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  1.  5
    Quantum Structure in Cognition: Human Language as a Boson Gas of Entangled Words.Diederik Aerts & Lester Beltran - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):755-802.
    We model a piece of text of human language telling a story by means of the quantum structure describing a Bose gas in a state close to a Bose–Einstein condensate near absolute zero temperature. For this we introduce energy levels for the words used in the story and we also introduce the new notion of ‘cogniton’ as the quantum of human thought. Words are then cognitons in different energy states as it is the case for photons in different energy states, (...)
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  2.  2
    Quantum Structure in Cognition: Human Language as a Boson Gas of Entangled Words.Diederik Aerts & Lester Beltran - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):755-802.
    We model a piece of text of human language telling a story by means of the quantum structure describing a Bose gas in a state close to a Bose–Einstein condensate near absolute zero temperature. For this we introduce energy levels for the words used in the story and we also introduce the new notion of ‘cogniton’ as the quantum of human thought. Words are then cognitons in different energy states as it is the case for photons in different energy states, (...)
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  3.  1
    Quantum Structure in Cognition: Human Language as a Boson Gas of Entangled Words.Diederik Aerts & Lester Beltran - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):755-802.
    We model a piece of text of human language telling a story by means of the quantum structure describing a Bose gas in a state close to a Bose–Einstein condensate near absolute zero temperature. For this we introduce energy levels for the words used in the story and we also introduce the new notion of ‘cogniton’ as the quantum of human thought. Words are then cognitons in different energy states as it is the case for photons in different energy states, (...)
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  4.  9
    Historical and Foundational Details on the Method of Infinite Descent: Every Prime Number of the Form 4 N + 1 is the Sum of Two Squares.Paolo Bussotti & Raffaele Pisano - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):671-702.
    Pierre de Fermat is known as the inventor of modern number theory. He invented–improved many methods useful in this discipline. Fermat often claimed to have proved his most difficult theorems thanks to a method of his own invention: the infinite descent. He wrote of numerous applications of this procedure. Unfortunately, he left only one almost complete demonstration and an outline of another demonstration. The outline concerns the theorem that every prime number of the form 4n + 1 is the sum (...)
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  5.  4
    A Comment on Solari and Natiello’s Constructivist View of Newton’s Mechanics.R. Lopes Coelho - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):703-710.
    The present comment on Solari and Natiello’s paper values their constructivist approach to Newtonian Mechanics. My critical point concerns only the link between the concept of force and phenomena. It will be shown that the idealised form of the law of inertia created by the authors avoids criticism of the law and that this law leads to the concept of force as the cause of acceleration. This concept appears in the authors’ reconstruction as an assumption. They add that this assumption (...)
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  6.  10
    The Act of Knowing: Michael Polanyi Meets Contemporary Natural Science.Thomas Dillern - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):573-585.
    In the aftermath of the modern science world scientists are still searching for some kind of ontological and epistemological common ground. In this paper I try to show that we, by the aid of Michael Polanyi’s concepts of knowledge, of personal as well as objective knowledge, and his descriptions of the tacit dimensions in the process of knowing, can take some substantial steps toward a better understanding of the contemporary scientific conduct.
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  7.  14
    Scientific Discovery and Its Rationality: Michael Polanyi’s Epistemological Exposition.Mikhael Dua - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):507-518.
    Scientific discovery is an important moment in scientific pursuit, but only a few philosophers of science appreciate this moment as a logical issue. Starting from his understanding that all thought contains components of which we are subsidiarily aware in focal content of thinking, Michael Polanyi puts out his thesis that scientific discovery cannot be justified by a series of strictly explicit operations but by merely invoking deeper forms of commitment in sighting the problem and the vision of reality. This article (...)
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  8.  12
    Exploring the Human Cognitive Capacity in Understanding Systems: A Grey Systems Theory Perspective.Ehsan Javanmardi & Sifeng Liu - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):803-825.
    The main purpose of this study is to probe into the human capacity of understanding systems and defects in human knowledge of the world. The study addresses the greyness levels and systems levels and explains why the world cannot be perceived as a purely white or black structure. It also clarifies why human knowledge of systems always remains grey. The investigation relies on logical and deductive reasoning and uses the theoretical foundations of systems thinking and Boulding’s systems hierarchy. The most (...)
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  9.  5
    The Mathematical Descriptions of Truth and Change.Joseph Kouneiher & Newton da Costa - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):647-670.
