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  1.  28
    Inverse Problems.Mario Bunge - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):483-525.
    Although to live is to face problems, the general concept of a problem has been significantly understudied. So much so, that the publication of Polya’s delightful How to Solve It caused quite a stir. And, although the concept of a conceptual problem is philosophical because it is deep and occurs across fields, from mathematics to politics, no philosophers have produced any memorable studies of it. Moreover, the word ‘problem’ is absent from most philosophical reference works. There are plenty of texts (...)
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  2.  14
    Diagrams in Mathematics.Carlo Cellucci - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):583-604.
    In the last few decades there has been a revival of interest in diagrams in mathematics. But the revival, at least at its origin, has been motivated by adherence to the view that the method of mathematics is the axiomatic method, and specifically by the attempt to fit diagrams into the axiomatic method, translating particular diagrams into statements and inference rules of a formal system. This approach does not deal with diagrams qua diagrams, and is incapable of accounting for the (...)
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  3.  4
    Heuristics and Inferential Microstructures: The Path to Quaternions.Emiliano Ippoliti - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):411-425.
    I investigate the construction of the mathematical concept of quaternion from a methodological and heuristic viewpoint to examine what we can learn from it for the study of the advancement of mathematical knowledge. I will look, in particular, at the inferential microstructures that shape this construction, that is, the study of both the very first, ampliative inferential steps, and their tentative outcomes—i.e. small ‘structures’ such as provisional entities and relations. I discuss how this paradigmatic case study supports the recent approaches (...)
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  4.  7
    Interdisciplinary Approach to Combine Science and Art: Understanding of the Paintings of René Magritte From the Viewpoint of Quantum Mechanics.Hunkoog Jho - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):527-540.
    In the twentieth century, science and art had a grand paradigmatic shift each other. This study aims at comparing the epistemologies of surrealism and quantum mechanics that emerged in the 1930s and interpreting the paintings from a physical viewpoint, with a focus on the Copenhagen interpretation. In terms of epistemologies, the arbitrary relationship between an object and an image advocated by Magritte may correspond to the indeterminacy between physical entities and measurement. This study analysed the paintings of Magritte from the (...)
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  5.  6
    Impure Systems and Ecological Models : Components and Thermodynamics.Josué-Antonio Nescolarde-Selva, José-Luis Usó-Doménech & Miguel Lloret-Climent - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):427-455.
    This paper refers to a subjective approach to Ecosystems, referred to as Impure Systems to capture a set of fundamental properties. There are four main phenomenological components: directionality, intensity, connection energy and volume. A fundamental question in this approach to Impure Systems is the intensity or forces of a relation. Concepts as the system volume, and propose a system thermodynamic theory based in the Law of Zipf and the temperature of information are introduced. It hints at the possibility of adapting (...)
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  6.  6
    The Rumors of Bergson’s Demise May Have Been Exaggerated: Novelty, Complexity, and Emergence in Biological Evolution.Steven L. Peck - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):541-557.
    Early 20th century philosopher Henri Bergson posited an initial push that propelled the diversity of life forward into a varied, novel future: The élan vital, a necessary force or impulse that animated life’s progress and development. His idea had largely been abandoned by mid-century. Even so, much of the conceptual and explanatory work this impulse targeted is yet in want of an explanation. In particular, Bergson’s derelict ideas on evolution addressed three areas that have once again become relevant in the (...)
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  7.  6
    On the Structure and Epistemic Value of Function Ascriptions in Biology and Engineering Sciences.Erik Weber, Dingmar van Eck & Julie Mennes - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):559-581.
    In this paper we chart epistemological similarities between shared function talk in biology and the engineering sciences, focusing on the notions of biological advantage function and technical advantage function. We start by showing that biological advantage function ascriptions are common in biology and that technical advantage function ascriptions are common in engineering science. We then proceed to show that these ascriptions have a very similar structure and that their epistemic value also is similar: both biological advantage function and technical advantage (...)
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  8.  3
    Fabricated Truths and the Pathos of Proximity: What Would Be a Nietzschean Philosophy of Contemporary Technoscience?Hub Zwart - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (3):457-482.
