Research on justice climate demonstrates a consistent effect on workgroup outcomes such as job satisfaction, commitment, and performance. However, little research considers how justice climate affects these outcomes and when the relationship is stronger or weaker. In an effort to extend the literature on justice climate, we draw on research on other types of organizational climate to suggest justice climate influences the fair behavior of coworkers. Specifically, we propose fair coworker behavior mediates the relationship between justice climate and outcomes. Further, (...) we examine the influence of workgroup structure on this mediated relationship. We examine these relationships in two studies and find support for the mediating effect of fair coworker behavior and the proposed moderated mediation model. Implications of these results for justice and climate research are considered. (shrink)
Substantial research demonstrates that ethical leaders improve a broad range of outcomes for their employees, but considerably less attention has been devoted to the performance and success of the leaders themselves. The present study explores the extent to which being ethical relates to leaders’ performance and promotability. We address this question by examining ethical leadership from the two ethical perspectives most common in Western traditions—i.e., the “right” and the “good”—and whether one might be more closely associated than the other with (...) performance and promotability evaluations. Results from 117 employee-supervisor-manager triads show that supervisors with a deontological outlook are more likely to be seen as ethical leaders and that utilitarian leaders are more likely to earn higher performance evaluations. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on ethical leadership. (shrink)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by plaques of amyloid-beta peptide, cleaved from amyloid-beta protein precursor . Our hypothesis is that lifespan profiles of AD-associated mRNA and protein levels in monkeys would differ from mice and that differential lifespan expression profiles would be useful to understand human AD pathogenesis. We compared profiles of AbetaPP mRNA, AbetaPP protein, and Abeta levels in rodents and primates. We also tracked a transcriptional regulator of the AbetaPP gene, specificity protein 1 , and the beta amyloid precursor (...) cleaving enzyme . In mice, AbetaPP and SP1 mRNA and their protein products were elevated late in life; Abeta levels declined in old age. In monkeys, SP1, AbetaPP, and BACE1 mRNA declined in old age, while protein products and Abeta levels rose. Proteolytic processing in both species did not match production of Abeta. In primates, AbetaPP and SP1 mRNA levels coordinate, but an inverse relationship exists with corresponding protein products as well as Abeta levels. Comparison of human DNA and mRNA sequences to monkey and mouse counterparts revealed structural features that may explain differences in transcriptional and translational processing. These findings are important for selecting appropriate models for AD and other age-related diseases. (shrink)
The sporadic nature of Alzheimer's disease argues for an environmental link that may drive AD pathogenesis; however, the triggering factors and the period of their action are unknown. Recent studies in rodents have shown that exposure to lead during brain development predetermined the expression and regulation of the amyloid precursor protein and its amyloidogenic beta-amyloid product in old age. Here, we report that the expression of AD-related genes [APP, BACE1 ] as well as their transcriptional regulator were elevated in aged (...) monkeys exposed to Pb as infants. Furthermore, developmental exposure to Pb altered the levels, characteristics, and intracellular distribution of Abeta staining and amyloid plaques in the frontal association cortex. These latent effects were accompanied by a decrease in DNA methyltransferase activity and higher levels of oxidative damage to DNA, indicating that epigenetic imprinting in early life influenced the expression of AD-related genes and promoted DNA damage and pathogenesis. These data suggest that AD pathogenesis is influenced by early life exposures and argue for both an environmental trigger and a developmental origin of AD. (shrink)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-beta peptide -loaded plaques in the brain. Abeta is a cleavage fragment of amyloid-beta protein precursor and over production of APP may lead to amyloidogenesis. The regulatory region of the APP gene contains consensus sites recognized by the transcription factor, specificity protein 1 , which has been shown to be required for the regulation of APP and Abeta. To understand the role of SP1 in APP biogenesis, herein we have characterized the relative distribution and localization (...) of SP1, APP, and Abeta in various brain regions of rodent and primate models using immunohistochemistry. We observed that overall distribution and cellular localization of SP1, APP, and Abeta are similar and neuronal in origin. Their distribution is abundant in various layers of neocortex, but restricted to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum, and the pyramidal cell layer of hippocampus. These findings suggest that overproduction of Abeta in vivo may be associated with transcriptional pathways involving SP1 and the APP gene. (shrink)