    Our aim in this paper is to replace the old concept of truth in mathematics, based on the Set Structure provided with idea of true and false characterized by the presence of a characteric function \, by a mathematical structures founded on the idea of Topos, the triple structure \\}\) and the notion of Gradual Truth or Steps from the truth. Our motivations is to understand the mathematical structures underlying the emergence’s mechanism and phenomena. We think that this approach could (...)
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  10.  8
    In Search of Time Lost: Asymmetry of Time and Irreversibility in Natural Processes. [REVIEW]A. L. Kuzemsky - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):597-645.
    In this survey, we discuss and analyze foundational issues of the problem of time and its asymmetry from a unified standpoint. Our aim is to discuss concisely the current theories and underlying notions, including interdisciplinary aspects, such as the role of time and temporality in quantum and statistical physics, biology, and cosmology. We compare some sophisticated ideas and approaches for the treatment of the problem of time and its asymmetry by thoroughly considering various aspects of the second law of thermodynamics, (...)
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  11.  10
    Cognitive Unity of Thales’ Mathematics.Ladislav Kvasz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):737-753.
    The aim of the paper is to argue for the cognitive unity of the mathematical results ascribed by ancient authors to Thales. These results are late ascriptions and so it is difficult to say anything certain about them on philological grounds. I will seek characteristic features of the cognitive unity of the mathematical results ascribed to Thales by comparing them with Galilean physics. This might seem at a first sight a rather unusual move. Nevertheless, I suggest viewing the process of (...)
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  12.  7
    A Retrocausal Interpretation of Classical Collision Between Rigid Bodies.Chunghyoung Lee - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):559-571.
    When two bodies collide with each other, they change their motion. Many physics textbooks explain that the change in motion is caused by the force or impulse exerted on the body during the collision. This is not the whole story, I argue, in case the bodies are rigid. In this case, the change in motion cannot be causally explained solely by how the bodies are configured before and during the collision but instead should be explained partly by what happens after (...)
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  13.  3
    Is There an Ontology of Infinity?Stathis Livadas - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):519-540.
    In this article I try to articulate a defensible argumentation against the idea of an ontology of infinity. My position is phenomenologically motivated and in this virtue strongly influenced by the Husserlian reduction of the ontological being to a process of subjective constitution within the immanence of consciousness. However taking into account the historical charge and the depth of the question of infinity over the centuries I also include a brief review of the platonic and aristotelian views and also those (...)
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  14.  50
    What Do We Mean by “True” in Scientific Realism?Robert W. P. Luk - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):845-856.
    A crucial aspect of scientific realism is what do we mean by true. In Luk’s theory and model of scientific study, a theory can be believed to be “true” but a model is only accurate. Therefore, what do we mean by a “true” theory in scientific realism? Here, we focus on exploring the notion of truth by some thought experiments and we come up with the idea that truth is related to what we mean by the same. This has repercussion (...)
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  15.  11
    Proposal for a Degree of Scientificity in Cosmology.Juliano C. S. Neves - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):857-878.
    In spite of successful tests, the standard cosmological model, the Λ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\varLambda$$\end{document}CDM model, possesses the most problematic concept: the initial singularity, also known as the big bang. In this paper—by adopting the Kantian difference between to think of an object and to cognize an object—it is proposed a degree of scientificity using fuzzy sets. Thus, the notion of initial singularity will not be conceived of as a scientific issue because it does not (...)
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  16.  7
    Operational Approach to the Topological Structure of the Physical Space.B. F. Rizzuti, L. M. Gaio & C. Duarte - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):711-735.
    definitions and explanations frequently come together and permeate almost all fields of knowledge. This does not exclude mathematics, even when these definitions hold clear links and close connections with our physical world. Here we propose a rather different perspective. Making operational physical assumptions, we show how it is possible to rigorously reconstruct some features of both geometry and topology. Broadly speaking, assuming this operational and more concrete philosophy we not only are capable of defining primitive concepts like points, straight lines, (...)
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  17.  7
    Demolishing Prejudices to Get to the Foundations: A Criterion of Demarcation for Fundamentality.Flavio Del Santo & Chiara Cardelli - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):827-843.
    In this paper, we reject commonly accepted views on fundamentality in science, either based on bottom-up construction or top-down reduction to isolate the alleged fundamental entities. We do not introduce any new scientific methodology, but rather describe the current scientific methodology and show how it entails an inherent search for foundations of science. This is achieved by phrasing metaphysical assumptions into falsifiable statements and define as fundamental those that survive empirical tests. The ones that are falsified are rejected, and the (...)