    In recent years, Nietzsche’s views on science attracted a considerable amount of scholarly attention. Overall, his attitude towards science tends to be one of suspicion, or ambivalence at least. My article addresses the “Nietzsche and science” theme from a slightly different perspective, raising a somewhat different type of question, more pragmatic if you like, namely: how to be a Nietzschean philosopher of science today? What would the methodological contours of a Nietzschean approach to present-day research areas amount to? In other (...)
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  9.  5
    Quantum Theory Methods as a Possible Alternative for the Double-Blind Gold Standard of Evidence-Based Medicine: Outlining a New Research Program.Diederik Aerts, Lester Beltran, Suzette Geriente, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo, Rembrandt Van Sprundel & Tomas Veloz - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):217-225.
    We motivate the possibility of using notions and methods derived from quantum physics, and more specifically from the research field known as ‘quantum cognition’, to optimally model different situations in the field of medicine, its decision-making processes and ensuing practices, particularly in relation to chronic and rare diseases. This also as a way to devise alternative approaches to the generally adopted double-blind gold standard.
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  10.  13
    Ignorance-Preserving Mental Models Thought Experiments as Abductive Metaphors.Selene Arfini, Claudia Casadio & Lorenzo Magnani - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):391-409.
    In this paper, we aim at explaining the relevance of thought experiments in philosophy and the history of science by describing them as particular instances of two categories of creative thinking: metaphorical reasoning and abductive cognition. As a result of this definition, we will claim that TEs hold an ignorance-preserving trait that is evidenced in both TEs inferential structure and in the process of scenario creation they presuppose. Elaborating this thesis will allow us to explain the wonder that philosophers of (...)
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  11.  9
    Quantum Entanglement in Corpuses of Documents.Lester Beltran & Suzette Geriente - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):227-246.
    We show that data collected from corpuses of documents violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt version of Bell’s inequality and therefore indicate the presence of quantum entanglement in their structure. We obtain this result by considering two concepts and their combination and coincidence operations consisting of searches of co-occurrences of exemplars of these concepts in specific corpuses of documents. Measuring the frequencies of these co-occurrences and calculating the relative frequencies as approximate probabilities entering in the CHSH inequality, we obtain manifest violations of the (...)
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  12.  10
    Liberal Naturalism and Non-Epistemic Values.Ricardo F. Crespo - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):247-273.
    The ‘value-free ideal’ has been called into question for several reasons. It does not include “epistemic values”—viewed as characteristic of ‘good science’—and rejects the so-called ‘contextual’, ‘non-cognitive’ or ‘non-epistemic’ values—all of them personal, moral, or political values. This paper analyzes a possible complementary argument about the dubitable validity of the value-free ideal, specifically focusing on social sciences, with a two-fold strategy. First, it will consider that values are natural facts in a broad or ‘liberal naturalist’ sense and, thus, a legitimate (...)
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  13.  6
    Foundation of Quantum Mechanics: Once Again.Paul Drechsel - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):375-389.
    Brukner and Dakić proposed a very simple axiom system as a foundation for quantum theory. It implies the qubit and quantum entanglement. Because this axiom system aims at the core of our understanding of nature, it must be brought to the forum of the philosophy of nature. For philosophical reasons, a completely denied champion of quantum theory, imaginarity i, is added into this axiom system. In relation to Bell’s inequality, this leads to a deeper ‘philosophical’ understanding of quantum nature based (...)
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  14.  27
    Does Newtonian Space Provide Identity to Quantum Systems?Décio Krause - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):197-215.
    Physics is not just mathematics. This seems trivial, but poses difficult and interesting questions. In this paper we analyse a particular discrepancy between non-relativistic quantum mechanics and ‘classical’ space and time. We also suggest, but not discuss, the case of the relativistic QM. In this work, we are more concerned with the notion of space and its mathematical representation. The mathematics entails that any two spatially separated objects are necessarily different, which implies that they are discernible —we say that the (...)
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  15.  5
    …And so Euler Discovered Differential Equations.Pablo Rodríguez-Vellando - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):343-374.
    Euler's contributions to differential equations are so comprehensive and rigorous that any contemporary textbook on the subject can be regarded as a copy of Euler's Institutionum Calculi Integralis. Of course, Euler's work is an improvement of that of Leibniz, the Bernoullis, Newton and so many others before them, but still it's so outstanding that will be used in this paper as a reference to account for every previous or subsequent development in ODEs. Maybe Euler did not discovered differential equations, but (...)
