Results for 'Kyle E. Karches'

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  1.  6
    Medicine and the Common Good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic Tradition.Kyle E. Karches - 2020 - Christian Bioethics 26 (2):124-144.
    Whereas bioethicists generally consider medicine a practice aimed at the individual good of each patient, in this paper I present an alternative conception of the goods of medicine. I first explain how modern liberal political theory gives rise to the predominant view of the medical good and then contrast this understanding of politics with that of Thomas Aquinas, informed by Aristotle. I then show how this Christian politics is implicit in certain aspects of contemporary medical practice and argue that Christians (...)
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  2.  8
    The Ends of Medicine and the Crisis of Chronic Pain.Kyle E. Karches - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (3):183-196.
    Pellegrino and Thomasma have proposed a normative medical ethics founded on a conception of the end of medicine detached from any broader notion of the telos of human life. In this essay, I question whether such a narrow teleological account of medicine can be sustained, taking as a starting point Pellegrino and Thomasma’s own contention that the end of medicine projects itself onto the intermediate acts that aim at that end. In order to show how the final end of human (...)
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  3.  35
    Against the iDoctor: Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Replace Physician Judgment.Kyle E. Karches - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):91-110.
    Experts in medical informatics have argued for the incorporation of ever more machine-learning algorithms into medical care. As artificial intelligence research advances, such technologies raise the possibility of an “iDoctor,” a machine theoretically capable of replacing the judgment of primary care physicians. In this article, I draw on Martin Heidegger’s critique of technology to show how an algorithmic approach to medicine distorts the physician–patient relationship. Among other problems, AI cannot adapt guidelines according to the individual patient’s needs. In response to (...)
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  4.  14
    Temperance, Moral Friendship, and Smoking Cessation.Kyle Karches - 2019 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 44 (3):299-313.
    The predominant approach of public health experts to cigarette smoking might be described as behaviorist, for it aims to eliminate this behavior without attending to human agency and intention. The requirement that physicians address smoking cessation at every patient visit also constitutes physicians as “managers” who focus narrowly on technical means to achieve predetermined ends. In this paper, I contrast such an approach with the Aristotelian tradition, according to which physician and patient ought to develop the virtue of temperance that (...)
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  5.  76
    Developing Creativity: Artificial Barriers in Artificial Intelligence. [REVIEW]Kyle E. Jennings - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (4):489-501.
    The greatest rhetorical challenge to developers of creative artificial intelligence systems is convincingly arguing that their software is more than just an extension of their own creativity. This paper suggests that “creative autonomy,” which exists when a system not only evaluates creations on its own, but also changes its standards without explicit direction, is a necessary condition for making this argument. Rather than requiring that the system be hermetically sealed to avoid perceptions of human influence, developing creative autonomy is argued (...)
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  6.  10
    Uninformed Consent? The Effect of Participant Characteristics and Delivery Format on Informed Consent.Kyle R. Ripley, Margaret A. Hance, Stacey A. Kerr, Lauren E. Brewer & Kyle E. Conlon - 2018 - Ethics and Behavior 28 (7):517-543.
    Although many people choose to sign consent forms and participate in research, how many thoroughly read a consent form before signing it? Across 3 experiments using 348 undergraduate student participants, we examined whether personality characteristics as well as consent form content, format, and delivery method were related to thorough reading. Students repeatedly failed to read the consent forms, although small effects were found favoring electronic delivery methods and traditional format forms. Potential explanations are discussed and include participant apathy, participants trying (...)
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  7.  19
    Determining the Internal Consistency of Attitude Attributions.Kyle E. Jennings - 2010 - In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society. pp. 978--983.
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  8.  6
    Glycogen Resynthesis and Recovery From Exercise: Effects of Very-Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme, a Dehydrogenase Deficiency.Kyle E. Johnson - 2002 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 3.
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  9.  12
    Against the iDoctor: Why Artificial Intelligence Should Not Replace Physician Judgment.Kyle Karches - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):91-110.
    Experts in medical informatics have argued for the incorporation of ever more machine-learning algorithms into medical care. As artificial intelligence research advances, such technologies raise the possibility of an “iDoctor,” a machine theoretically capable of replacing the judgment of primary care physicians. In this article, I draw on Martin Heidegger’s critique of technology to show how an algorithmic approach to medicine distorts the physician–patient relationship. Among other problems, AI cannot adapt guidelines according to the individual patient’s needs. In response to (...)
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  10.  6
    The Ends of Medicine and the Crisis of Chronic Pain.Kyle Karches - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (3):183-196.
