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  1. Dyscalculia/Dyslexia: A Dichotomy?E. Andersson & S. Abdelmalek - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):847-858.
    In this article, we analyse similarities and differences in and between two very topical issues in today’s learning disabilities, namely dyscalculia and dyslexia. More precisely, we introduce the nature of mathematics as science,\,\) which—of course—is the essence of the matter. From this, we deduce that —using both theoretical results, inquiries performed and previous observations on that the brain of a person with dyscalculia and the brain of a person with dyslexia appear to work in essentially the same way—that dyscalculia is (...)
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  2.  5
    Zeilinger on Information and Reality.Ali Barzegar, Mostafa Taqavi & Afshin Shafiee - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1007-1019.
    According to Zeilinger’s information interpretation of quantum mechanics ‘the distinction between reality and our knowledge of reality, between reality and information, cannot be made. They are in a deep sense indistinguishable’. This is what we call Zeilinger’s thesis. This thesis has been criticized as a lapse into ‘informational immaterialism’ and amounting to nothing more than a tautology. However, we will argue that this criticism is based on a pre-Kantian view of reality, namely metaphysical realism which could be questioned on the (...)
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  3.  4
    The Systemic Concept of Contextual Truth.Andrzej Bielecki - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):807-824.
    In this paper the truth is studied in the frame of autonomous systems theory. The method of the truth verification is worked out in its functional aspect. The verification is based on comparison of the predicted inner state of the autonomous agent, that is the cognitive subject, to the achieved inner state of the agent. The state is achieved as the result of performing the action in the real world—the agent’s environment. The action design is created on the basis of (...)
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  4.  8
    Biological Teleology, Reductionism, and Verbal Disputes.Sandy C. Boucher - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):859-880.
    The extensive philosophical discussions and analyses in recent decades of function-talk in biology have done much to clarify what biologists mean when they ascribe functions to traits, but the basic metaphysical question—is there genuine teleology and design in the natural world, or only the appearance of this?—has persisted, as recent work both defending, and attacking, teleology from a Darwinian perspective, attest. I argue that in the context of standard contemporary evolutionary theory, this is for the most part a verbal, rather (...)
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  5.  4
    Some Model-Theoretic Remarks on the Ramsey Sentence, with a Closer Look at Ketland’s Argument.Guido Del Din - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):881-900.
    The major argument against Ramsey-style epistemic structural realism is the model-theoretic refinement of Newman’s objection against Russell, presented in Ketland : 409–424, 2004), where a technical result is interpreted as showing that the Ramsey-sentence approach collapses into instrumentalism. This paper addresses some questions raised by the application of model theory to the scientific realism debate. Firstly, I will suggest three different formal semantics for the positions in the debate. Then, some technicalities of Ketland’s result will be scrutinized in light of (...)
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  6.  18
    Unificatory Understanding and Explanatory Proofs.Joachim Frans - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1105-1127.
    One of the central aims of the philosophical analysis of mathematical explanation is to determine how one can distinguish explanatory proofs from non-explanatory proofs. In this paper, I take a closer look at the current status of the debate, and what the challenges for the philosophical analysis of explanatory proofs are. In order to provide an answer to these challenges, I suggest we start from analysing the concept understanding. More precisely, I will defend four claims: understanding is a condition for (...)
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  7.  14
    The Multiplicity of Explanation in Cognitive Science.Raoul Gervais - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1089-1104.
    In this paper, I argue that explaining cognitive behavior can be achieved through what I call hybrid explanatory inferences: inferences that posit mechanisms, but also draw on observed regularities. Moreover, these inferences can be used to achieve unification, in the sense developed by Allen Newel in his work on cognitive architectures. Thus, it seems that explanatory pluralism and unification do not rule out each other in cognitive science, but rather that the former represents a way to achieve the latter.
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  8.  4
    Comment on “A Loophole of All “Loophole-Free” Bell-Type Theorems”.Justo Pastor Lambare - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):917-924.
    In a recent article https://doi.org/10.1007/s10699-020-09666-0) Marek Czachor claims that the Bell inequality cannot be proved because variables of complementary measurements cannot be added or multiplied. Even though he has correctly identified the problems existing with the orthodox interpretation of the Bell inequality and dealt with them in an original way, the interpretation he addresses do not pertain to the original formulation given by John Stewart Bell.
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  9.  47
    Model Explanation Versus Model-Induced Explanation.Insa Lawler & Emily Sullivan - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1049-1074.
