The article investigates Eustratius of Constantinople's version of the life and martyrdom of the late sixth-century martyr, Golinduch, in the context of the manipulation of saints' cults and relics by the imperial government under Emperor Maurice. Composed on the eve of Phocas's putsch, Eustratius's Life of Golinduch displays how a rhetoric of saintly intercession on behalf of the 'God-guarded' Christian empire was deployed in order to strengthen the sacredness of imperial authority. Crucially, however, Eustratius's text also reveals how far this (...) vision of the empire's sainted benefactors was contested at Constantinople. The paper argues that this reflects a current of opposition to the ideology of Christian autocracy that had been emerging since the time of Justinian. (shrink)
Writing in his pamphlet, De viris illustribus, St. Jerome informs us that Fortunatianus, bishop of Aquileia, wrote a Commentary on the Gospels. However, until a few years ago, we knew only a few fragments of this work. Now, thanks to the scholar Lukas Dorfbauer and to the manuscript Köln – D, we have the complete work. This paper presents this work, pending a critical edition, in which the Author dwells on the text of the Gospel of Matthew, capturing Fortunatianus’s (...) interpretation and his references to the Church. To this are added some thoughts about the Church found in the commentaries of other Church Fathers of the fourth century. (shrink)
Confirmation of a hypothesis by evidence can be measured by one of the so far known incremental measures of confirmation. As we show, incremental measures can be formally defined as the measures of confirmation satisfying a certain small set of basic conditions. Moreover, several kinds of incremental measure may be characterized on the basis of appropriate structural properties. In particular, we focus on the so-called Matthew properties: we introduce a family of six Matthew properties including the reverse (...) class='Hi'>Matthew effect; we further prove that incremental measures endowed with reverse Matthew effect are possible; finally, we shortly consider the problem of the plausibility of Matthew properties. (shrink)
This essay first draws upon the work of William James and others to propose a nonphysicalistic understanding of the relationship between the brain and consciousness in order to articulate a philosophical perspective that can understand entheogenic visionary/mystical experiences as something other than hallucinations. It then focuses on the Santo Daime tradition, a religious movement that began in Brazil in the early part of the twentieth century, to provide an example of the personal and social ramifications of taking an entheogen (...) (ayahuasca) within a disciplined religious context. The essay claims that the Santo Daime is one example of a contemporary mystery school; gives a brief history of the development of this religion; discusses the key theological assumptions of this movement; investigates the important role played by visionary/mystical experiences within this religion; underscores the centrality of healing and spiritual transformation for members of this tradition; and ends with an examination of the crucial significance of spiritual discipline within this entheogenically based religion. (shrink)
Bayesian confirmation theory is rife with confirmation measures. Many of them differ from each other in important respects. It turns out, though, that all the standard confirmation measures in the literature run counter to the so-called “Reverse Matthew Effect” (“RME” for short). Suppose, to illustrate, that H1 and H2 are equally successful in predicting E in that p(E | H1)/p(E) = p(E | H2)/p(E) > 1. Suppose, further, that initially H1 is less probable than H2 in that p(H1) < (...) p(H2). Then by RME it follows that the degree to which E confirms H1 is greater than the degree to which it confirms H2. But by all the standard confirmation measures in the literature, in contrast, it follows that the degree to which E confirms H1 is less than or equal to the degree to which it confirms H2. It might seem, then, that RME should be rejected as implausible. Festa (2012), however, argues that there are scientific contexts in which RME holds. If Festa’s argument is sound, it follows that there are scientific contexts in which none of the standard confirmation measures in the literature is adequate. Festa’s argument is thus interesting, important, and deserving of careful examination. I consider five distinct respects in which E can be related to H, use them to construct five distinct ways of understanding confirmation measures, which I call “Increase in Probability”, “Partial Dependence”, “Partial Entailment”, “Partial Discrimination”, and “Popper Corroboration”, and argue that each such way runs counter to RME. The result is that it is not at all clear that there is a place in Bayesian confirmation theory for RME. (shrink)
There are numerous (Bayesian) confirmation measures in the literature. Festa provides a formal characterization of a certain class of such measures. He calls the members of this class “incremental measures”. Festa then introduces six rather interesting properties called “Matthew properties” and puts forward two theses, hereafter “T1” and “T2”, concerning which of the various extant incremental measures have which of the various Matthew properties. Festa’s discussion is potentially helpful with the problem of measure sensitivity. I argue, that, while (...) Festa’s discussion is illuminating on the whole and worthy of careful study, T1 and T2 are strictly speaking incorrect (though on the right track) and should be rejected in favor of two similar but distinct theses. (shrink)
