, namely his insightful approach to the transcendental, on the one hand, and his introduction of the topological problem space as an image for thought, on the other. The response then suggests ways of furthering this approach by addressing potential reservations about determinism. The response concludes by suggesting a way out of these questions of determinism by (...)
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  43.  3
    Back to the Phenomenology of Technical Life.Dana S. Belu - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):281-285.
    This essay is a response to Robert Scharff’s “Before Empirical Turns and Transcendental Inquiry: pre-philosophical Considerations”. Scharff digs beneath the empirico-transcendental debate between Ihde and Stiegler in order to critique this debate’s Cartesian presuppositions. He uses the work of Nietzsche and the early Heidegger to further his critique. There is much to like in Scharff’s rich and intricate analytic interpretation but this is also the crux of my critique. The detour into Nietzsche’s and the early Heidegger’s work is ultimately unnecessary. (...)
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  44.  10
    On Turning Away from “The Empirical Turn”.Kirk M. Besmer - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):549-554.
    In my comments, I address two issues that are important but not central to the paper under review here. First, I present a reading of the postphenomenological concept of multistability by going back to Merleau-Ponty’s notion of the primacy of perception. I conclude that assertions affirming the multistability of technologies should not be seen as merely empirical. Second, I address the adequacy of using the language of ‘empirical’ and ‘transcendental’ as a means to categorize exclusionary approaches in philosophy of technology.
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  45.  7
    Operationalism: An Interpretation of the Philosophy of Ancient Greek Geometry.Viktor Blåsjö - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):587-708.
    I present a systematic interpretation of the foundational purpose of constructions in ancient Greek geometry. I argue that Greek geometers were committed to an operationalist foundational program, according to which all of mathematics—including its entire ontology and epistemology—is based entirely on concrete physical constructions. On this reading, key foundational aspects of Greek geometry are analogous to core tenets of 20th-century operationalist/positivist/constructivist/intuitionist philosophy of science and mathematics. Operationalism provides coherent answers to a range of traditional philosophical problems regarding classical mathematics, such (...)
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  46.  17
    The morendo of the Anthropocene.Vincent Blok - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):411-415.
    This essay engages with Bernard Stiegler’s discussion with Martin Heidegger in The ordeal of Truth, published in Foundations of Science 2020. It appreciates Stiegler’s progressive reading of Heidegger’s work but critically reflects on several elements in his work. A first element is the methodological aspect of Heidegger’s being historical thinking, which is missed by Stiegler and confirms the indifference towards philosophical method that can be found in the work of many contemporary philosophers. A second element concerns Heidegger’s and Stiegler’s remaining (...)
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  47.  3
    Preface of the Special Issue: Worldviews and Health-Related Stigma.T. M. M. De Groot & P. Meurs - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):717-718.
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  48.  3
    Contact Versus Education: An Explorative Comparison Between the Contact and Education Strategy Considering Albinism Related Stigma in Tanzanian High Schools.T. M. M. De Groot, P. Meurs, W. Jacquet & R. M. H. Peters - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):785-803.
    Albinism in Tanzania causes fierce health-related stigma. Little research has focused on the impact of stigma reduction strategies aiming to reduce albinism related stigma. Therefore, this research assessed the impact of two short video interventions among high school students in Tanzania on their attitude towards people with albinism: a contact intervention and an education intervention. A mixed method design was used. Directly before and after the interventions impact was measured among all participants through the Albinism Social Distance Scale for Adolescents, (...)
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  49.  2
    The Object That Technology is Not and How We Can Relate to It.Helena De Preester - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):581-585.
    I reply to two comments to my paper “Subjectivity and transcendental illusions in the Anthropocene,” by Johannes Schick and Melentie Pandilovski. Schick expands on the possibility that technical objects become “other” in a Levinasian sense, making use of Simondon’s three-layered structure of technical objects. His proposal is to free technical objects and install a different relationship between humankind and technology. I see two major difficulties in Schick's proposal. These difficulties are based on a number of features of current digital technology (...)
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  50.  4
    Causal Stories and the Role of Worldviews in Analysing Responses to Sorcery Accusations and Related Violence.Miranda Forsyth & Philip Gibbs - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):773-784.