    Scientists appeal to models when explaining phenomena. Such explanations are often dubbed model explanations or model-based explanations. But what are the precise conditions for ME? Are ME special explanations? In our paper, we first rebut two definitions of ME and specify a more promising one. Based on this analysis, we single out a related conception that is concerned with explanations that are induced from working with a model. We call them ‘model-induced explanations’. Second, we study three paradigmatic cases of alleged (...)
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  10.  10
    Plimpton 322: A Study of Rectangles.Daniel F. Mansfield - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):977-1005.
    Plimpton 322 is one of the most sophisticated and interesting mathematical objects from antiquity. It is often regarded as teacher’s list of school problems, however new analysis suggests that it relates to a particular geometric problem in contemporary surveying.
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  11.  33
    How to Reconcile a Unified Account of Explanation with Explanatory Diversity.Collin Rice & Yasha Rohwer - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1025-1047.
    The concept of explanation is central to scientific practice. However, scientists explain phenomena in very different ways. That is, there are many different kinds of explanation; e.g. causal, mechanistic, statistical, or equilibrium explanations. In light of the myriad kinds of explanation identified in the literature, most philosophers of science have adopted some kind of explanatory pluralism. While pluralism about explanation seems plausible, it faces a dilemma Explanation beyond causation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 39–56, 2018). Either there is nothing that (...)
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  12.  28
    Scientific Explanation and Trade-Offs Between Explanatory Virtues.Alirio Rosales & Adam Morton - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1075-1087.
    “Explanation” refers to a wide range of activities, with a family resemblance between them. Most satisfactory explanations in a discipline for a domain fail to satisfy some general desiderata, while fulfilling others. This can happen in various ways. Why? An idealizing response would be to say that in real science explanations fall short along some dimensions, so that for any explanatory failure there is a conceivable improvement that addresses its shortcomings. The improvement may be more accurate causally or possess more (...)
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  13.  7
    The Santa Fe Institute and Econophysics: A Possible Genealogy?Christophe Schinckus - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):925-945.
    For the last three decades, physicists have been moving beyond the boundaries of their discipline, using their methods to study various problems usually instigated by economists. This trend labeled ‘econophysics’ can be seen as a hybrid area of knowledge that exists between economics and physics. Econophysics did not spring from nowhere—the existing literature agrees that econophysics emerged in the 1990s and historical studies on the field mainly deal with what happened during that decade. This article aims at investigating what happened (...)
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  14.  3
    Quantum Cognitive Triad: Semantic Geometry of Context Representation.Ilya A. Surov - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):947-975.
    The paper describes an algorithm for semantic representation of behavioral contexts relative to a dichotomic decision alternative. The contexts are represented as quantum qubit states in two-dimensional Hilbert space visualized as points on the Bloch sphere. The azimuthal coordinate of this sphere functions as a one-dimensional semantic space in which the contexts are accommodated according to their subjective relevance to the considered uncertainty. The contexts are processed in triples defined by knowledge of a subject about a binary situational factor. The (...)
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  15.  8
    Mind–Body Connection and Causation: Conceptual and Experimental Advances.Pierre Uzan - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):901-915.
    This article deals with the difficulties of the yet intuitive causal interpretation of the mind–body connection emphasized by metaphysical, theoretical and experimental considerations. It shows that a decisive contribution to determining the nature of this connection can be provided experimentally. This experimental test is designed within the framework of a general systems theory capable of representing the concepts of complementarity and entanglement that are involved in the description of the mind–body connection.
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  16.  12
    Investigating the Unity and Disunity of Scientific Explanation.Erik Weber, Henk W. de Regt & Dingmar van Eck - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):1021-1024.
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  17.  8
    How We Think About Human Nature: Cognitive Errors and Concrete Remedies.Alexander J. Werth & Douglas Allchin - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (4):825-846.
    Appeals to human nature are ubiquitous, yet historically many have proven ill-founded. Why? How might frequent errors be remedied towards building a more robust and reliable scientific study of human nature? Our aim is neither to advance specific scientific or philosophical claims about human nature, nor to proscribe or eliminate such claims. Rather, we articulate through examples the types of errors that frequently arise in this field, towards improving the rigor of the scientific and social studies. We seek to analyze (...)
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  18.  3
    Science Education: Principles.Joseph Agassi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (3):553-558.
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  19.  5
    Introducing Joule’s Paddle Wheel Experiment in the Teaching of Energy: Why and How?Manuel Bächtold - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (3):791-805.