    Pellegrino and Thomasma have proposed a normative medical ethics founded on a conception of the end of medicine detached from any broader notion of the telos of human life. In this essay, I question whether such a narrow teleological account of medicine can be sustained, taking as a starting point Pellegrino and Thomasma’s own contention that the end of medicine projects itself onto the intermediate acts that aim at that end. In order to show how the final end of human (...)
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  11.  22
    Direct Observation of Plasticity and Quantitative Hardness Measurements in Single Crystal Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine by Nanoindentation.Kyle J. Ramos, Daniel E. Hooks & David F. Bahr - 2009 - Philosophical Magazine 89 (27):2381-2402.
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  12.  12
    The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results From a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.Troy E. Hall, Jesse Engebretson, Michael O’Rourke, Zach Piso, Kyle Whyte & Sean Valles - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):565-588.
    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs in these issues, which we refer to as “social ethics.” A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty (...)
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  13.  40
    Bringing Free Will Down to Earth: People’s Psychological Concept of Free Will and its Role in Moral Judgment.Andrew E. Monroe, Kyle D. Dillon & Bertram F. Malle - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:100-108.
  14. How Are Thick Terms Evaluative?Brent G. Kyle - 2013 - Philosophers' Imprint 13:1-20.
    Ethicists are typically willing to grant that thick terms (e.g. ‘courageous’ and ‘murder’) are somehow associated with evaluations. But they tend to disagree about what exactly this relationship is. Does a thick term’s evaluation come by way of its semantic content? Or is the evaluation pragmatically associated with the thick term (e.g. via conversational implicature)? In this paper, I argue that thick terms are semantically associated with evaluations. In particular, I argue that many thick concepts (if not all) conceptually entail (...)
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  15.  21
    XERXES. E. Bridges Imagining Xerxes. Ancient Perspectives on a Persian King. Pp. Xii + 233, Ills. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015. Cased, £65. ISBN: 978-1-4725-1427-1. [REVIEW]Kyle Erickson - 2016 - The Classical Review 66 (1):167-169.
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  16. Cohen on Rawls.Kyle Johannsen - 2013 - Social Philosophy Today 29:135-149.
    G. A. Cohen is well known within contemporary political philosophy for claiming that the scope of principles of justice extends beyond the design of institutions to citizens’ personal choices. More recently, he’s also received attention for claiming that principles of justice are normatively ultimate, i.e., that they’re necessary for the justification of action guiding principles (regulatory rules) but are unsuitable to guide political practice themselves. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between these claims as they’re applied (...)
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  17.  8
    Erratum To: The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results From a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.Troy E. Hall, Jesse Engebretson, Michael O’Rourke, Zach Piso, Kyle Whyte & Sean Valles - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (2):589-589.
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  18. Cohen on Rawls: Personal Choice and the Ideal of Justice.Kyle Johannsen - 2013 - Social Philosophy Today 29:135-49.
    G.A. Cohen is well known within contemporary political philosophy for claiming that the scope of principles of justice extends beyond the design of institutions to citizens’ personal choices. More recently, he’s also received attention for claiming that principles of justice are normatively ultimate, i.e., that they’re necessary for the justification of action guiding principles but are unsuitable to guide political practice themselves. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between these claims as they’re applied in criticism of (...)
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  19. Cohen's Equivocal Attack on Rawls's Basic Structure Restriction.Kyle Johannsen - 2016 - Ethical Perspectives 23 (3):499-525.
    G.A. Cohen is famous for his critique of John Rawls’s view that principles of justice are restricted in scope to institutional structures. In recent work, however, Cohen has suggested that Rawlsians get more than just the scope of justice wrong: they get the concept wrong too. He claims that justice is a fundamental value, i.e. a moral input in our deliberations about the content of action-guiding regulatory principles, rather than the output. I argue here that Cohen’s arguments for extending the (...)
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  20.  22
    How to Be Quiet.Kyle Johnson - unknown
    One job of the ellipsis theorist is to characterize the connection between the syntax of ellipsis and its semantics. And a central goal of that task is to explain where it is that ellipses are possible. The most thorough examination of what’s involved in meeting this goal is probably Lobeck (1995), where it is proposed that heads with certain properties license the ellipsis of their complements. Merchant (2001, section 2.2.1) amends this proposal with an explicit characterization of the semantics of (...)
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  21.  26
    PORPHYRY'S PERSECUTION - E.D. Digeser A Threat to Public Piety. Christians, Platonists, and the Great Persecution. Pp. Xviii + 218. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2012. Cased, US$45. ISBN: 978-0-8014-4181-3. [REVIEW]Kyle Smith - 2013 - The Classical Review 63 (1):169-171.