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  16.  12
    Classicality First: Why Zurek’s Existential Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Implies Copenhagen.Javier Sánchez-Cañizares - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):275-285.
    Most interpretations of Quantum Mechanics alternative to Copenhagen interpretation try to avoid the dualistic flavor of the latter. One of the basic goals of the former is to avoid the ad hoc introduction of observers and observations as an inevitable presupposition of physics. Non-Copenhagen interpretations usually trust in decoherence as a necessary mechanism to obtain a well-defined, observer-free transition from a unitary quantum description of the universe to classicality. Even though decoherence does not solve the problem of the definite outcomes, (...)
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  17.  8
    A Constructivist View of Newton’s Mechanics.H. G. Solari & M. A. Natiello - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):307-341.
    In the present essay we attempt to reconstruct Newtonian mechanics under the guidance of logical principles and of a constructive approach related to the genetic epistemology of Piaget and García. Instead of addressing Newton’s equations as a set of axioms, ultimately given by the revelation of a prodigious mind, we search for the fundamental knowledge, beliefs and provisional assumptions that can produce classical mechanics. We start by developing our main tool: the no arbitrariness principle, that we present in a form (...)
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  18.  6
    Quantum Theory Methods as a Possible Alternative for the Double-Blind Gold Standard of Evidence-Based Medicine: Outlining a New Research Program.Tomas Veloz, Rembrandt Sprundel, Sandro Sozzo, Massimiliano Bianchi, Suzette Geriente, Lester Beltran & Diederik Aerts - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):217-225.
    We motivate the possibility of using notions and methods derived from quantum physics, and more specifically from the research field known as ‘quantum cognition’, to optimally model different situations in the field of medicine, its decision-making processes and ensuing practices, particularly in relation to chronic and rare diseases. This also as a way to devise alternative approaches to the generally adopted double-blind gold standard.
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  19.  11
    Quarks, Hadrons, and Emergent Spacetime.Piotr Żenczykowski - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (2):287-305.
    It is argued that important information on the emergence of space is hidden at the quark/hadron level. The arguments follow from the acceptance of the conception that space is an attribute of matter. They involve in particular the discussion of possibly relevant mass and distance scales, the generalization of the concept of mass as suggested by the phase-space-based explanation of the rishon model, and the phenomenological conclusions on the structure of excited baryons that are implied by baryon spectroscopy. A counterpart (...)
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  20.  23
    Some Mathematical, Epistemological, and Historical Reflections on the Relationship Between Geometry and Reality, Space–Time Theory and the Geometrization of Theoretical Physics, From Riemann to Weyl and Beyond.Luciano Boi - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):1-38.
    The history and philosophy of science are destined to play a fundamental role in an epoch marked by a major scientific revolution. This ongoing revolution, principally affecting mathematics and physics, entails a profound upheaval of our conception of space, space–time, and, consequently, of natural laws themselves. Briefly, this revolution can be summarized by the following two trends: by the search for a unified theory of the four fundamental forces of nature, which are known, as of now, as gravity, electromagnetism, and (...)
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  21.  9
    The Origins of Life: The Managed-Metabolism Hypothesis.John E. Stewart - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):171-195.
    The ‘managed-metabolism’ hypothesis suggests that a ‘cooperation barrier’ must be overcome if self-producing chemical organizations are to undergo the transition from non-life to life. This dynamical barrier prevents un-managed autocatalytic networks of molecular species from individuating into complex, cooperative organizations. The barrier arises because molecular species that could otherwise make significant cooperative contributions to the success of an organization will often not be supported within the organization, and because side reactions and other ‘free-riding’ processes will undermine cooperation. As a result, (...)
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  22.  7
    Distinguishing Between Inter-Domain and Intra-Domain Emergence.María Ferreira Ruiz & Olimpia Lombardi - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):133-151.
    Currently, there are almost as many conceptions of emergence as authors who address the issue. Most literature on the matter focuses either on discussing, evaluating and comparing particular contributions or accounts of emergence, or on assessing a particular case study. Our aim in this paper is rather different. We here set out to introduce a distinction that has not been sufficiently taken into account in previous discussions on this topic: the distinction between inter-domain emergence—a relation between items belonging to different (...)