    History of science provides access to a reservoir of meaningful experiments that can be studied and reproduced in classrooms. This is the case of Joule’s paddle-wheel experiment which displays the potentiality to help students improve their understanding of the concept of energy. This experiment has been mentioned in many physics textbooks during the twentieth century. Recently, it has received renewed attention by several researchers in science education. However, the accounts of Joule’s experiment proposed by these researchers are at variance with (...)
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  20.  3
    Joule’s Experiment as an Event Triggering a Formalization of a Baconian Science Till Up to an Alternative Theory to Newton’s One.Antonino Drago - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (3):585-605.
    A re-visitation of Joule’s experiment motivates a critical analysis of thermodynamic notions: heat, total energy, first principle, organization of a scientific theory, its relationships with logic and mathematics. A rational re-construction of thermodynamics is suggested according to the model of a problem-based organization, that Sadi Carnot applied to his formulation. The new formulation accomplishes the long time theoretical process started by Joule’s experiment within physicists community's collective mind, i.e. the process of exiting out Baconian science for suggesting a first theory (...)
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  21.  2
    Science Outside Academies: An Italian Case of “Scientific Mediation”—From Joule’s Seminal Experience to Lucio Lombardo Radice’s Contemporary Attempt.Fabio Lusito - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (3):757-790.
    Starting from the seminal experience of James Prescott Joule, this paper aims to debate the possibility of “making” science outside universities and academies. Joule himself studied as an autodidact and did not make his own discoveries while following an academic path; on the contrary, at first, the associations and academic societies of the time tended not to recognize his works officially. All of this happened throughout the nineteenth century during the period of the first relevant tendency to science popularization. For (...)
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  22.  39
    Conservation of Energy: Missing Features in Its Nature and Justification and Why They Matter.J. Brian Pitts - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (3):559-584.
    Misconceptions about energy conservation abound due to the gap between physics and secondary school chemistry. This paper surveys this difference and its relevance to the 1690s–2010s Leibnizian argument that mind-body interaction is impossible due to conservation laws. Justifications for energy conservation are partly empirical, such as Joule’s paddle wheel experiment, and partly theoretical, such as Lagrange’s statement in 1811 that energy is conserved if the potential energy does not depend on time. In 1918 Noether generalized results like Lagrange’s and proved (...)
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  23.  14
    Belief Operationalization for Empirical Research in Psychological Sciences.Eduardo Camina, Javier Bernacer & Francisco Guell - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):325-340.
    The most common definition of belief is taken from analytical philosophy, which understands it as a proposition that is considered as true. Such a broad definition is ambiguous for some fields of empirical research, like psychology, which deals with the mental state of the believer when holding the belief. This article aims to reach an operationalization of beliefs to pinpoint their distinctive features with respect to similar concepts. We summarize the most influential interpretations of belief in psychology and psychiatry, which (...)
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  24.  4
    The Biological Turn on Personal Identity: The Role of Science as a Response to Children’s Appropriation in Argentinian Dictatorship.Mariana Córdoba - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):405-427.
    The philosophical problem of personal identity has been widely discussed in contemporary analytic philosophy. The disputes over identity throughout time abound in references to thought experiments, excluding any connection to practical problems or to scientific knowledge and biotechnological practices. Nevertheless, some real cases challenge the pure metaphysical formulation of the problem and also show how science has an indubitable impact on the issue of identity. I will discuss the case of approximately 500 children who were appropriated during the most recent (...)
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  25.  6
    Euclid’s Common Notions and the Theory of Equivalence.Vincenzo De Risi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):301-324.
    The “common notions” prefacing the Elements of Euclid are a very peculiar set of axioms, and their authenticity, as well as their actual role in the demonstrations, have been object of debate. In the first part of this essay, I offer a survey of the evidence for the authenticity of the common notions, and conclude that only three of them are likely to have been in place at the times of Euclid, whereas others were added in Late Antiquity. In the (...)
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  26.  8
    Antimatter and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.Gábor Etesi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):217-224.
    In this short paper we make a proposal that the second law of thermodynamics holds true for a closed physical system consisting of pure antimatter in the thermodynamical limit, but in a reversed form. We give two plausible arguments in favour to this proposal: one refers to the CPT theorem of relativistic quantum field theories while the other one is based on general thermodynamical arguments. However in our understanding the ultimate validity or invalidity of this idea can be decided only (...)
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  27.  17
    Foundations of ArtScience: Formulating the Problem.Francis Heylighen & Katarina Petrović - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):225-244.
    While art and science still functioned side-by-side during the Renaissance, their methods and perspectives diverged during the nineteenth century, creating a still enduring separation between the "two cultures". Recently, artists and scientists again collaborate more frequently, as promoted most radically by the ArtScience movement. This approach aims at a true synthesis between the intuitive, imaginative methods of art and the rational, rule-governed methods of science. To prepare the grounds for a theoretical synthesis, this paper surveys the fundamental commonalities and differences (...)