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  18.  5
    Why There is no General Solution to the Problem of Software Verification.John Symons & Jack K. Horner - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):541-557.
    How can we be certain that software is reliable? Is there any method that can verify the correctness of software for all cases of interest? Computer scientists and software engineers have informally assumed that there is no fully general solution to the verification problem. In this paper, we survey approaches to the problem of software verification and offer a new proof for why there can be no general solution.
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  19.  3
    Theorizing About Theories and Mathematical Existence.J. L. Usó-Doménech, J. A. Nescolarde-Selva & H. Gash - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (3):587-595.
    Suppes proposes an analysis of the structure and identity of empirical theories with his model-theoretical approach and undertakes effective reconstructions of theories in diverse disciplinary fields. Here the authors analyse the results of these examinations under the optics of questions concerning the assumed ontological commitments, and for how they satisfy economic and other criteria.
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  20.  14
    The Third Construct of the Universe: Information.C. Barreiro, Jose M. Barreiro, J. A. Lara, D. Lizcano, M. A. Martínez & J. Pazos - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):425-440.
    Very few scientists today question the fact that information, together with matter and energy, is one of the three constructs forming the ontology of the universe. However, there is still a long way to go before in order to establish the interrelations between information and energy and information and matter, as Einstein did between matter and energy. In this paper, after introducing the energy, matter, information model, which covers the three constructs and their relationships, we illustrate real examples—two qualitative and (...)
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  21.  10
    “It From Bit” and Quantum Mechanics.Ali Barzegar, Afshin Shafiee & Mostafa Taqavi - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):375-384.
    John Archibald Wheeler is one of the staunchest advocates of the idea that information is more fundamental than anything else in physics. In this paper, we examine the status of this idea summarized in Wheeler’s slogan ‘it from bit’ in the context of Bohmian Mechanics and spontaneous collapse models. We will argue that any question about the status of ‘it from bit’ crucially depends on the particular interpretation of these theories one favors.
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  22.  33
    Science and Philosophy: A Love–Hate Relationship.Sebastian De Haro - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):297-314.
    In this paper I review the problematic relationship between science and philosophy; in particular, I will address the question of whether science needs philosophy, and I will offer some positive perspectives that should be helpful in developing a synergetic relationship between the two. I will review three lines of reasoning often employed in arguing that philosophy is useless for science: philosophy’s death diagnosis ; the historic-agnostic argument/challenge “show me examples where philosophy has been useful for science, for I don’t know (...)
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  23.  5
    On a Possibly Pure Set-Theoretic Contribution to Black Hole Entropy.Gábor Etesi - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):327-340.
    Continuity as appears to us immediately by intuition differs from its current formalization, the arithmetical continuum or equivalently the set of real numbers used in modern mathematical analysis. Motivated by the known mathematical and physical problems arising from this formalization of the continuum, our aim in this paper is twofold. Firstly, by interpreting Chaitin’s variant of Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem as an inherent uncertainty or fuzziness of the arithmetical continuum, a formal set-theoretic entropy is assigned to the arithmetical continuum. Secondly, (...)
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  24.  32
    Donald Davidson’s Critiques of Conceptual Relativism Applied to Non-adaptationist Evolutionary Epistemology and Refuted.Marta Facoetti - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):357-374.
    Over the last three decades, non-adaptationism has developed as an alternative model to more traditional, adaptationist approaches within Evolutionary Epistemology. Despite its great explanatory strength, non-adaptationist EE finds a potential Achilles heel in its adherence to conceptual relativism, namely the idea that empirical content can be relative to many different and radically incommensurable conceptual schemes. In his seminal essay “On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme”, Donald Davidson did in fact prove the unintelligibility of an analogous form of conceptual (...)
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  25.  14
    Can Theories of Mental Representation Adequately Explain Mental Imagery?Jelena Issajeva - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):341-355.
    Traditionally it is taken for granted that mental imagery is a mental representation of some kind or format. This yields that theory of MR can give an adequate and exhaustive explanation of MI. Such co-relation between the two is usually seen as unproblematic. But is it really so? This article aims at challenging the theoretical claim that the dominant ‘two-world’ account of MR can adequately explain MI. Contrary to the standard theory of MR, there are reasons to believe that: MI (...)