  22. An Antirealist Explanation of the Success of Science.P. Kyle Stanford - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (2):266-284.
    I develop an account of predictive similarity that allows even Antirealists who accept a correspondence conception of truth to answer the Realist demand (recently given sophisticated reformulations by Musgrave and Leplin) to explain the success of particular scientific theories by appeal to some intrinsic feature of those theories (notwithstanding the failure of past efforts by van Fraassen, Fine, and Laudan). I conclude by arguing that we have no reason to find truth a better (i.e., more plausible) explanation of a theory's (...)
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  23. Student Privacy in Learning Analytics: An Information Ethics Perspective.Alan Rubel & Kyle M. L. Jones - 2016 - The Information Society 32 (2):143-159.
    In recent years, educational institutions have started using the tools of commercial data analytics in higher education. By gathering information about students as they navigate campus information systems, learning analytics “uses analytic techniques to help target instructional, curricular, and support resources” to examine student learning behaviors and change students’ learning environments. As a result, the information educators and educational institutions have at their disposal is no longer demarcated by course content and assessments, and old boundaries between information used for assessment (...)
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  24.  26
    Parents’ Attitudes Toward Consent and Data Sharing in Biobanks: A Multisite Experimental Survey.Armand H. Matheny Antommaria, Kyle B. Brothers, John A. Myers, Yana B. Feygin, Sharon A. Aufox, Murray H. Brilliant, Pat Conway, Stephanie M. Fullerton, Nanibaa’ A. Garrison, Carol R. Horowitz, Gail P. Jarvik, Rongling Li, Evette J. Ludman, Catherine A. McCarty, Jennifer B. McCormick, Nathaniel D. Mercaldo, Melanie F. Myers, Saskia C. Sanderson, Martha J. Shrubsole, Jonathan S. Schildcrout, Janet L. Williams, Maureen E. Smith, Ellen Wright Clayton & Ingrid A. Holm - 2018 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 9 (3):128-142.
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  25.  10
    Does Musical Enrichment Enhance the Neural Coding of Syllables? Neuroscientific Interventions and the Importance of Behavioral Data.Samuel Evans, Sophie Meekings, Helen E. Nuttall, Kyle M. Jasmin, Dana Boebinger, Patti Adank & Sophie K. Scott - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  26. Rational Uniqueness and Religious Disagreement.Christopher Willard-Kyle - manuscript
    This paper argues for extreme rational permissivism—the view that agents with identical evidence can rationally believe contradictory hypotheses—and a mild version of steadfastness. Agents can rationally come to different conclusions on the basis of the same evidence because their way of weighing the theoretic virtues may differ substantially. Nevertheless, in the face of disagreement, agents face considerable pressure to reduce their confidence. Indeed, I argue that agents often ought to reduce their confidence in the higher-order propositions that they know or (...)
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  27.  56
    Surprising Suspensions: The Epistemic Value of Being Ignorant.Christopher Willard-Kyle - 2021 - Dissertation, Rutgers University - New Brunswick
    Knowledge is good, ignorance is bad. So it seems, anyway. But in this dissertation, I argue that some ignorance is epistemically valuable. Sometimes, we should suspend judgment even though by believing we would achieve knowledge. In this apology for ignorance (ignorance, that is, of a certain kind), I defend the following four theses: 1) Sometimes, we should continue inquiry in ignorance, even though we are in a position to know the answer, in order to achieve more than mere knowledge (e.g. (...)
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  28.  44
    Raymond G. De Vries is a Professor At.Elizabeth M. Fenton, Kyle L. Galbraith, Susan Dorr Goold, Elisa J. Gordon, Lawrence O. Gostin, Hilde Lindemann, Anna C. Mastroianni, Mary Faith Marshall, Howard Minkoff & Joshua E. Perry - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
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  29.  9
    Insurers' Competitive Strategy and Enrollment in Newly Offered Preferred Provider Organizations.Richard A. Hirth, Kyle L. Grazier, Michael E. Chernew & Edward N. Okeke - 2007 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 44 (4):400-411.
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  30.  38
    What is It Like to Think About Oneself? De Se Thought and Phenomenal Intentionality.Kyle Banick - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (5):919-932.
    The topic of the paper is at the intersection of recent debates on de se thought and phenomenal intentionality. An interesting problem for phenomenal intentionality is the question of how to account for the intentional properties of de se thought-contents---i.e., thoughts about oneself as oneself. Here, I aim to describe and consider the significance of a phenomenological perspective on self-consciousness in its application to de se thought. I argue that having de se thoughts can be explained in terms of the (...)
