The Peculiar Place of Enlightenment Ideals in the Governance Concept of Citizenship and Democracy

In Michael Peters, Harry Blee, Penny Enslin & Alan Britton (eds.), Global Citizenship Education. SENSE Publishers (2007)

Authors
Robert Keith Shaw
University of Auckland (PhD)
Abstract
This chapter examines a foundational democratic practice by considering how it expresses concepts of the Enlightenment. The practice is that of the vote or plebiscite as it appears in governance. The leading enlightenment concept is rationality as it is expounded by Kant. Kant did not participate in national democratic processes. He expected decisions of any consequence to be made in Berlin and thrived when his City was invaded by the Russians and their officers became his students, until they left suddenly in 1762 (Kuehn, 2001, p.126). Kant participated in political debate where the issues were in the main constitutional and about the processes of government reform. He became known for his theory of natural law and the justification of positive law. He advocated the separation of powers, but denied the right of revolution. This latter onclusion was in apparent contradiction of his support for republicanism, including the French, English, and American revolutions (Beck, 1971, p.413). The term “republican” in Kant’s writings is sometimes interpreted to mean “parliamentary democracy”. This is probably a mistake, and Reiss suggests Kant’s term does not carry the “connotation” of modern Western democracy (Reiss's "Introduction" in Kant, 1991a, p.25). Kant himself wrote that he wanted to prevent “the republican constitution from being confused with the democratic one, as commonly happens” (Kant, 1991a, .100). So it is that, whilst Kant wrote about the interaction of morality and politics, he did not write on the topic of the present chapter which focuses on those mechanisms or mechanics that democracy displays when it works.
Keywords Enlightenment  Democracy  Kant  Government
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References found in this work BETA

Critique of Pure Reason.I. KANT - 1787/1998 - Philosophy 59 (230):555-557.
Ethics and Education.R. S. Peters - 1966 - London: Allen & Unwin.
The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays.Martin Heidegger & William Lovitt - 1981 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (3):186-188.
Ethics and Education.A. J. D. Porteous & R. S. Peters - 1967 - British Journal of Educational Studies 15 (1):75.

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Citations of this work BETA

The Phenomenology of Democracy.Robert Keith Shaw - 2009 - Policy Futures in Education 7 (3):340-348.

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