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  26.  6
    Transnational Legal Communication: Towards Comprehensible and Consistent Law.Joanna Osiejewicz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):441-475.
    Transnational legal communication seeks to identify transnational legal regimes and attempts to establish channels and technics for comprehensible communication of the legal information to specified groups of recipients. It also strives to conclude about possible inconsistencies in law. The approach is based on the cooperation of scientists within the area of law and applied linguistics and the coordination of their efforts, in order to conduct research from various perspectives, share conclusions and develop more complete approaches as well as achieve and (...)
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  27.  2
    A Tale of Tartaglia’s Libro Sesto & La Gionta in Quesiti et Inventioni Diverse (1546–1554): Exploring the Historical and Cultural Foundations. [REVIEW]Raffaele Pisano - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):477-505.
    Forums, I extensively analysed Tartaglia’s corpus: science of weights, geometry, arithmetic, mathematics and physics–trajectories of the projectiles, fortifications, included its intelligibility science in the military architecture. The latter is exposed in Book VI of the Quesiti et invention diverse. In Quesiti there is La Gionta del sesto libro—a kind of appendix to the Book VI containing drawings of the geometric shape of the Italian fortifications. It is based on Euclidean geometry and other figures where a scale is displayed. The interest—included (...)
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  28.  10
    Complementarity Revisited.Towfic Shomar - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):401-424.
    Complementarity can be considered as the weirdest idea associated with quantum mechanics. For Bohr, Complementarity is important in order to be able to convey successfully the non-classical features of quantum mechanics. This paper discusses the epistemic and ontological implications of different new experiments that attempt to detect complementarity. Complementarity has surely survived the attempts to overcome it, yet some of these experiments have led to a more general form of complementarity. Others claim to be able to differentiate among the different (...)
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  29.  4
    Apriorics and Structuralism.Yakir Shoshani & Asher Yahalom - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):281-296.
    In this paper we suggest the use of ontological structures as an appropriate tool for describing the foundations of reality. Every vertex of this structure, representing a fundamental entity in the universe, is completely and solely characterized by its connections to the other vertices in the structure. The edges of this structure are binary compounds of the FEs, and are identified with the elementary particles. The combinations including more than 2 connected vertices correspond to composite particles. The principles according to (...)
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  30.  9
    Ontological Argument and Infinity in Spinoza’s Thought.J. L. Usó-Doménech, J. A. Nescolarde-Selva & Hugh Gash - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):385-400.
    If the words in Spinoza’s Ethics are considered as symbols, then certain words in the definitions of the Ethics can be replaced with symbols from set theory and we can reexamine Spinoza’s first definitions within a logical–mathematical frame. The authors believe that, some aspects of Spinoza’s work can be explained and illustrated through mathematics. A semantic relation between the definitions of the philosopher and set theory is presented. It is explained each chosen symbol. The ontological argument is developed through modal (...)
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  31.  10
    Axiomatization of the Symbols System of Classic of Changes: The Marriage of Oriental Mysticism and Western Scientific Tradition.Xijia Wang - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (2):315-325.
    Classic of Changes is a Chinese cultural classic born more than 3000 years ago. Its profound philosophical thoughts and the use of divination have brought Classic of Changes to a strong oriental mysticism. The view of the heaven and man of yin and yang and the five elements states of Classic of Changes are completely different from the Western elemental theory of ancient Greece. The latter gave birth to classical and modern scientific theories, and the yin and yang and the (...)
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  32.  26
    On the Conceptuality Interpretation of Quantum and Relativity Theories.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):5-54.
    How can we explain the strange behavior of quantum and relativistic entities? Why do they behave in ways that defy our intuition about how physical entities should behave, considering our ordinary experience of the world around us? In this article, we address these questions by showing that the comportment of quantum and relativistic entities is not that strange after all, if we only consider what their nature might possibly be: not an objectual one, but a conceptual one. This not in (...)
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  33.  2
    Preface of the Special Issue International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement”.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):1-4.
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  34.  2
    Preface of the Special Issue International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement”.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):1-4.
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  35.  6
    Preface of the Special Issue International Symposium “Worlds of Entanglement”.Diederik Aerts, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi, Sandro Sozzo & Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):1-4.
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  36.  11
    Using Abstract Elastic Membranes to Learn About Quantum Measurements.Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):77-85.