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  28.  10
    Exploring the Philosophical Foundations of Grey Systems Theory: Subjective Processes, Information Extraction and Knowledge Formation.Ehsan Javanmardi, Sifeng Liu & Naiming Xie - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):371-404.
    This study seeks to explicate the philosophical foundations and theoretical outlines of grey systems theory by focusing on human perception, cognition, and understanding processes and by considering their functions in the process of producing knowledge. Primarily, the study investigates the processes of perception, cognition, and understanding, as well as their dynamicity. Then, it is explained how knowledge is produced through the interpretation/understanding of information and data and through the dynamicity governing this process. The findings reveal that human perception, cognition, and (...)
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  29.  6
    Superorganisms of the Protist Kingdom: A New Level of Biological Organization.Łukasz Lamża - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):281-300.
    The concept of superorganism has a mixed reputation in biology—for some it is a convenient way of discussing supra-organismal levels of organization, and for others, little more than a poetic metaphor. Here, I show that a considerable step forward in the understanding of superorganisms results from a thorough review of the supra-organismal levels of organization now known to exist among the “unicellular” protists. Limiting the discussion to protists has enormous advantages: their bodies are very well studied and relatively simple, and (...)
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  30.  12
    Evidence of the Physiologic Functions of the Gastrointestinal Tract as a Complex System.Roham Mazloom - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):257-274.
    The gastrointestinal tract is normally investigated using reductionism methods in human studies, where the focus is on each segment of the gastrointestinal system and the specific links between various parts of it. This helps researchers and clinicians to produce a simple relationship between the elements of the gastrointestinal tract based on clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, there is evidence indicating that the gastrointestinal tract has properties that are beyond function of the simple systems, such as, multiplicity of elements, network communication, (...)
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  31. Is Truth the Gold Standard of Inquiry? A Comment on Elgin’s Argument Against Veritism.Moti Mizrahi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):275-280.
    In True enough,, Elgin argues against veritism, which is the view that truth is the paramount epistemic objective. Elgin’s argument against veritism proceeds from considering the role that models, idealizations, and thought experiments play in science to the conclusion that veritism is unacceptable. In this commentary, I argue that Elgin’s argument fails as an argument against veritism. I sketch a refutation by logical analogy of Elgin’s argument. Just as one can aim at gold medals and still find approximations to gold, (...)
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  32.  14
    Belief, Knowledge and Faith: A Logical Modal Theory.J. Nescolarde-Selva, J. L. Usó-Doménech & H. Gash - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):453-474.
    The concept of God is studied using the ontological argument of Anselm of Canterbury that proves God’s existence using a syllogism based on ontology. Unlike metaphysical arguments that demonstrate the existence of God through the study of being and its attributes, the ontological argument aims to reach this same goal based on a concept of God by means of the idea of an entity “greater than anything that can be conceived”. Descartes’ influence highlighted some of the philosophical difficulties with the (...)
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  33.  9
    Ernst Cassirer’s Philosophy of Culture: An Economic Assessment of Scope and Limitations.Pilar Piqué - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):341-354.
    Cassirer’s philosophy of culture has been examined through various disciplines. Until now, however, no such assessment has taken place within the field of economics. In this paper, I attempt to develop this unexplored task through the economic concepts of commodity, money, capital, and culture. I argue that these concepts can help to draw an updated concept of capitalism and power relations created through capitalist planning. I also claim that these concepts can contribute to understanding the historical specificity of capitalist culture, (...)
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  34.  7
    A Topological Approach to Infinity in Physics and Biophysics.Arturo Tozzi & James F. Peters - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):245-255.
    Physical and biological measurements might display range values extending towards infinite. The occurrence of infinity in equations, such as the black hole singularities, is a troublesome issue that causes many theories to break down when assessing extreme events. Different methods, such as re-normalization, have been proposed to avoid detrimental infinity. Here a novel technique is proposed, based on geometrical considerations and the Alexander Horned sphere, that permits to undermine infinity in physical and biophysical equations. In this unconventional approach, a continuous (...)
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  35.  29
    Bohmian Mechanics: Realism and the “Box” Experiment.Chunling Yan - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):429-451.
    It is difficult to articulate how we should take a realist attitude towards Bohmian mechanics because there are many versions of it. This paper aims to clarify the realist commitments of Bohmian mechanics and how we can understand it from a general scientific realist perspective. I use the box experiment, a double-slit like experiment conducted by Cardone et al. :1–13, 2004; Int J Mod Phys B 20:1107–1121, 2006), as a working example to argue that a causal realist account that is (...)
