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  1.  7
    Should Pregnant Women Be Charged for Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening? Implications for Reproductive Autonomy and Equal Access.Eline M. Bunnik, Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Inez D. de Beaufort - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (3):194-198.
    The introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing in healthcare systems around the world offers an opportunity to reconsider funding policies for prenatal screening. In some countries with universal access healthcare systems, pregnant women and their partners are asked to pay for NIPT. In this paper, we discuss two important rationales for charging women for NIPT: to prevent increased uptake of NIPT and to promote informed choice. First, given the aim of prenatal screening, high or low uptake rates are not intrinsically desirable (...)
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  2.  8
    Ethics of Routine: A Critical Analysis of the Concept of ‘Routinisation’ in Prenatal Screening.Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Inez D. de Beaufort, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Eline M. Bunnik - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):626-631.
    In the debate surrounding the introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing in prenatal screening programmes, the concept of routinisation is often used to refer to concerns and potential negative consequences of the test. A literature analysis shows that routinisation has many different meanings, which can be distinguished in three major versions of the concept. Each of these versions comprises several inter-related fears and concerns regarding prenatal screening and particularly regarding NIPT in three areas: informed choice, freedom to choose and consequences for (...)
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  3.  2
    Why NIPT Should Be Publicly Funded.Eline Maria Bunnik, Adriana Kater-Kuipers, Robert-Jan H. Galjaard & Inez de Beaufort - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106218.
    Asking pregnant women to pay for non-invasive prenatal testing out of pocket leads to unequal access across socioeconomic strata. To avoid these social justice issues, first-trimester prenatal screening should be publicly funded in countries such as the Netherlands, with universal coverage healthcare systems that offer all other antenatal care services and screening programmes free of charge. In this reply, we offer three additional reasons for public funding of NIPT. First, NIPT may not primarily have medical utility for women and children, (...)
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