Altruism is never self-sacrifice

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):268-268 (2002)
Altruism by definition involves the self's evaluation of costs and benefits of an act of the self, which must include cost to the self and benefits to the other. Reinforcement value to the self of such acts is greater than the costs to the self. Without consideration of a self-system of evaluation, there is little meaning to altruistic acts.
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DOI 10.1017/S0140525X02420055
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