    The objectives of the Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies were summarized by his creator as: interdisciplinarity, construction of world views and broad dissemination of scientific knowledge. In compliance with the third of these objectives, we provide a rigorous but accessible popular science version of a research article published by Aerts and Sassoli de Bianchi, where an extended version of the quantum formalism was proposed as a possible solution to the measurement problem. We hope that through articles of this kind, (...)
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  37.  10
    Unscrambling the Omelette of Quantum Contextuality : Preexistent Properties or Measurement Outcomes?Christian de Ronde - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):55-76.
    In this paper we attempt to analyze the physical and philosophical meaning of quantum contextuality. We will argue that there exists a general confusion within the foundational literature arising from the improper “scrambling” of two different meanings of quantum contextuality. While the first one, introduced by Bohr, is related to an epistemic interpretation of contextuality which stresses the incompatibility of measurement situations described in classical terms; the second meaning of contextuality is related to a purely formal understanding of contextuality as (...)
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  38.  15
    An Epistemic Interpretation of Quantum Probability via Contextuality.Claudio Garola - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):105-120.
    According to a standard view, quantum mechanics is a contextual theory and quantum probability does not satisfy Kolmogorov’s axioms. We show, by considering the macroscopic contexts associated with measurement procedures and the microscopic contexts underlying them, that one can interpret quantum probability as epistemic, despite its non-Kolmogorovian structure. To attain this result we introduce a predicate language L, a classical probability measure on it and a family of classical probability measures on sets of μ-contexts, each element of the family corresponding (...)
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  39.  15
    Epistemic Diversity and the Question of Lingua Franca in Science and Philosophy.Federico Gobbo & Federica Russo - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):185-207.
    Epistemic diversity is the ability or possibility of producing diverse and rich epistemic apparati to make sense of the world around us. In this paper we discuss whether, and to what extent, different conceptions of knowledge—notably as ‘justified true belief’ and as ‘distributed and embodied cognition’—hinder or foster epistemic diversity. We then link this discussion to the widespread move in science and philosophy towards monolingual disciplinary environments. We argue that English, despite all appearance, is no Lingua Franca, and we give (...)
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  40.  14
    Dancing Chief in the Brain or Consciousness as an Entanglement.Yukio-Pegio Gunji & Kyoko Nakamura - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):151-184.
    Free will in intentional consciousness is exposed to skeptics since it was found that subconscious neural activities, what is called readiness potential, precedes the intention to an action. The question of whether free will is an authentic illusion has been argued not only in psychology but physics and philosophy. Most of scientists, however, think that the intentional consciousness who believes to have his/her own free will, is determined by readiness potential in advance, and that free will cannot coexist with determinism. (...)
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  41.  20
    Entanglement of Art Coefficient, or Creativity.Kyoko Nakamura & Yukio Pegio Gunji - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):247-257.
    While entanglement is a phenomenon discussed in quantum theory, it can also be found in art. We propose to connect entanglement to art’s most fundamental question: what is creativity? For example, Marcel Duchamp found the essence of the creative act in the “art coefficient,” the difference and/or gap between the artist’s intention and realization which is created. This paper locates the common sense understanding of entanglement in an inseparable whole that ensures difference between the intention and realization. Seeing the artistic (...)
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  42.  11
    Emergent Coulomb Forces in Reducible Quantum Electrodynamics.Jan Naudts - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):209-245.
    This paper discusses an attempt to develop a mathematically rigorous theory of quantum electrodynamics. It deviates from the standard version of QED mainly in two aspects: it is assumed that the Coulomb forces are carried by transversely polarized photons, and a reducible representation of the canonical commutation and anti-commutation relations is used. Both interventions together should suffice to eliminate the mathematical inconsistencies of standard QED.
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  43.  45
    On Invention of Structure in the World: Interfaces and Conscious Agents.Chetan Prakash - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):121-134.
    The Interface Theory of Perception, as stated by D. Hoffman, says that perceptual experiences do not to approximate properties of an “objective” world; instead, they have evolved to provide a simplified, species-specific, user interface to the world. Conscious Realism states that the objective world consists of ‘conscious agents’ and their experiences. Under these two theses, consciousness creates all objects and properties of the physical world: the problem of explaining this process reverses the mind-body problem. In support of the interface theory (...)
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  44.  14
    Towards a Multi Target Quantum Computational Logic.Giuseppe Sergioli - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):87-104.