Nella teologia trinitaria di Enrico di Gand, e in particolare nell'uso della nozione di verbum mentis, confluiscono ad avviso dell'A. tre diverse tradizioni che vengono rielaborate in un sistema coerente dal maestro agostiniano. La prima, quella cui aderiscono Tommaso e Bonaventura, insiste sul fatto che le persone sono distinte tra loro proprie per mezzo di relazioni opposte. La seconda, rappresentata da Riccardo di san Vittore, che attribuisce la differenza tra le persone al loro diverso modo di emanazione e di origine. (...) La terza che riprende il modello psicologico della trinità di Agostino ed in particolare l'immagine del Figlio come Verbum. Enrico incorpora i diversi elementi di queste tradizioni in modo originale e sostiene che il Figlio è distinto dalle altre due persone in base al diverso modo di emanazione , ma che è diverso dal Padre e dallo Spirito Santo anche perché è Verbum. L'A. sottolinea la notevole influenza esercitata da Bonaventura sul pensiero trinitario di Enrico, anche dal punto di vista della terminologia utilizzata e ipotizza che ciò sia dovuto al ruolo di «propaganda» delle dottrine bonaventuriane svolto da Ruggero Marston e Matteo d'Aquasparta. (shrink)
Through an argumentation analysis can one show how it is feasible to view a narrative religious text such as the Gospel of Matthew as a literary argument. The Gospel is not just good news but an elaborate argument for the standpoint that Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah. It is shown why an argumentation analysis needs to be supplemented with a pragmatic literary analysis in order to describe how the evangelist presents his story so as to reach (...) his argumentative objective. The analysis also shows why in the case of historical religious literary texts, certain demands are put on the analyst that are not normally present. (shrink)
Matthew D. Eddy and David Knight’s new edition of William Paley’s Natural Theology deserves to become the standard scholarly edition of what is a historically, theologically, and philosophically important work, despite a certain neglect of philosophical issues on the part of the editors.
Este artigo tematiza o apóstolo Pedro como personagem no evangelho de Mateus. O objetivo é identificar as nuances e transformações do personagem Pedro no evangelho. Para tanto, tomo como ponto de partida a pertença do evangelho ao gênero literário biografia greco-romana, que apresenta Jesus Cristo como protagonista. Os demais personagens são desenvolvidos em relação com ele. O mesmo se dá com o apóstolo Pedro. O texto se desenvolve a partir da teoria narrativa, de modo particular a caracterização de personagens. Identifico, (...) a partir de Erich Auerbach e Robert Alter, as características de personagens bíblicos, tecendo comparações com teorias do personagem no romance moderno. A análise de textos do evangelho de Mateus que retratam o personagem Pedro leva à conclusão que suas principais características são a complexidade e a inversão. Elas produzem uma visão geral da involução do personagem na narrativa do evangelho de Mateus. Palavras-chave: Pedro. Evangelho de Mateus. Teoria narrativa. Complexidade. Inversão.This article focuses on the apostle Peter as a character in the Gospel of Matthew. It aims at identifying the nuances and changes of the character Peter in the Gospel. For this purpose, I take as a starting point that the gospel belongs to the literary genre of ancient Greco-Roman Biography, which presents Jesus Christ as the protagonist. The other characters are developed in relationship with him. The same is true with the Apostle Peter. The article unfolds from narrative theory, in particular the categorization of characters. I categorize, based on Erich Auerbach and Robert Alter, the features of biblical characters, developing comparisons with theories of the character in the modern novel. The analysis of the main texts from the Gospel of Matthew that portray the character Peter leads to the conclusion that its main features are complexity and inversion. They produce an overview of the involution of the character in the narrative of the Gospel of Matthew. Key words: Peter. Gospel of Matthew. Narrative theory. Complexity. Inversion. (shrink)
The relationship between Mary and the Holy Spirit can be appointed in Scriptures passages that supply us enough security to affirm it a different relationship of that others creatures can have with God. This relationship is a model of the integration desired by God with his Church. May be perceived that many of the mentions done at Holy Spirit in the New Testament have Mary like person of the respective context. Being herself a masterpiece of the Holy Spirit she is (...) quoted in intention to serve like prototype of that spreaks a text. Is based on this affirmation that Mary is a start point to the ecclesiology and to pneumatology since long tradition in the Church. A study about Mary and the Holy Spirit have in view, therefore, afford elements of theological elaboration to both treaties of fundamental relevance. (shrink)
The incarnation of the Word marks the arrival of the fullness of times. The Holy Spirit hovers with Its shadow and power over the Virgin Mary and starts the time of realization, of the promised salvation, the Messiah's arrival. Mary is the figure of the people of Israel that waits the ultimate freedom, promised by God. In it, God mounts his tent among men and relates to the men, bringing him to a new life in the Holy Spirit.