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  36.  12
    Nanomaterials and Intertheoretical Relations: Macro and Nanochemistry as Emergent Levels.Alfio Zambon & Mariana Córdoba - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (2):355-370.
    The purpose of this work is to discuss which relation can be established between molecular chemistry, on the one hand, and macrochemistry and nanochemistry, on the other hand. In order to do this, we will consider molecular chemistry as an underlying level, and macrochemistry and nanochemistry as emergent levels. Emergence is characterized in very different ways in the philosophical literature; we will not discuss those differences. We will address a distinction between inter-domain emergence and intra-domain emergence. It is our purpose (...)
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  37.  2
    Preface of the Special Issue: International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement” - Second Part.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):1-4.
    We present the fundamentals of the quantum theoretical approach we have developed in the last decade to model cognitive phenomena that resisted modeling by means of classical logical and probabilistic structures, like Boolean, Kolmogorovian and, more generally, set theoretical structures. We firstly sketch the operational-realistic foundations of conceptual entities, i.e. concepts, conceptual combinations, propositions, decision-making entities, etc. Then, we briefly illustrate the application of the quantum formalism in Hilbert space to represent combinations of natural concepts, discussing its success in modeling (...)
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  38.  19
    Modeling Human Decision-Making: An Overview of the Brussels Quantum Approach.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):27-54.
    We present the fundamentals of the quantum theoretical approach we have developed in the last decade to model cognitive phenomena that resisted modeling by means of classical logical and probabilistic structures, like Boolean, Kolmogorovian and, more generally, set theoretical structures. We firstly sketch the operational-realistic foundations of conceptual entities, i.e. concepts, conceptual combinations, propositions, decision-making entities, etc. Then, we briefly illustrate the application of the quantum formalism in Hilbert space to represent combinations of natural concepts, discussing its success in modeling (...)
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  39.  5
    A Non-Spatial Reality.Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):143-170.
    It is generally assumed, and usually taken for granted, that reality is fully contained in space. However, when taking a closer look at the strange behavior of the entities of the micro-world, we are forced to abandon such a prejudice and recognize that space is just a temporary crystallization of a small theatre for reality, where the material entities can take a place and meet with each other. More precisely, phenomena like quantum entanglement, quantum interference effects and quantum indistinguishability, when (...)
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  40.  7
    The Einstein–Bohr Debate: Finding a Common Ground of Understanding?Nayla Farouki & Philippe Grangier - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26 (1):97-101.
    After reminding the main issues at stake in the famous Einstein–Bohr debate initiated in 1935, we tentatively propose a way to get them closer, thus shedding a new light on this historical discussion.
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  41. Mathematics as a Science of Non-Abstract Reality: Aristotelian Realist Philosophies of Mathematics.James Franklin - 2021 - Foundations of Science 26:1-18.
    There is a wide range of realist but non-Platonist philosophies of mathematics—naturalist or Aristotelian realisms. Held by Aristotle and Mill, they played little part in twentieth century philosophy of mathematics but have been revived recently. They assimilate mathematics to the rest of science. They hold that mathematics is the science of X, where X is some observable feature of the (physical or other non-abstract) world. Choices for X include quantity, structure, pattern, complexity, relations. The article lays out and compares these (...)
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  42.  16
    Formal Causation in Integrated Information Theory: An Answer to the Intrinsicality Problem.Javier Sánchez-Cañizares - 2021 - Foundations of Science:1-18.
    Integrated Information Theory stands out as one of the most promising theories for dealing with the hard problem of consciousness. Founded on five axioms derived from phenomenology, IIT seeks for the physical substrate of consciousness that complies with such axioms according to the criterion of maximally integrated information. Eventually, IIT identifies phenomenal consciousness with maximal Φ or, what is the same thing, with the strongest cause-effect power in the system. Among the scholars critical of this theory, some point to the (...)
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  43.  7
    Maneuvering in the Interval: Reflections on Immanent Entanglements.Heather Wiltse - 2021 - Foundations of Science:1-6.
    Both perspective and leverage are needed in order to arrive at a place where it is possible to do the philosophical work required in order to adequately account for our present sociotechnical landscape. One of the key characteristics of this landscape is the collapse of scale, as things become more like fluid assemblages and the economic incentives of surveillance capitalism turn ordinary things into surveillance devices tuned for others’ profit. In this context we need a language not only of imagination (...)
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