Although activated spinal cord glia contribute importantly to neuropathic pain, how nerve injury activates glia remains controversial. It has recently been proposed, on the basis of genetic approaches, that toll-like receptor 4 may be a key receptor for initiating microglial activation following L5 spinal nerve injury. The present studies extend this idea pharmacologically by showing that TLR4 is key for maintaining neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury. Established neuropathic pain was reversed by intrathecally delivered TLR4 receptor antagonists derived (...) from lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, -naltrexone, -naloxone, and -naloxone, which we show here to be TLR4 antagonists in vitro on both stably transfected HEK293-TLR4 and microglial cell lines, suppressed neuropathic pain with complete reversal upon chronic infusion. Immunohistochemical analyses of spinal cords following chronic infusion revealed suppression of CCI-induced microglial activation by -naloxone and -naloxone, paralleling reversal of neuropathic pain. Together, these CCI data support the conclusion that neuron-to-glia signaling through TLR4 is important not only for initiating neuropathic pain, as suggested previously, but also for maintaining established neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these studies suggest that the novel TLR4 antagonists -naloxone and -naloxone can each fully reverse established neuropathic pain upon multi-day administration. This finding with -naloxone is of potential clinical relevance. This is because -naloxone is an antagonist that is inactive at the -opioid selective receptors on neurons that produce analgesia. Thus, these data suggest that -opioid antagonists such as -naloxone may be useful clinically to suppress glial activation, yet -opioid agonists suppress pain. (shrink)
In recent years agricultural scientists have been encouraged to build upon farmer practice and knowledge. Although some researchers continued to view farmer practice as irrelevant, others responded with: a) experiments using “farmer practice” as a treatment, b) attempts to transform practices, c) research to better understand practices, and d) research to improve productivity of practices. Researchers generally have not reached the point of testing farmer practices in new areas in anticipation of wider extension. A widespread eastern Indian farmers' practice provides (...) an example: beusani combines direct dry seeded rice, wet plowing at 20–35 days after emergence, laddering, and seedling redistribution as a set of techniques to loosen soils, thin seedlings and improve tillering, control weeds, and optimize plant stand. Results of a survey of the practice are presented; and work on or related to beusaniis reviewed to see how research has built upon farmer practice and how the process can be improved. (shrink)
What my necessarily simple schematic of ‘ABCs’ means to propose isthat: 1. Animation is never not at stake in movies and cinema, both forms ofwhat I call live action film animation 2. The movie is never not at stake incinema, which is a form for me of the movie, and 3. The movie is never notat stake in the B movie, or to put it another and unorthodox way, the movieis never not B movie. And therefore, beginning as B movies, (...) movies animate cinema .To propose this, as it were, ‘B before B’ is to contend that the B movieis not simply the invention of the 1930s but rather synonymous with themovie ‘as such’, with for me what Tom Gunning famously canonised as ‘thecinema of attractions’, that first phase of the cinema from its advent toaround 1905-1910. The cinema of attractions was a ‘vulgar’, exhibitionist,assaultive, exploitative cinema, long before the term ‘exploitation cinema’arrived. Conceived ‘as a series of visual shocks’ directedat the viewer, such cinema showed scenes of sex, violence, mayhem, somepresenting actual harm to the subjects filmed, some virtually threatening thevery life of the viewer. Films like The Arrival of a Train, The RailroadSmash-Up, Electrocuting an Elephant, the John Irwin-May Rice Kiss, theSerpentine Dance4and Eugene Sandow flexing his muscles. They alsoincluded educational actuality films of natural curiosities, such as CharlesUrban’s Unseen World series beginning in 1903, which, Gunning tells us,‘presented magnified images of cheese mites, spiders and water fleas’, the sort of film that a reformist of cinema as late as1914 objected to as vulgar for showing ‘such slimy and unbeautifulabominations’ ,5which he claimed ‘repulsed spectators with morerefined sensibilities’. (shrink)
This analysis is based on a combination of participant observation, census data, and an agricultural survey in two Kenyah Dayak communities in East Kalimantan: isolated Long Ampung, and “modernizing” Long Segar. The dramatically higher rice yields per household in the more “modern” community are first investigated, from indigenous and “scientific” points of view. Demographic and yield data are then used to demonstrate a) a decrease in women's contribution to rice production in Long Segar compared to men, and b) (...) an emerging conflict between production and care of dependents. Both trends point to a decrease in women's status in Long Segar. Suggestions are then offered on possible interventions that could reduce such negative impacts of agricultural development on farm families, without adversely affecting yields. (shrink)
Rice's Theorem says that every nontrivia semantic property of programs is undecidable. In this spirit we show the following: Every nontrivia absolute counting property of circuits is UP-hard with respect to polynomial-time Turing reductions. For generators  we show a perfect analogue of Rice's Theorem.
This paper addresses the motivations behind farmers’ pesticide use in two regions of Bangladesh. The paper considers farmers’ knowledge of arthropods and their perceptions about pests and pest damage, and identifies why many farmers do not use recommended pest management practices. We propose that using the novel approach of classifying farmers according to their motivations and constraints rather than observed pesticide use can improve training approaches and increase farmers’ uptake and retention of more appropriate integrated pest management technologies.