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  1.  14
    Ottoman Conceptual History.Alp Eren Topal & Einar Wigen - 2019 - Contributions to the History of Concepts 14 (1):93-114.
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    Ottoman Concepts of Empire.Einar Wigen - 2013 - Contributions to the History of Concepts 8 (1):44-66.
    Empire was never an important concept in Ottoman politics. This did not stop Ottoman rulers from laying claim to three titles that may be called imperial : halife, hakan , and kayser . Each of these pertains to different translationes imperii , or claims of descent from different empires: the Caliphate, the steppe empires of the Huns, Turks, and Mongols, and the Roman Empire. Each of the three titles was geared toward a specific audience: Muslims, Turkic nomads, and Greek-Orthodox Christians, (...)
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