Philosophy for Children arose in the 1970s in the US as an educational programme. This programme, initiated by Matthew Lipman, was devoted to exploring the relationship between the notions ‘philosophy’ and ‘childhood’, with the implicit practical goal of establishing philosophy as a full-fledged ‘content area’ in public schools. Over 40 years, the programme has spread worldwide, and the theory and practice of doing philosophy for or with children and young people appears to be of growing interest in the field (...) of education and, by implication, in society as a whole. This article focuses on this growing interest by offering a survey of the main arguments and ideas that have given shape to the idea of philosophy for children in recent decades. This aim is twofold: first, to make more familiar an actual educational practice that is not at all well known in the field of academic philosophy itself; and second, to invite a re-thinking of the relationship between philosophy and the child ‘after Lipman’. (shrink)
Robert Merton observed that better-known scientists tend to get more credit than less well-known scientists for the same achievements; he called this the Matthew effect. Scientists themselves, even those eminent researchers who enjoy its benefits, regard the effect as a pathology: it results, they believe, in a misallocation of credit. If so, why do scientists continue to bestow credit in the manner described by the effect? This paper advocates an explanation of the effect on which it turns out to (...) allocate credit fairly after all, while at the same time making sense of scientists' opinions to the contrary. (shrink)
In Practice in Christianity, Søren Kierkegaard's pseudonym, Anti-Climacus enters into an extended engagement with Matthew 11.6, ‘Blessed is he who takes no offense at me’. In so doing, he comes to an understanding that ‘the possibility of offense’ characterises the ‘crossroad’ at which one either comes to faith in Christ's revelation or rejects it. Such a choice, as he is well aware, cannot be made from a neutral standpoint, and so he is led to propose that it is ‘the (...) thoughts of the heart’ (i.e. a person's disposition) that constitute the pivotal factor in determining whether or not God will reconcile a person into the Christian faith. In this paper, I discuss Anti-Climacus' interpretation of Mt. 11.6 and consider his reasons for interpreting a person's predisposition as being so decisive for faith. (shrink)
Robert Koons and Matthew O’Brien have leveled a number of objections against the New Natural Law account of human action and intention. In this paper, I discuss five areas in which I believe that the Koons-O’Brien criticism of the New Natural Law theory is mistaken, or in which their own view is problematic. I hope to show, inter alia, that the New Natural Law approach is not committed to a number of theses attributed to it by Koons and O’Brien; (...) that their own view suffers from many ambiguities and difficulties; that passages from St. Thomas on which they draw to support their own view are in fact fully compatible with the New Natural Law account; and that neither the New Natural Law account of the controversial Phoenix abortion case, nor their account of the casuistry surrounding the acceptance of side-effects, is deficient in the ways asserted by Koons and O’Brien. (shrink)
In Loyalty to Loyalty: Josiah Royce and the Genuine Moral Life, Matthew Foust richly examines the nature of a controversial virtue: loyalty. It is well known that for Royce loyalty was not only a fundamental moral concept but an anthropological one since, in his view, loyalty to a cause allows individuals to become selves, creatures with unity of purpose in life. However, this ground level of loyalty is not the only one existing for him. Simultaneously to a particular cause (...) one must adhere to loyalty to loyalty, a universal cause that is a moral obligation for each human being. Foust attempts to recover this dual aspect of the Roycean conception of loyalty with the purpose of defending his contemporary relevance .. (shrink)
Il lavoro esamina criticamente i presupposti di cinque differenti approcci alla Scienza Cognitiva, (simbolico, connessionista, dinamico, della cognizione incarnata e della vita artificiale) e sostiene che tutti e cinque condividono tacitamente un’ipotesi metodologica molto generale. Tale ipotesi, che propongo di chiamare simulazionismo , postula che i fenomeni cognitivi di un qualunque sistema reale possono essere adeguatamente spiegati sulla base di opportuni modelli di simulazione del sistema stesso. Tuttavia, a causa della loro costituzione, i modelli di simulazione hanno forti limitazioni, sia (...) al livello descrittivo che esplicativo. Il limite descrittivo sta nel fatto che la corrispondenza fra i risultati di una simulazione e i dati relativi al fenomeno reale non è diretta e intrinseca ma, al più, indiretta e estrinseca. Il limite esplicativo consiste nel fatto che le spiegazioni supportate dal modello non sono mai compiute e realistiche ma, piuttosto, solo in linea di principio e romanzesche. Queste difficoltà potrebbero essere superate ricorrendo ai modelli Galileiani , costituiti da sistemi dinamici in cui ciascuna componente ha un’interpretazione precisa e definita, in quanto essa corrisponde ad una proprietà misurabile (grandezza) del fenomeno reale che il modello descrive. (shrink)