    This paper uses the concept of causal stories to explore how death, sickness and misfortune lead to accusations of sorcery or witchcraft. Based on empirical research in Papua New Guinea, we propose a new analytical framework that shows how negative events may trigger particular narratives about the use of the supernatural by individuals and groups. These narratives then direct considerations about the cause of the misfortune, the agent who can heal it, and the appropriate response from those affected by the (...)
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  51. Mathematics as a Science of Non-Abstract Reality: Aristotelian Realist Philosophies of Mathematics.James Franklin - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):327-344.
    There is a wide range of realist but non-Platonist philosophies of mathematics—naturalist or Aristotelian realisms. Held by Aristotle and Mill, they played little part in twentieth century philosophy of mathematics but have been revived recently. They assimilate mathematics to the rest of science. They hold that mathematics is the science of X, where X is some observable feature of the (physical or other non-abstract) world. Choices for X include quantity, structure, pattern, complexity, relations. The article lays out and compares these (...)
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  52.  4
    Mathematics as a Science of Non-abstract Reality: Aristotelian Realist Philosophies of Mathematics.James Franklin - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):327-344.
    There is a wide range of realist but non-Platonist philosophies of mathematics—naturalist or Aristotelian realisms. Held by Aristotle and Mill, they played little part in twentieth century philosophy of mathematics but have been revived recently. They assimilate mathematics to the rest of science. They hold that mathematics is the science of X, where X is some observable feature of the world. Choices for X include quantity, structure, pattern, complexity, relations. The article lays out and compares these options, including their accounts (...)
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  53.  4
    Understanding Stigmatisation: Results of a Qualitative Formative Study with Adolescents and Adults in DR Congo.Kim Hartog, Ruth M. H. Peters & Mark J. D. Jordans - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):805-828.
    While stigmatisation is universal, stigma research in low- and middle-income countries is limited. LMIC stigma research predominantly concerns health-related stigma, primarily regarding HIV/AIDS or mental illness from an adult perspective. While there are commonalities in stigmatisation, there are also contextual differences. The aim of this study in DR Congo, as a formative part in the development of a common stigma reduction intervention, was to gain insight into the commonalities and differences of stigma drivers, facilitators, and manifestations with regard to three (...)
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  54.  5
    Reflections on an Externalized Digital Imagination.Nicola Liberati - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):407-410.
    Wellner’s article aims at changing an essential element within phenomenology by introducing the idea of digital imagination. Assuming her thesis, I aim to raise two possible kinds of questions generated by the introduction of a technologically embedded imagination which is externalized.
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  55.  29
    Why is Information Retrieval a Scientific Discipline?Robert W. P. Luk - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):427-453.
    It is relatively easy to state that information retrieval is a scientific discipline but it is rather difficult to understand why it is science because what is science is still under debate in the philosophy of science. To be able to convince others that IR is science, our ability to explain why is crucial. To explain why IR is a scientific discipline, we use a theory and a model of scientific study, which were proposed recently. The explanation involves mapping the (...)
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  56.  3
    Perspectives on Living and Thinking Vectors of the Anthropocene.Melentie Pandilovski - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):573-580.
    Helena De Preester’s “Subjectivity and Transcendental Illusions in the Anthropocene” aims to rethink fundamentally the human–technology relationship against the backdrop of the Anthropocene. Essentially, the essay is concerned with the current form of subjectivity that characterizes humankind in the Anthropocene, and analyzes how it embeds knowledge, desire and behavior. De Preester indeed succeeds in creating a potent and engaging reflection on the current form of human subjectivity characteristic for the age of the Anthropocene, by referring to Vilém Flusser’s apparatuses, McKenzie (...)
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  57.  29
    On the Relationship Between Modelling Practices and Interpretive Stances in Quantum Mechanics.Quentin Ruyant - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):387-405.
    The purpose of this article is to establish a connection between modelling practices and interpretive approaches in quantum mechanics, taking as a starting point the literature on scientific representation. Different types of modalities play different roles in scientific representation. I postulate that the way theoretical structures are interpreted in this respect affects the way models are constructed. In quantum mechanics, this would be the case in particular of initial conditions and observables. I examine two formulations of quantum mechanics, the standard (...)