    Unlike the standard Quantum Computational Logic, where the carrier of information is conventionally assumed to be only the last qubit over a sequence of many qubits, here we propose an extended version of the QCL where the number and the position of the target qubits are arbitrary.
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  45.  11
    Towards Fractal Gravity.Karl Svozil - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):275-280.
    In an extension of speculations that physical space–time is a fractal which might itself be embedded in a high-dimensional continuum, it is hypothesized to “compensate” for local variations of the fractal dimension by instead varying the metric in such as way that the intrinsic dimensionality remains an integer. Thereby, an extrinsic fractal continuum is intrinsically perceived as a classical continuum. Conversely, it is suggested that any variation of the metric from its Euclidean form can be “shifted” to nontrivial fractal topology. (...)
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  46.  9
    How Do Social Norms and Expectations About Others Influence Individual Behavior?: A Quantum Model of Self/other-perspective Interaction in Strategic Decision-Making.Jakub Tesar - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):135-150.
    Social norms can be understood as the grammar of social interaction. Like grammar in speech, they specify what is acceptable in a given context. But what are the specific rules that direct human compliance with the norm? This paper presents a quantitative model of self- and the other-perspective interaction based on a ‘quantum model of decision-making’, which can explain some of the ‘fallacies’ of the classical model of strategic choice. By connecting two fields of social science research—norms compliance, and strategic (...)
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  47.  5
    The Complexity–Stability Debate, Chemical Organization Theory, and the Identification of Non-Classical Structures in Ecology.Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):259-273.
    We present a novel approach to represent ecological systems using reaction networks, and show how a particular framework called chemical organization theory sheds new light on the longstanding complexity–stability debate. Namely, COT provides a novel conceptual landscape plenty of analytic tools to explore the interplay between structure and stability of ecological systems. Given a large set of species and their interactions, COT identifies, in a computationally feasible way, each and every sub-collection of species that is closed and self-maintaining. These sub-collections, (...)
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  48.  1
    The Complexity–Stability Debate, Chemical Organization Theory, and the Identification of Non-classical Structures in Ecology.Tomas Veloz - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):259-273.
    We present a novel approach to represent ecological systems using reaction networks, and show how a particular framework called chemical organization theory sheds new light on the longstanding complexity–stability debate. Namely, COT provides a novel conceptual landscape plenty of analytic tools to explore the interplay between structure and stability of ecological systems. Given a large set of species and their interactions, COT identifies, in a computationally feasible way, each and every sub-collection of species that is closed and self-maintaining. These sub-collections, (...)
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  49.  8
    On the Conceptuality Interpretation of Quantum and Relativity Theories.Tomas Veloz, Sandro Sozzo, Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi & Diederik Aerts - 2020 - Foundations of Science 25 (1):5-54.
    How can we explain the strange behavior of quantum and relativistic entities? Why do they behave in ways that defy our intuition about how physical entities should behave, considering our ordinary experience of the world around us? In this article, we address these questions by showing that the comportment of quantum and relativistic entities is not that strange after all, if we only consider what their nature might possibly be: not an objectual one, but a conceptual one. This not in (...)
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  50.  3
    Introduction to IDTC Special Issue: Joule's Bicentenary History of Science, Foundations and Nature of Science.Raffaele Pisano, Paulo Mauricio & Philippe Vincent - 2020 - Foundations of Science 2 (25):1-21.
    James Prescott Joule’s (1818–1889) bicentenary took place in 2018 and commemorated by the IDTC with a Symposium—‘James Joule’s Bicentenary: Scientific and Pedagogical Issues Concerning Energy Conservation’—at the European Society for the History of Science (ESHS & BSHS), 14th–17th September, 2018, in London. This symposium had three main objectives: It aimed specifically to celebrate James Joule’s achievements considering the most recent historiographical works with a particular focus on the principle of conservation of energy; It served the purpose of discussing the scientific (...)
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    Historical Foundations of Physics & Applied Technology as Dynamic Frameworks in Pre-Service STEM.Raffaele Pisano, Philippe Vincent, Kosta Dolenc & Mateja Ploj Virtič - 2020 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):1-30.
    In recent decades, the development of sciences and technologies had a significant impact in society. This impact has been object of analysis from several standpoints, i.e., scientific, communication, historical and anthropological. Consequently, serious changes were required by the society. One of these has been the emerging relationship science in society and its foundations of applied sciences. A related foundational challenging is the educational process, which was and still is an unlimited challenge for teachers and professors: i.e., levels of understanding, curricula, (...)
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