The blurb of Matthew Kramer’s book, Torture and Moral Integrity: A Philosophical Enquiry, states that the book “seeks to explain why interrogational and other types of torture are always and everywhere morally wrong.” This might give the prospective reader the impression that the book takes an absolutist stance against torture, but this impression would be misleading. The explanation of the discrepancy between the book’s self-presentation and what it is actually saying lies in the idiosyncratic terminology Kramer employs throughout the (...) book. Expressed in normal terminology, the book argues for the following: most forms of torture are wrong, are impermissible, but some forms of torture are permissible.. (shrink)
This review of Matthew Lipman’s autobiography, A Life Teaching Thinking, is a reflection on the themes and patterns of his extraordinarily productive career. His book begins with memories of earliest childhood and his preoccupation with the possibility of being able to fly, moves through the years in which his family struggled with the effects of the Great Depression, through his service in the military during World War II, his discovery of the joy and beauty of philosophy, his academic rise (...) at Columbia University, his Fullbright sojourn in Paris, and his early and later career. Lipman’s educational project led in four related directions: the practice of philosophy for children, which he invented, and which presents an epistemological challenge to a second field, philosophy of education, which is as startling as was Rousseau’s two hundred years before. Third, it led to a realm of theory called philosophy of childhood, upon which the practice of philosophy for children is a kind of action-meditation, prompting adults as it does to reflect on children’s differences from and similarities to adults at the same time, and in the same discursive space. Finally, his praxis also implicitly challenged those accounts of children’s philosophies, paradigmatically represented by Piaget’s work, which represent childhood epistemology as evidence for various genetic and epigenetic stage-based theories of cognitive development. The consequence for education of this confluence was a methodology—community of inquiry—that serves as a bridge between the two most influential philosophers of education of the 20th century—John Dewey and Paulo Freire. The educational praxis that emerged from his venture, for all its apparent simplicity, operationalizes a postcolonial standpoint epistemology vis a vis childhood and children, pulls the linchpin that holds in place the school as ideological state apparatus, and empowers the elementary classroom as a primary site for democratic theory and practice. (shrink)
A proposta deste trabalho é analisar a concepção filosófica depresciência em Santo Tomás de Aquino e Ramon Llull, nas obrasSuma Teológicae O Livro da Contemplação. Para isso, discorremos previamente sobre o conceito deciência, base aristotélica tomista. Por fim, apresentamos a tradução de um extrato doLivro da Contemplação, como base documental para a segunda parte do trabalho. The purpose of this article is to analyze the philosophical conception of prescience in St. Thomas Aquinas in the Summa Theologica and Ramon Llull (...) and the Book of Contemplation. To do so, we first discuss the Aristotelian-Thomist concept of science. We then present a translation of an extract from the Book of Contemplation as a documentary basis for the second part of the article. (shrink)
In this review essay, the author commends Matthew Ratcliffe for his masterful and highly valuable account of the emotional phenomenology of existential change—of shifts in our experience of belonging to a shared world of possibilities—but criticizes him for his commitments to two frameworks that are actually extraneous and inimical to his project and that perpetuate remnants of Cartesian isolated-mind thinking—Husserlian ‘‘pure phenomenology’’ and traditional diagnostic psychiatry. The author contends that Ratcliffe’s devotion to a decontextualizing psychiatric language in particular conceals (...) the contexts of severe emotional trauma in which the existential feelings that he so beautifully elucidates take form. (shrink)