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  58.  17
    Induction: A Logical Analysis.Uwe Saint-Mont - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):455-487.
    The aim of this contribution is to provide a rather general answer to Hume’s problem. To this end, induction is treated within a straightforward formal paradigm, i.e., several connected levels of abstraction. Within this setting, many concrete models are discussed. On the one hand, models from mathematics, statistics and information science demonstrate how induction might succeed. On the other hand, standard examples from philosophy highlight fundamental difficulties. Thus it transpires that the difference between unbounded and bounded inductive steps is crucial: (...)
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  59.  6
    On Technical Alterity.Johannes F. M. Schick - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):515-520.
    This commentary introduces the notion of “technical alterity” in order to address the following questions: is it possible that technical objects can become “others” in analogy to Levinas’ ethics and can this relation provide solutions for the subject in the Anthropocene? According to Levinas, the human subject’s only break from having to be itself is in the consumption and enjoyment of things. Objects constitute thus an “other” that can be consumed, i.e., appropriated and be made one’s own. But, in times (...)
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  60.  4
    Are Borders Inside or Outside?Arturo Tozzi - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):489-505.
    When a boat disappears over the horizon, does a distant observer detect the last moment in which the boat is visible, or the first moment in which the boat is not visible? This apparently ludicrous way of reasoning, heritage of long-lasting medieval debates on decision limit problems, paves the way to sophisticated contemporary debates concerning the methodological core of mathematics, physics and biology. These ancient, logically-framed conundrums throw us into the realm of bounded objects with fuzzy edges, where our mind (...)
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  61.  10
    Dialectical Hegelian Logic and Physical Quantity and Quality.J. L. Usó-Doménech, J. A. Nescolarde-Selva & H. Gash - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (2):555-572.
    In Ontology, quality determines beings. The quality-quantity bipolarity reveals that a conceptual logical comprehension that can include negation must be a dialectical logic. Quality is a precise characteristic of something capable of augmentation or diminution while remaining identical through differences or quantitative changes. Thus, quality and in opposition quantity are inextricably linked, giving definition to each other, so constituting a logical bipolarity. The theory is that a magnitude G is never separated from secondary qualities α and β, and therefore, a (...)
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  62.  6
    Lorentz Violation in Torsional Antenna.Fabio Cardone, Gianni Albertini & Domenico Bassani - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):43-55.
    A torsional-antenna and a log-periodic antenna are used as a source and an analyzer, respectively, to investigate the possible anomalies of an electro-magnetic field. An unexpected isotropic signal has been detected using those torsion angles, which correspond to a breakdown of the Local Lorentz Invariance, which was found in the past. This coincidence is interpreted as the recovery of a lost symmetry by torqueing the antenna, thus putting in evidence that this Lorentz violation is of angular nature. Introducing a new (...)
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  63.  7
    Subjectivity and Transcendental Illusions in the Anthropocene.Helena De Preester - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):125-140.
    This contribution focuses on one member in particular of the anthropocenic triad Earth – technology – humankind, namely the current form of human subjectivity that characterizes humankind in the Anthropocene. Because knowledge, desire and behavior are always embedded in a particular form of subjectivity, it makes sense to look at the current subjective structure that embeds knowledge, desire and behavior. We want to move beyond the common psychological explanations that subjects are unable to correctly assess the consequences of their current (...)
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  64.  11
    The Experiment Paradox in Physics.Michał Eckstein & Paweł Horodecki - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):1-15.
    Modern physics is founded on two mainstays: mathematical modelling and empirical verification. These two assumptions are prerequisite for the objectivity of scientific discourse. Here we show, however, that they are contradictory, leading to the ‘experiment paradox’. We reveal that any experiment performed on a physical system is—by necessity—invasive and thus establishes inevitable limits to the accuracy of any mathematical model. We track its manifestations in both classical and quantum physics and show how it is overcome ‘in practice’ via the concept (...)
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  65.  12
    For a Cosmotechnical Event.Yuk Hui - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):141-154.