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  31.  1
    What is It Like to Think About Oneself? De Se Thought and Phenomenal Intentionality.Kyle Banick - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (5):919-932.
    The topic of the paper is at the intersection of recent debates on de se thought and phenomenal intentionality. An interesting problem for phenomenal intentionality is the question of how to account for the intentional properties of de se thought-contents---i.e., thoughts about oneself as oneself. Here, I aim to describe and consider the significance of a phenomenological perspective on self-consciousness in its application to de se thought. I argue that having de se thoughts can be explained in terms of the (...)
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  32.  43
    A Remerge Theory of Movement.Kyle Johnson - unknown
    We need a better theory of movement. e present theories harbor stipulations and give little traction on understanding why movement has the properties it does. A presently popular theory of movement has the following ingredients.
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  33.  36
    Embedded Verb Second in Infinitival Clauses.Kyle Johnson - manuscript
    Icelandic is the only Scandinavian language in which the verb always moves past negation, and other sentence adverbials, in embedded clauses. We follow everyone else and take this as evidence that Icelandic as opposed to the other Scandinavian languages has V°-to-I°1 movement (see, e.g., Kosmeijer 1986, Holmberg & Platzack 1990:101, Rohrbacher 1994:30-69, and Vikner 1994:118-127, 1995:ch.5). If we assume that negation and sentence adverbials mark the left edge of VP (they could be adjoined to VP or to TP, for example), (...)
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  34. On the Conceptual Status of Justice.Kyle Johannsen - 2015 - Dissertation, Queen's University
    In contemporary debates about justice, political philosophers take themselves to be engaged with a subject that’s narrower than the whole of morality. Many contemporary liberals, notably John Rawls, understand this narrowness in terms of context specificity. On their view, justice is the part of morality that applies to the context of a society’s institutions, but only has indirect application to the context of citizens’ personal lives. In contrast, many value pluralists, notably G.A. Cohen, understand justice’s narrowness in terms of singularity (...)
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  35.  29
    The Copy Theory of Movement: Spell Out.Kyle Johnson - unknown
    ( ) Di erence in Semantic Displacement a. Total Reconstruction: Mary kaupir ikke skó. ¬ Mary kaupir skó b. Variable Binding: Which book Mary had read e set of propositions such that x Mary had read x, x a book. A guard stands before every bank x if x is a bank then a guard stands before x..
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  36.  1
    Why Democracy?Kyle Harper - forthcoming - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche.
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  37. The Embodied Bases of Supernatural Concepts.Brian R. Cornwell, Aron K. Barbey & W. Kyle Simmons - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):735-736.
    According to embodied cognition theory, our physical embodiment influences how we conceptualize entities, whether natural or supernatural. In serving central explanatory roles, supernatural entities (e.g., God) are represented implicitly as having unordinary properties that nevertheless do not violate our sensorimotor interactions with the physical world. We conjecture that other supernatural entities are similarly represented in explanatory contexts.
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  38.  16
    Anhedonia in Prolonged Schizophrenia Spectrum Patients with Relatively Lower Vs. Higher Levels of Depression Disorders: Associations with Deficits in Social Cognition and Metacognition.Kelly D. Buck, Hamish J. McLeod, Andrew Gumley, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Benjamin E. Buck, Kyle S. Minor, Alison V. James & Paul H. Lysaker - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 29:68-75.
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  39.  26
    Chaos to Complexity: Leveling the Playing Field for Measuring Value in Primary Care.William P. Moran, Jingwen Zhang, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Elisha L. Brownfield, Kimberly S. Davis, Andrew D. Schreiner, Brent M. Egan, Raymond S. Greenberg, T. Rogers Kyle, Justin E. Marsden, Sarah J. Ball & Patrick D. Mauldin - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (2):430-438.
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  40. The Relevance (and Irrelevance) of Questions of Personhood (and Mindedness) to the Abortion Debate.David Kyle Johnson - 2019 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 1 (2):121‒53.
    Disagreements about abortion are often assumed to reduce to disagreements about fetal personhood (and mindedness). If one believes a fetus is a person (or has a mind), then they are “pro-life.” If one believes a fetus is not a person (or is not minded), they are “pro-choice.” The issue, however, is much more complicated. Not only is it not dichotomous—most everyone believes that abortion is permissible in some circumstances (e.g. to save the mother’s life) and not others (e.g. at nine (...)
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  41. The Communication Structure of Epistemic Communities.Kevin J. S. Zollman - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):574-587.
