David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)
Rafael De Clercq
Jack Alan Reynolds
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Consciousness and Cognition 9 (1):13-36 (2000)
There is good evidence that, in general, autonomic conditioning in humans occurs only when subjects can verbalize the contingencies of conditioning. However, one form of conditioning, evaluative conditioning (EC), seems exceptional in that a growing body of evidence suggests that it can occur without conscious contingency awareness. As such, EC offers a unique insight into what role contingency awareness might play in associative learning. Despite this evidence, there are reasons to doubt that evaluative conditioning can occur without conscious awareness. This paper aims to critically review the EC literature and to draw some parallels to what is known about autonomic conditioning. In doing so, some important general issues about measuring contingency awareness are raised. These issues are illustrated with a brief report of an experiment in which a sensitive measure of contingency awareness is compared against a commonly used measure
|Keywords||*Awareness *Conditioning Classical Conditioning|
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Citations of this work BETA
Eamon P. Fulcher & Marianne Hammerl (2005). Reactance in Affective‐Evaluative Learning: Outside of Conscious Control? Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):197-216.
Anne Gast & Klaus Rothermund (2011). What You See is What Will Change: Evaluative Conditioning Effects Depend on a Focus on Valence. Cognition and Emotion 25 (1):89-110.
Frank Baeyens, Andy P. Field & Jan De Houwer (2005). Associative Learning of Likes and Dislikes: Some Current Controversies and Possible Ways Forward. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):161-174.
Dominic M. Dwyer, Frances Jarratt & Kristie Dick (2007). Evaluative Conditioning with Foods as CSs and Body Shapes as USs: No Evidence for Sex Differences, Extinction, or Overshadowing. Cognition and Emotion 21 (2):281-299.
Andy P. Field & Annette C. Moore (2005). Dissociating the Effects of Attention and Contingency Awareness on Evaluative Conditioning Effects in the Visual Paradigm. Cognition and Emotion 19 (2):217-243.
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