    What will philosophy of technology be as its practitioners depart from the cross- roads of the ideas of Don Ihde and Bernard Stiegler? Their two lines of thought confront and cross each other, giving rise to different ways of understanding technologies. Rather than following one or the other of these directions, I propose an Erörterung of such crossroads. As Heidegger’s commentary on Georg Trakl’s poetry insists, Erörterung means, first, “to point out the proper place or site of something to situate (...)
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  66.  13
    From Heideggerian Industrial Gigantism to Nanoscale Technologies.Don Ihde - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):245-257.
    As a regular reader of Science, Scientific American, Nature and The Eonomist, I could not miss how so many articles in these science-technology journals refer to micro-processing, which today dominates so much science-praxis. I have become aware that how science happens, changes primarily with a wide context of instrument changes. That is what this paper is about. Heidegger’s technologies were largely Industrial-Big, Machinic, and Mechanical. Science, today often a leader, is now operating by using micro-nano processes and has often shifted (...)
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  67.  19
    Thinking Technology Big Again. Reconsidering the Question of the Transcendental and ‘Technology with a Capital T’ in the Light of the Anthropocene.Pieter Lemmens - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):171-187.
    This article has two general aims. It first of all critically reconsiders the empirical turn’s dismissal of transcendentalism in the philosophy of technology, in particular through the work of Ihde and Verbeek, and defends the continuing relevance of the notion of the transcencental in thinking about technology today, illustrating this mainly through a reading of Stiegler’s understanding of the human condition as a technical condition and his view of human evolution as proceeding from a process of technical exteriorization. The crucial (...)
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  68.  17
    Rethinking Technology in the Anthropocene: Guest Editors’ Introduction.Pieter Lemmens & Yoni Van Den Eede - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):95-105.
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  69.  3
    Holistic and Compositional Logics Based on the Bertini Gate.Roberto Leporini - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):57-75.
    The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has inspired the development of new forms of quantum logic where the meaning of a formula is identified with a density operator and the logical connectives are interpreted as operations defined in terms of quantum gates. We show some relations between the Bertini gate and many valued connectives by probability values. On this basis, one can deal with quantum circuits as expressions in an algebraic environment such as product many valued algebra for (...)
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  70.  8
    A Landmark in the History of Science. [REVIEW]Carlos Eduardo Maldonado & Eduardo Villar Concha - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):19-25.
    This paper presents and discusses an authentic landmark in the history of science, namely H. v. Foerster’s Cybernetics of Cybernetics, 1974. This is a book rarely known even by many specialists. This paper argues that von Foerster’s book constitutes a unique achievement in the history of science. A thorough presentation is introduced that brings a complete panorama of concepts, problems and approaches.
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  71.  10
    Before Empirical Turns And Transcendental Inquiry: Pre-Philosophical Considerations.Robert C. Scharff - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):107-124.
    I approach the idea of empirical turns and transcendental theories indirectly. I do not start “post-“ or “neg-” anything; instead I begin pre-philosophically—that is, before everyone has a position and opposes other positions—with Heidegger’s “preparatory hermeneutical” question: As whom and with what concerns do empirically or transcendentally minded philosophers of technology respond to their experience of technoscientific life? For example, in his second Untimely Meditation, Nietzsche identifies his concern as one of “taking advantage” of historical knowledge “for life,” that is, (...)
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  72.  18
    Taking Exception: Philosophy of Technology as a Multidimensional Problem Space.Dominic Smith - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):155-170.
    This essay develops three key claims made in my 2018 book, Exceptional Technologies. Part one argues for ‘trivialising the transcendental’, to remove stigmas attached to the word ‘transcendental’ in philosophy in general and philosophy of technology in particular. Part two outlines the concept of ‘exceptional technologies’. These are artefacts and practices that show up as limit cases for our received pictures of what constitutes a ‘technology’ and that force us to reassess the conditions for the possibility of these pictures. I (...)
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  73.  21
    The Ordeal of Truth: Causes and Quasi-Causes in the Entropocene.Bernard Stiegler - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):271-280.