Pretende-se, nesse texto, argumentar sobre a centralidade da justiça na teoria moral de Santo Anselmo. Para tanto, adota-se a seguinte estrutura: em primeiro lugar, falar-se-á da teoria moral de Anselmo e da centralidade da sua teoria da justiça em seu interior; em segundo lugar, dar-se-á tratamento à questão da justiça nos escritos do Monologium e do Proslogium, nos quais fala-se da justiça como atributo de Deus; num terceiro momento, abordar-se-á a questão da justiça, tal como é desenvolvida no De (...) Veritate, no qual a justiça em questão diz respeito ao ser humano e, em última instância, à Deus, suma justiça ; por fim, em quarto lugar, desenvolver-se-á uma reflexão na qual serão cotejados aspectos da justiça relacionados à dimensão prática da moralidade humana, de tal forma que a ação justa deve ser realizada em vista da própria retidão, isto é, a consciência da retidão para que seja moralmente correta e justa. (shrink)
This paper is divided in two parts. At first, we show the different roles played by quotations all through Saint Augustin's De Magistro. We compare then the structure in which the text is established to the theory that is developed over there. From such a comparison, we can see that in the mentioned text a theory of language isn't philosophically fundamental and that a dialogue isn't the best way to reach the truth.Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Primeiro, mostramos (...) os diferentes papéis das citações presentes no De Magistio, de Santo Agostinho. Depois, comparamos a estrutura em que o texto está disposto com a teoria que é aí desenvolvida. A partir de tal comparação, podemos ver que, nesse texto, uma teoria da linguagem não é filosoficamente fundamental e que o diálogo não é a melhor forma de alcançar a verdade. (shrink)
Resumo: Este artigo pretende analisar a correlação entre as noções de “vontade” e “medida” no diálogo De beata vita de Santo Agostinho, tendo em vista dois motivos: primeiro, porque o tema da felicidade, no De beata vita , não se reduz à identificação de uma realidade que satisfaça o desejo de ser feliz, mas relaciona-se diretamente com o tema da vontade, pois o desejo de felicidade é desejo de um bem imutável (Deus); e segundo, porque o estudo da correlação (...) entre as noções de “vontade” e “medida” no De beata vita é central para compreender o sentido atribuído por Santo Agostinho à sabedoria como medida da alma (e, portanto, como orientadora da vontade), no processo de busca da felicidade. (shrink)
For some years, Matthew Meyer has labored at a comprehensive interpretation of Nietzsche’s oeuvre that understands his philosophical and literary output as a revival of a particularly Greek mode of thought. This volume represents the culmination of much, but not all, of this previous work, and it serves also as a promise of future work in the same vein. The title, Reading Nietzsche Through the Ancients, is therefore a trifle misleading: Meyer is not reading all of Nietzsche through all (...) the ancients, but only some of Nietzsche through some of them. That is all for the good, so far as I am concerned, since I am usually suspicious of ambitions to resolve Nietzsche’s debt to antiquity in a single... (shrink)
Que há de novo no pensamento de João como comentador de Santo Tomás de Aquino? Reconhecidamente, sua teoria do signum. Em João de Santo Tomás, a teologia da salvação, calcada em sua teoria filosófica do sinal, mostra um aprofundamento considerável de tal modo que toda a redenção humana pode ser relida pela ótica do sinal. Assim, a encarnação do Verbo, sua atividade taumatúrgica, os sacramentos, e, finalmente, a vida futura são tratados a partir do Verbo-Sinal, ao mesmo tempo (...) como causa eficiente principal e instrumental de toda a salvação humana. (shrink)
En este trabajo se intenta trazar la línea histórica de doctrinas sobre la creación del mundo desde losgriegos hasta Santo Tomás. Él es quien realiza la síntesis de las explicaciones de la creación en los santospadres y en la tradición medieval. Él evita todas las expresiones que se acercaban al panteísmo o emanatismoy logra una exposición ortodoxa muy clara.In this work is intended to draw the historical line of the doctrines of the creation from the Greeksunto Saint Thomas. He (...) is the one that makes the synthesis of the explications of the creation given by theHoly Fathers in the Patristic Tradition an also in the Medieval Tradition. He avoids the expressions who approachs to pantheism or emanatism and acheives a very clear and orthodox exposition. (shrink)
Kenney, Mark Review(s) of: A source critical edition of the gospels of Matthew and Luke in Greek and English, 2 vols., Christopher J. Monaghan, C.P., Rome: Gregorian and Biblical Press, 2010, pp.378, 45.00.