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  23.  77
    Is Identity Really so Fundamental?Décio Krause & Jonas R. Becker Arenhart - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):51-71.
    We critically examine the claim that identity is a fundamental concept. According to those putting forward this thesis, there are four related reasons that can be called upon to ground the fundamental character of identity: identity is presupposed in every conceptual system; identity is required to characterize individuality; identity cannot be defined; the intelligibility of quantification requires identity. We address each of these points and argue that none of them advances compelling reasons to hold that identity is fundamental; in fact, (...)
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  24.  5
    Systems, Environments, and Soliton Rate Equations: Toward Realistic Modeling.Maciej Kuna - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):95-132.
    In order to solve a system of nonlinear rate equations one can try to use some soliton methods. The procedure involves three steps: find a ‘Lax representation’ where all the kinetic variables are combined into a single matrix \, all the kinetic constants are encoded in a matrix H; find a Darboux–Bäcklund dressing transformation for the Lax representation \]\), where f models a time-dependent environment; find a class of seed solutions \ that lead, via a nontrivial chain of dressings \ (...)
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  25.  12
    Distinguishing Between Inter-Domain and Intra-Domain Emergence.Olimpia Lombardi & María J. Ferreira Ruiz - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):133-151.
    Currently, there are almost as many conceptions of emergence as authors who address the issue. Most literature on the matter focuses either on discussing, evaluating and comparing particular contributions or accounts of emergence, or on assessing a particular case study. Our aim in this paper is rather different. We here set out to introduce a distinction that has not been sufficiently taken into account in previous discussions on this topic: the distinction between inter-domain emergence—a relation between items belonging to different (...)
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  26.  3
    A Philosophical Critique of the Distinction of Representational and Pragmatic Measurements on the Example of the Periodic System of Chemical Elements.Ave Mets - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):73-93.
    Measurement theory in is concerned with the assignment of number to objects of phenomena. Representational aspect of measurement is the extent to which the assigned numbers and arithmetics truthfully represent the underlying objects and their relations, and is characteristic to natural sciences; pragmatic aspect is the extent to which the assigned numbers serve purposes other than representing the underlying phenomena, and is characteristic to social sciences. Here I criticise this distinction of representational and pragmatic measurements on the basis of the (...)
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  27.  5
    Infinities as Natural Places.Juliano C. S. Neves - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):39-49.
    It is shown that a notion of natural place is possible within modern physics. For Aristotle, the elements—the primary components of the world—follow to their natural places in the absence of forces. On the other hand, in general relativity, the so-called Carter–Penrose diagrams offer a notion of end for objects along the geodesics. Then, the notion of natural place in Aristotelian physics has an analog in the notion of conformal infinities in general relativity.
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  28.  47
    Independence of the Grossone-Based Infinity Methodology From Non-Standard Analysis and Comments Upon Logical Fallacies in Some Texts Asserting the Opposite.Yaroslav D. Sergeyev - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):153-170.
    This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...)
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  29.  3
    The Origins of Life: The Managed-Metabolism Hypothesis.John E. Stewart - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):171-195.
    The ‘managed-metabolism’ hypothesis suggests that a ‘cooperation barrier’ must be overcome if self-producing chemical organizations are to undergo the transition from non-life to life. This dynamical barrier prevents un-managed autocatalytic networks of molecular species from individuating into complex, cooperative organizations. The barrier arises because molecular species that could otherwise make significant cooperative contributions to the success of an organization will often not be supported within the organization, and because side reactions and other ‘free-riding’ processes will undermine cooperation. As a result, (...)
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  30.  41
    In Defense of Realism and Selectivism From Lyons’s Objections.Seungbae Park - 2019 - Foundations of Science 1.
    Lyons (2016, 2017, 2018) formulates Laudan’s (1981) historical objection to scientific realism as a modus tollens. I present a better formulation of Laudan’s objection, and then argue that Lyons’s formulation is supererogatory. Lyons rejects scientific realism (Putnam, 1975) on the grounds that some successful past theories were (completely) false. I reply that scientific realism is not the categorical hypothesis that all successful scientific theories are (approximately) true, but rather the statistical hypothesis that most successful scientific theories are (approximately) true. Lyons (...)
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