    Increasingly, epistemologists are becoming interested in social structures and their effect on epistemic enterprises, but little attention has been paid to the proper distribution of experimental results among scientists. This paper will analyze a model first suggested by two economists, which nicely captures one type of learning situation faced by scientists. The results of a computer simulation study of this model provide two interesting conclusions. First, in some contexts, a community of scientists is, as a whole, more reliable when its (...)
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  42.  19
    Exceeding Our Grasp.Kyle Stanford - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 137 (1):135-139.
    In the concluding chapter of Exceeding our Grasp Kyle Stanford outlines a positive response to the central issue raised brilliantly by his book, the problem of unconceived alternatives. This response, called "epistemic instrumentalism", relies on a distinction between instrumental and literal belief. We examine this distinction and with it the viability of Stanford's instrumentalism, which may well be another case of exceeding our grasp.
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  43. Hypocrisy and the Standing to Blame.Kyle G. Fritz & Daniel Miller - 2018 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 99 (1):118-139.
    Hypocrites are often thought to lack the standing to blame others for faults similar to their own. Although this claim is widely accepted, it is seldom argued for. We offer an argument for the claim that nonhypocrisy is a necessary condition on the standing to blame. We first offer a novel, dispositional account of hypocrisy. Our account captures the commonsense view that hypocrisy involves making an unjustified exception of oneself. This exception-making involves a rejection of the impartiality of morality and (...)
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  44. Trust, Expertise, and the Philosophy of Science.Kyle Powys Whyte & Robert Crease - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):411-425.
    Trust is a central concept in the philosophy of science. We highlight how trust is important in the wide variety of interactions between science and society. We claim that examining and clarifying the nature and role of trust (and distrust) in relations between science and society is one principal way in which the philosophy of science is socially relevant. We argue that philosophers of science should extend their efforts to develop normative conceptions of trust that can serve to facilitate trust (...)
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  45. Underdetermination of Scientific Theory.Kyle Stanford - 2009 - In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  46.  75
    Exceeding Our Grasp: Science, History, and the Problem of Unconceived Alternatives.P. Kyle Stanford - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    The incredible achievements of modern scientific theories lead most of us to embrace scientific realism: the view that our best theories offer us at least roughly accurate descriptions of otherwise inaccessible parts of the world like genes, atoms, and the big bang. In Exceeding Our Grasp, Stanford argues that careful attention to the history of scientific investigation invites a challenge to this view that is not well represented in contemporary debates about the nature of the scientific enterprise. The historical record (...)
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  47.  54
    Ideas for How to Take Wicked Problems Seriously.Kyle Powys Whyte & Paul B. Thompson - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (4):441-445.
    Ideas for How to Take Wicked Problems Seriously Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-5 DOI 10.1007/s10806-011-9348-9 Authors Kyle Powys Whyte, Department of Philosophy, Michigan State University, 503 S. Kedzie Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA Paul B. Thompson, Department of Philosophy, Michigan State University, 503 S. Kedzie Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863.
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  48. Do Great Minds Really Think Alike?Christopher Willard-Kyle - 2017 - Synthese 194 (3).
    Recently, a number of epistemologists (notably Feldman [2007], [2009] and White [2005], [2013]) have argued for the rational uniqueness thesis, the principle that any set of evidence permits only one rationally acceptable attitude toward a given proposition. In contrast, this paper argues for extreme rational permissivism, the view that two agents with the same evidence may sometimes arrive at contradictory beliefs rationally. This paper identifies different versions of uniqueness and permissivism that vary in strength and range, argues that evidential peers (...)
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  49.  6
    Indigenous Food Sovereignty, Renewal and U.S. Settler Colonialism.Kyle Whyte - 2016 - In Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Food Ethics. London: Routledge. pp. 354-365.
    Indigenous peoples often embrace different versions of the concept of food sovereignty. Yet some of these concepts are seemingly based on impossible ideals of food self-sufficiency. I will suggest in this essay that for at least some North American Indigenous peoples, food sovereignty movements are not based on such ideals, even though they invoke concepts of cultural revitalization and political sovereignty. Instead, food sovereignty is a strategy of Indigenous resurgence that negotiates structures of settler colonialism that erase the ecological value (...)
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  50.  27
    Nudge, Nudge or Shove, Shove—The Right Way for Nudges to Increase the Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs.Kyle Powys Whyte, Evan Selinger, Arthur L. Caplan & Jathan Sadowski - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (2):32-39.
    Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein (2008) contend that mandated choice is the most practical nudge for increasing organ donation. We argue that they are wrong, and their mistake results from failing to appreciate how perceptions of meaning can influence people's responses to nudges. We favor a policy of default to donation that is subject to immediate family veto power, includes options for people to opt out (and be educated on how to do so), and emphasizes the role of organ procurement (...)
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