I would like to thank the editors of Philosophy East and West for courteously asking me if I would like to respond to Matthew Dasti and Stephen Phillips' very thoughtful remarks about the review I wrote of Phillips' translation and commentary on the pratyakṣa chapter of Gaṅgeśa's Tattvacintāmaṇi, prepared in collaboration with N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya (Phillips and Tatacharya 2004). Let me begin by reaffirming what I said at the beginning of my review, that the book is "a monumental (...) and momentous achievement, one whose importance cannot be understated." I have indeed enormous admiration for the magnitude of their achievement and respect for the contribution they have made through this translation to the field of .. (shrink)
Matthew’s account of the journey of the magi to Jesus has been employed in historical theology to articulate the relation between reason and faith in four different ways: i) reason and faith forming a unity; ii) reason cooperating with faith; iii) reason being the tool of faith; iv) reason being superseded by faith. The paper considers each of these categories in turn, and thus progressively separates the two terms. It demonstrates that “faith” and “reason” are equivocal concepts, and that (...) their relationship is itself a key determinant of their nature. A plurality of forms of reasoning enables the journey to be completed, with each form providing a distinct contribution to a shared faith. (shrink)
A busca da vida feliz e o caminho que nos leva até ela, sempre se colocou como um dos grandes pilares das reflexões de Santo Agostinho. O presente trabalho tem a intenção de apresentar alguns aspectos da ética agostiniana, principalmente a noção de ordo amoris.
From Plato through Aquinas to Kant and beyond beauty has traditionally been considered the paradigmatic aesthetic quality. Thus, quite naturally following Socrates' strategy in The Meno, we are tempted to generalize from our analysis of the nature and value of beauty, a particular aesthetic value, to an account of aesthetic value generally. When we look at that which is beautiful, the object gives rise to a certain kind of pleasure within us. Thus aesthetic value is characterized in terms of that (...) which affords us pleasure. Of course, the relation cannot be merely instrumental. Many activities may lead to consequent pleasures that we would not consider to be aesthetic in any way. For example, playing tennis, going swimming or finishing a book. (shrink)
O Comentário ao Liber De Causis pertence à última fase das obras de Santo Tomás. Foi escrito, com toda segurança, no primeiro semestre de 1272, em Paris, como testemunha uma cópia parisiense da obra. O De Causis trata das primeiras causas das coisas, que estão constituídas em três ordens, e da distinção e dependência das causas entre si. O texto de Santo Tomás segue passo a passo as proposições em que a obra se divide, que são trinta e (...) duas. Estas trinta de duas proposições são verdadeiros capítulos desenvolvidos a partir de uma tese central. Santo Tomás expõem-nas a modo de lições. (shrink)
:It is now well over a decade since the artist Matthew Barney's epic work the Cremaster Cycle was completed. This essay returns to the post-human becomings of man that populate Barney's elaborately cross-referenced, aesthetic pluriverse, in particular addressing how the man-form labours amidst and on his environment-worlds, inclusive of the architectural augmentations that assist in the production of such worlds. Revisiting Barney's Cremaster Cycle now offers the opportunity to ask what becomes of the exclusionary and exhaustive world-making performances of (...) the Anthrop once he has placed extreme stress on himself and his mental, social and environmental ecologies, so that any mutual support system is brought to the threshold of exhaustion. (shrink)
Matthew's Christology is theocentric, presenting God's rule as manifest in the life of Jesus as an alternative to the sovereignty and power of this-worldly rulers. This Christology is expressed in the narrative mode. It can be appreciated and appropriated better in the context of the narratives in which contemporary interpreters are embedded.