    This article attempts an organological and pharmacological re-interpretation of the later Heidegger’s understanding of modern technology as a provocative mode of revealing of beings, in particular of its central notions of Gestell [enframing] Gefahr [danger], Kehre [turning] and Ereignis [event]. Although these notions in principle allow us to think what is at stake currently in the Anthropocene as the age of total automation, generalized toxicity of the technical milieu and post-truth calling for a radical bifurcation, they need to be reframed (...)
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  74.  4
    Correction to: What are Belief Systems?J. L. Usó-Doménech & J. Nescolarde-Selva - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):17-17.
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  75.  8
    Thing-Transcendentality: Navigating the Interval of “Technology” and “Technology”.Yoni Van Den Eede - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):225-243.
    The empirical-transcendental debate in philosophy of technology, as debates go, took a turn toward the counterposing of the two perspectives, ‘empirical’-pragmatic-pragmatist versus ‘transcendental’-critical. Postphenomenology aligns itself with the former standpoint, and it is in this spirit that commentators have criticized it for its too-instrumentalist stance and lack of overarching, i.e., transcendental orientation. But the positions may have become too starkly delineated in order for the debate to reach any breakthrough: a seemingly unbridgeable gap yawns between the stances of ‘technology with (...)
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  76.  21
    Digital Imagination: Ihde’s and Stiegler’s Concepts of Imagination.Galit Wellner - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):189-204.
    As AI algorithms advance and produce surprising outputs, the question of imagination arises. Can we classify their output as imaginative? And what is their effect on human imagination? Apparently, algorithms follow Kant’s explanations on human imagination, thereby pushing us to update our understanding of imagination by taking into account the co-shaping between humans and their technologies. Such a new understating is offered in this article based on the theories of Don Ihde and Bernard Stiegler. With Ihde, imagination is conceived as (...)
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  77.  59
    Practicing Dialectics of Technoscience During the Anthropocene.Hub Zwart - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):1-20.
    This paper develops a dialectical methodology for assessing technoscience during the Anthropocene. How to practice Hegelian dialectics of technoscience today? First of all, dialectics is developed here in close interaction with contemporary technoscientific research endeavours, which are addressed from a position of proximity and from an ‘oblique’ perspective. Contrary to empirical research, the focus is on how basic concepts of life, nature and technology are acted out in practice. Notably, this paper zooms in on a synthetic cell project called BaSyC (...)
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  78.  2
    Practicing Dialectics of Technoscience During the Anthropocene.Hub Zwart - 2022 - Foundations of Science 27 (1):205-224.
    This paper develops a dialectical methodology for assessing technoscience during the Anthropocene. How to practice Hegelian dialectics of technoscience today? First of all, dialectics is developed here in close interaction with contemporary technoscientific research endeavours, which are addressed from a position of proximity and from an ‘oblique’ perspective. Contrary to empirical research, the focus is on how basic concepts of life, nature and technology are acted out in practice. Notably, this paper zooms in on a synthetic cell project called BaSyC (...)
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  79. The Ontology of Technology Beyond Anthropocentrism and Determinism: The Role of Technologies in the Constitution of the (Post)Anthropocene World.Vincent Blok - 2022 - Foundations of Science 1:1-19.
    Because climate change can be seen as the blind spot of contemporary philosophy of technology, while the destructive side effects of technological progress are no longer deniable, this article reflects on the role of technologies in the constitution of the (post)Anthropocene world. Our first hypothesis is that humanity is not the primary agent involved in world-production, but concrete technologies. Our second hypothesis is that technological inventions at an ontic level have an ontological impact and constitutes world. As we object to (...)
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  80.  49
    The ‘Empirical’ in the Empirical Turn: A Critical Analysis.Mariska Thalitha Bosschaert & Vincent Blok - 2022 - Foundations of Science 1:1-22.
    During the second half of the twentieth century, several philosophers of technology argued that their predecessors had reflected too abstractly and pessimistically on technology. In the view of these critics, one should study technologies empirically in order to fully understand them. They developed several strategies to empirically inform the philosophy of technology and called their new approach the empirical turn. However, they provide insufficient indications of what exactly is meant by empirical study in their work. This leads to the critical (...)
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